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Peter D Alison

May 18, 2009

1 Problem 3.30

Suppose

A

Ψ(x, 0) =

x 2 + a2

for constants A and a.

Z ∞

|Ψ(x, 0)|2 dx = 1

−∞

Z ∞

A

( )2 dx

−∞ x2 + a2

Using Mathematica we obtain

1 ax x ∞ A2 π

= 3( 2 + arctan( ))|−∞ = =1

2a a + x2 a 2a3

s

3 2

A=a 2

π

(b) Find < x >, < x2 >, and σx (at time t = 0).

Z ∞

< x >= x|Ψ(x, 0)|2 dx

−∞

1

Z ∞

A

< x >= x( )2 dx

−∞ x2 + a2

1

=− |∞ = 0

2(a2 + x2 ) −∞

Anyways the function was odd, so this was quite clear.

Z ∞

< x2 >= x2 |Ψ(x, 0)|2 dx

−∞

Z ∞

2 A

< x >= x2 ( )2 dx

−∞ + a2 x2

x arctan( xa ) ∞

=− 2 2

+ |−∞ = a2

2(a + x ) 2a

√

σx = < x2 > − < x >2

√

σ x = a2 − 0 = a

(c) Find the momentum space wave function Φ(x, 0), and check that it is

normalized.

1 Z ∞ −ipx/h̄

Φ(p, 0) = √ e Ψ(x, 0) dx

2πh̄ −∞

1 Z ∞ −ipx/h̄ A

Φ(p, 0) = e dx

2πh̄ −∞ x 2 + a2

Once again, using Mathematica to solve this nasty integral we obtain

a − ap

r

Φ(p, 0) = e h̄

h̄

This is a rather nice, pretty function, so notice how easy it will be to calcu-

late expectation values of p with the momentum space wave function.

(d) Use Φ(x, 0) to calculate < p >, < p2 >, and σp (at time t = 0).

Z ∞

< p >= p|Φ(x, 0)|2 dp

0

Z ∞

a ap

< p >= p (e− h̄ )2 dp

0 h̄

2

This integral is

2ap

e− h̄(2ap + h̄) ∞

h̄

− |0

4a2

h̄

< p >=

4a

Z ∞

< p2 >= p2 |Φ(x, 0)|2 dp

0

Z ∞

a ap

< p >= 2

p2 (e− h̄ )2 dp

0 h̄

This integral is

2ap

e− h̄ h̄(2a2 p2 + 2aph̄ + h̄) ∞

− |0

4a3

h̄2

< p2 >= 2

4a

s √

q h̄2 h̄ 2 3 h̄

σp = < p2 > − < p >2 = 2

−( ) =

4a 4a 4 a

h̄

σx σp ≥

2

√ √

3 h̄ 3 h̄

σx σp = (a)( )= h̄ ≥

4 a 4 2

The uncertainty principle is satisfied. Yay.

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