You are on page 1of 23

Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Now a day in places like Afghanistan and Iraq we know that land mines are causing serious threat to the lives of civilians. The mines that are implanted during the wartime may remain undetected for several decades and may suddenly be activated after that. Also during wartime mines implanted by our enemy countries are to be detected and diffused properly in order to save the lives of our soldiers. So we should say that detecting landmines is important for every country today.

www.seminarsonly.com

1

Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report

CHAPTER 2 MINE AFFECTED COUNTRIES

The countries known to have severe landmine problems are Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Iraq, Kuwait, Laos, Egypt, Eritrea, Chevalier, China. Unfortunately India, Pakistan, Srilanka, Myanmar are in the list of less mine affected countries besides other 100 countries.

www.seminarsonly.com

2

Usually most of the land mines will contain many metallic parts. www. which can be made use of in their detection. Most land mines are laid on just below the surface of ground and are activated by pressure or trip-wire.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report CHAPTER 3 WHAT IS A LAND MINE? The purpose of a landmine is to disable. immobilize or kill. It is an explosive device activated either by a person or vehicle or by command detonated by electric wire or radio signals.seminarsonly.com 3 .

A child injured at the age of 10 will need about 25 critical limbs during there life time.000 amputees with critical limbs and the land mine problem in still growing. There for considering these factors the discovery of radar bullet is really a big boost to our world as we launches to 21st century.seminarsonly.com 4 . www.means these children will have to be looked after for many years. This cost in 3000 Dollars a huge sum to pay in countries where people earn as little as 10 dollar a month. . This weapon is particularly cruel on children whose bodies being smaller and closer to the blast are more likely to sustain serious injury.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report Anti-personal mines claims 70 new victims every day. The severe disabilities and psychological traumas that follow the blast. Between 1979 of 1996 the red crores fitted over 70.

seminarsonly. Metal detection 2. Manufactured mines have casting made from a variety of materials including wood.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report CHAPTER 4 HOW IS MINE DETECTION CURRENTLY BEING CONDUCTED? PRINCIPLES USED 1.com 5 . From the detection standpoint. Explosive detection 4. www.1. Plastic metal or other synthetic materials. metals. METAL DETECTION Essentially the two most common components of landmines are metals and explosives. metal is the easier component to detect.

Detecting explosives however is a complicated process.com 6 . However some mines are metal free on certain virtually non-metal. 4. which can detect small traces of explosives in suitcases and other containers.2. Locating traces or the order of explosives is an open field demands technology that can operate in an unlimited variety of environmental www. EXPLOSIVE DETECTION The explosives are one common ingredient that is found in all mines.seminarsonly.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report Metal detectors (commonly referred to as mine detectors) are now capable of signaling the presence of minute piece of metal. These non-metals challenge the capacity of current metal detectors. Modem airports have explosive detecters.

In all the above said methods mine detection in conducted in close proximity. So it is not considered to be the safest method.com 7 . Explosive detection under field conditions has recently become the preview of mine detection dogs. A dog’s nose has proven to be a very sophisticated and reliable sensor. That is detection is conducted after going very near to the mine. however handling maid detection dog teams and ensuring consistent behaviour in varied hazard scenarios is a complicated and demanding tasks. A preferred method is to use detection www. water and soil changes and variations.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report conditions that are subjected to wind.seminarsonly. This method can prove to be dangerous in many occations.

CHAPTER 5 WHAT IS A RADAR BULLET? The radar bullet is a special type of bullet. Using detection devices that pinpoint land mines exploded from a distance either overhead on at ground level in the best possible way to determine the actual location of individual land mines. we can deactivate it safely. This is where the importance of mine detection using radar bullet comes. This pulse strikes the mine and its image gets available on the computer in the helicopter. Ones the threat is located.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report devices that locate land mines at a safe distance from the deminer.com 8 . The main use of radar bullet is to find landmines without setting foot on the ground. www. The bullet units a radar pulse as it grounds to a halt. which could pin point buried land mines. This consists of firing a special bullet in to the ground from a helicopter.seminarsonly. that is mines are pin pointed. offering a safe and efficient way of finding land mines.

