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What is the difference between Bonding, Grounding and Earthing?
http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/what-is-the-difference-between-bonding-grounding-and-earthing jiguparmar May 20, 2013
One of the most misunderstood and confused concept is difference between Bonding , Grounding and Earthing . Bonding is more clear word compare to Grounding and Earthing, but there is a micro difference between Grounding and Earhing. Earthing and Grounding are actually different terms for expressing the same concept.
What is the difference between Bonding, Grounding and Earthing?
Ground or earth in a mains electrical wiring system is a conductor that provides a low impe dance path to the e arth to prevent hazardous voltages from appearing on equipment. Earthing is more commonly used in Britain, European and most of the commonwealth countries standards (IEC, IS), while Grounding is the word used in North American standards (NEC, IEEE, ANSI, UL). We understand that Earthing and Grounding are necessary and have an idea how to do it but we don’t have crystal clear concept for that. We need to understand that there are really two separate things we are doing for same purpose that we call Grounding or Earthing. Earthing The Earthing is to reference our electrical source to earth (usually via connection to some kind of rod driven into the earth or some other metal that has direct contact with the earth). The grounded circuits of machines need to have an effective return path from the machines to the power source in order to function properly (Here by Neutral Circuit). In addition, non-current-carrying metallic components in a System, such as equipment cabinets, enclosures, and structural steel, need to be electrically interconnected and earthed properly so voltage potential cannot exist between them. However, troubles can arise when terms like “bonding”, “grounding”, and “earthing” are interchanged or confused in certain situations.
com/print/?url=http://electrical-engineering-portal. However. Consumer has no any pe rmission to mix Neutral with earth at his premises here earthing and grounding is the different by practice. but the intent is that no current flow on earthed ground. Go to Content ↑ Bonding Bonding is simply the act of joining tw o e le ctrical conductors toge the r . In both above case Earthing and Grounding are used for the same Purpose . These Earthing conductor and Neutral conductor are connected together and earthed at the distribution panel and also at the street.printfriendly. If the grounded box is bonded to the other box. These may be two wires. Neutral is the current return path for phase. or these may be two Equipments. www. in US NEC (and possibly other) usage: Equipment is earthed to pass fault Current and to trip the protective device without electrifying the device enclosure.com/what-is-the-difference-between-bonding-grounding-and-earthing 2/7 .com: Print web pages. That means we would not get electricity building up in one equipment or between two different equipment. He re w e may say that Earthing and grounding are ne arly same by practice . a wire and a pipe. doe s not prote ct anything. Let’s try to understand this terminology one by one. except during momentary fault conditions. if one of those boxes is earthed there can be no electrical energy build-up. create PDFs In TN Type Pow e r Distribution Syste m . Bonding has to be done by connecting of all the metal parts that are not supposed to be carrying current during normal operations to bringing them to the same electrical potential. But In the TT Type Pow e r Distribution Syste m (in India) Neutral is only earthed (here it is actually called Grounding) at distribution source (at distribution transformer) and Four wires (Neutral and Three Phase ) are distributed to consumer. No current flow can take place between two bonded bodies because they have the same potential.5/20/13 PrintFriendly. While at consumer side all electrical equipment body are connected and earthed at consumer premises (here it is called Earthing). The earthing connection to switchboard rear door (metal parts) Bonding ensures that these two things which are bonded will be at the same electrical potential. Bonding itse lf. the other box is also at zero electrical potential.
