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Special Problem 2

Peter D Alison
May 18, 2009

1 Problem 3.30
Suppose
A
Ψ(x, 0) =
x 2 + a2
for constants A and a.

(a) Determine A, by normalizing Ψ(x, 0).

We determine A using the normalization condition


Z ∞
|Ψ(x, 0)|2 dx = 1
−∞
Z ∞
A
( )2 dx
−∞ x2 + a2
Using Mathematica we obtain

1 ax x ∞ A2 π
= 3( 2 + arctan( ))|−∞ = =1
2a a + x2 a 2a3
s
3 2
A=a 2
π
(b) Find < x >, < x2 >, and σx (at time t = 0).

Z ∞
< x >= x|Ψ(x, 0)|2 dx
−∞

1
Z ∞
A
< x >= x( )2 dx
−∞ x2 + a2
1
=− |∞ = 0
2(a2 + x2 ) −∞
Anyways the function was odd, so this was quite clear.
Z ∞
< x2 >= x2 |Ψ(x, 0)|2 dx
−∞

Z ∞
2 A
< x >= x2 ( )2 dx
−∞ + a2 x2
x arctan( xa ) ∞
=− 2 2
+ |−∞ = a2
2(a + x ) 2a

σx = < x2 > − < x >2

σ x = a2 − 0 = a
(c) Find the momentum space wave function Φ(x, 0), and check that it is
normalized.

1 Z ∞ −ipx/h̄
Φ(p, 0) = √ e Ψ(x, 0) dx
2πh̄ −∞
1 Z ∞ −ipx/h̄ A
Φ(p, 0) = e dx
2πh̄ −∞ x 2 + a2
Once again, using Mathematica to solve this nasty integral we obtain
a − ap
r
Φ(p, 0) = e h̄

This is a rather nice, pretty function, so notice how easy it will be to calcu-
late expectation values of p with the momentum space wave function.

(d) Use Φ(x, 0) to calculate < p >, < p2 >, and σp (at time t = 0).
Z ∞
< p >= p|Φ(x, 0)|2 dp
0
Z ∞
a ap
< p >= p (e− h̄ )2 dp
0 h̄

2
This integral is
2ap
e− h̄(2ap + h̄) ∞

− |0
4a2

< p >=
4a
Z ∞
< p2 >= p2 |Φ(x, 0)|2 dp
0
Z ∞
a ap
< p >= 2
p2 (e− h̄ )2 dp
0 h̄
This integral is
2ap
e− h̄ h̄(2a2 p2 + 2aph̄ + h̄) ∞
− |0
4a3
h̄2
< p2 >= 2
4a
s √
q h̄2 h̄ 2 3 h̄
σp = < p2 > − < p >2 = 2
−( ) =
4a 4a 4 a

(e) Check the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for this state.

The uncertainty principle states



σx σp ≥
2
√ √
3 h̄ 3 h̄
σx σp = (a)( )= h̄ ≥
4 a 4 2
The uncertainty principle is satisfied. Yay.