bonding is the re to allow a bre ake r to trip and the re by to te rminate a fault. Earthing has been accomplished through bonding of a metallic system to earth. enclosures. enclosures. surface and product) are at the same e le ctrical pote ntial . Bonding to electrical earth is used extensively to ensure that all conductors (person.com/print/?url=http://electrical-engineering-portal. Go to Content ↑ Typical bonding connection Earthing Earthing means conne cting the de ad part (it means the part which does not carries current under normal condition) to the earth for example electrical equipment’s frames. so someone touching two pieces of equipment at the same time does not receive a shock by becoming the path of equalization if they happen to be at different potentials.com/what-is-the-difference-between-bonding-grounding-and-earthing 3/7 . Under fault conditions the non-current carrying metal parts of an electrical installation such as frames. Generally green wire is used for this as a nomenclature. which in turn will cause the breaker to trip. The primary re ason for bonding is personnel safety. When all conductors are at the same potential no discharge can occur .printfriendly. supports. The bonding helps to create a low impedance path back to the source. In othe r w ords.com: Print web pages. To avoid this non-current carrying metal parts of the electrical system are connected to the general mass of earth by means of an earthing system comprising of earth conductors to conduct the fault currents safely to the ground. The purpose of earthing is to minimize the risk of re ce iving an e le ctric shock if touching metal parts when a fault is present. supports etc. create PDFs It protects equipment and person by reducing current flow between pieces of equipment at different potentials. www. It is normally achieved by inserting ground rods or other electrodes deep inside earth. This will force a large current to flow. The Se cond re ason has to do with what happens if Phase conductor may be touched an external metal part.5/20/13 PrintFriendly. fencing etc. may attain high potential with respect to ground so that any person or stray animal touching these or approaching these will be subjected to potential difference which may result in the flow of a current through the body of the person or the animal of such a value as may prove fatal.
alternate path around the electrical system of your house thus minimizing damage from such occurrences. dangerously high voltages can develop in the electrical distribution system wires. There may exist a neutral to ground voltage due to voltage drop in the wiring. Because of lightening. Grounding refers the current carrying part of the system such as neutral (of the transformer or generator).com: Print web pages.5/20/13 PrintFriendly. the phase currents balance each other. All electrical/electronic circuits (AC & DC) need a reference potential (zero volts) which is called ground in order to make possible the current flow from generator to load. Ge ne rally Black w ire is use d for this as a nome nclature .com/print/?url=http://electrical-engineering-portal. this is not completely possible. thus ne utral doe s not ne ce ssarily have to be at ground pote ntial . In Electrical Power distribution it is either earthed at distribution Point or at Consumer end but it is not earthed in Automobile( for instance all vehicles’ electrical circuits have ground connected to the chassis and metallic body that are insulated from earth through tires). Ground is May or May not be e arthe d .printfriendly. create PDFs Earthing is to e nsure safe ty or Prote ction of e le ctrical e quipme nt and Human by discharging the e le ctrical e ne rgy to the e arth. so that the total neutral current is also zero. Go to Content ↑ Grounding Grounding means conne cting the live part (it means the part which carries current under normal condition) to the earth for example neutral of power transformer. Go to Content ↑ www. Cant see this video? Click here to watch it on Youtube. line surges or unintentional contact with other high voltage lines. Grounding provides a safe. but we strive to come close in aggregate. It is done for the protections of power system equipment and to provide an effective return path from the machine to the power source. For example grounding of neutral point of a star connected transformer. This balancing allows maximum efficiency of the distribution transformer’s secondary winding.com/what-is-the-difference-between-bonding-grounding-and-earthing 4/7 . For individual systems. In a properly balanced system.
it is called grounding. Eve n though the re is a micro diffe re nce be tw e e n grounding and e arthing: 1. create PDFs Micro Difference between earthing and Grounding There is no major difference between earthing and Grounding. Equipment Protection Vs Human Safety Earthing is to protect the circuit elements whenever high voltage is passed by thunders or by any other sources while Grounding is the common point in the circuit to maintain the voltage levels. It is an alternate low resistance path for current. While earthing is used between the equipment and earth pit so as to avoid electrical shock and equipment damage. This serves various purposes like to drain away unwanted currents. Difference in Terminology In USA term Grounding is used but in UK term Earthing is used.com/print/?url=http://electrical-engineering-portal. to provide a reference voltage for circuits needing one. both means “Conne cting an e le ctrical circuit or de vice to the Earth ”. Balancing the Load Vs Safety Ground is a source for unw ante d curre nts and also as a return path for main current some times. to lead lightning away from delicate equipment. The ground conductor provides a return path for fault current when a phase conductor accidentally comes in contact with a grounded object.com: Print web pages. Earthing is a preventive measure while Grounding is just a return path.5/20/13 PrintFriendly.printfriendly. While earthing is done not for return path but only for protection of delicate equipments. 3. Grounding is done to balance unbalanced load. 2.com/what-is-the-difference-between-bonding-grounding-and-earthing 5/7 . This is a safety feature of the wiring system and we would never expect to see grounding conductor current flow during normal operation. IMPORTANT: Do not Ground the ne utral se cond time w he n It is grounde d e ithe r at Distribution Transforme r or at Main se rvice pane l of Consume r www. Earth is used for the safe ty of the human body in fault conditions while Grounding (As neutral earth) is used for the prote ction of e quipme nt . When we take out the neutral for a three phase unbalanced connection and send it to ground.
This voltage is quite a hazard for anyone touching a Earth wire (Metal Body of Equipment) as it may have several tens of volts. At the same time if the body of the transformer or generator is connected to zero potential then it is known as e arthing . Go to Content ↑ Top Illegal Practice of interchange Purpose of Grounding and earthing wire Neutral wire in grid connections is mandatory for safety. But ne utral cannot act as ground. but the system connected to zero potential is differ than Equipment connected to zero potential .com/what-is-the-difference-between-bonding-grounding-and-earthing 6/7 . Imagine a person from 4th floor in a building uses Earth wire (which is e arthe d in the basement at Basement) as neutral to power his lights.e. voltage) between them. 4. www.com: Print web pages. ground w ire (Ne utral w ire ) has a much lower electrical resistance than Earth Wire (Earthing ) which results in a difference of electrical potential (i. Another Person from 2nd floor has a normal setup and uses neutral for the same purpose.If a neutral point of a generator or transformer is connected to zero potential then it is known as grounding . In earthing we have Zero Volt potential references to the earth while in grounding we have local Ze ro Volt pote ntial re fe re nce to circuit . Neutral wire is also earthed at the ground level (as per USA practice Neutral is Grounded (earthed) at Building and as per Indian Practice it is Grounded (earthed) at Distribution Transformer). but its potential is zero(where the currents are algebraically zero) with respect to other point. we want to have the same Zero Volt reference so we connect them and grounds together. However. The term “Earthing means that the circuit is physically connected to the ground and it is Zero Volt Potential to the Ground (Earth) but in case of “Grounding” the circuit is not physically connected to ground. That means neutral does not always have zero potential with respect to ground. Earth having zero potential whereas ne utral may have some potential. This common reference might be different from the earth potential.com/print/?url=http://electrical-engineering-portal. Grounding act as ne utral. create PDFs e nd. which is also known as “Virtual Grounding ”.5/20/13 PrintFriendly.printfriendly. System Zero Potential Vs Circuit Zero Potential Earthing and Grounding both is refer to ze ro pote ntial . When we connect two different Power circuits in power distribution system.
Go to Content ↑ www. It is an alternate low resistance path for current. Go to Content ↑ Conclusion Ground is a source for unwanted currents and also as a return path for main current.com: Print web pages.com/what-is-the-difference-between-bonding-grounding-and-earthing 7/7 . Earth is used for the safety of the human body in fault conditions while Grounding (As neutral earth) is used for the protection of equipment. create PDFs The second issue is le gality . Many Consumers make energy theft by using Earthing wire as a Neutral wire in an Energy meter. While earthing is done not for return path but only for protection of delicate equipments.printfriendly.5/20/13 PrintFriendly.com/print/?url=http://electrical-engineering-portal. Using ground wire instead of neutral makes you an energy thief as the meter uses only the Phase and neutral for recording your energy consumption.
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