If a narrow beam of www. Radar makes use of radio waves to detect and locate objects.com 9 . The purpose is to provide estimates of certain characteristics of its surroundings most commonly the presence.seminarsonly. position and motion of aircrafts.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report CHAPTER 6 RADAR PRINCIPLE Radar is Radio detection and ranging. Radar operates by transmitting electro magnetic energy into the surroundings and detecting energy reflected by object. Radar is a sensor. ships and other vehicles.

www. In radar bullet principle the change of medium by the waves must be taken into consideration.seminarsonly. . Transmitter OBJECT RECEIVER DISPLAY Radars have generally from principal parts.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report this energy is transmitted by the directive antenna. and display.The distance to the reflecting object in estimated by measuring the period between the transmission of radar pulse and reception of echo.com 10 . the direction from which reflections come and hence the bearing of object may be estimated. the transmitter antenna receiver.

Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report The transmitter will transmit an electro magnetic signal through the antenna. = Velocity of electromagnetic signals = 3*108 m/sec. which will hit the target and reflects back. which will help up to measure the distance of the target from the radar. CALCULATIONS R OBJECT RADAR T 2R c =time b/w signal transmission and reception . The same antenna and the time difference between the signal transmission and reception is calculated.e.seminarsonly.com . = Total distance traveled. C = 2R / T 11 www.. Velocity = distance / time i.

com 12 . www. The bullet will produce a pulse of radio waves as it pierces the ground and signal is reflected from any landmines within about a 15 meter radius will be detected by an antenna on the helicopter. from a gun mounted on a helicopter flying about 100 m above the ground. The bullet in designed in such a way that it gives out powerful blast of radio waves from under the ground. CHAPTER 7 EXPERIMENTAL SET UP First of all a special bullet in fired downward into the ground .seminarsonly.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report or. R =CT /2 So in the screen an obstacle will be shown at a distance R from the radar.

Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report Once the mines are located they can be destroyed at once or there exact position are noted so they can be destroyed at once on their exact positions are noted so that can be diploid later. it would explode.” EXPERIMENTAL SETUP www. “Magnetic flux compression. And if the bullet hits it.com 13 . The Radar pulse is generated from the bullets kinetic energy by a process known as.seminarsonly.

com 14 .Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report www.seminarsonly.

When the bullet smashes into the ground .seminarsonly. there is a battery generating a magnetic field in the cylinder. surrounded by a tightly wounded coin of wire.the sudden deceleration forces the cylinder out from inside the coil. As the bullet leaves the gun. The coil thus acts like an antenna converting the pulse into a short burst of high frequency radiation. MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION www.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report CHAPTER 8 MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION Inside the bullet is a metal cylinder.com 15 . The sudden movement of the metal cylinder through the magnetic field induces a large pulse of current in the coil.

Almost 10 times move power than a standard ground penetrating radar from 20cm down. gun. Here the radiation has to change the medium twice. little radiation penetrates the soil. which are a particular problem in northern Iraq.com 16 . it transmits more radio wave into the ground. First from air to ground. where the mines have been laid by Saddam Hussein’s forces in their confrontation with the Kurds . Using the same experiment set up.1. ADVANTAGES  The light weight system can be fitted to any helicopter ie.seminarsonly.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report CHAPTER 9 FIELD TESTS After the laboratory tests. 9. computer controls etc.  Extremely small bullets can be used for detection A 30 mm bullet gives out a 4 kW radar pulse. most is reflected by the ground because of the sudden change in density between the air and the soil.  Also since the bullet is beneath the surface of the ground. tests where conducted at the Arizona desert. For ordinary penetrating radar. and www. the radar bullet as able to detect 35 cm anti tank mines and Val Mara 69 anti personal mines.

Such type of illegal pipelines can be detected out by using radar bullet.3.seminarsonly. APPLICATIONS It can be used for detecting land mines. the cost of operation is higher.e.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report then after reflection.Recently an illegal pipeline carrying drugs between Afghanistan and Turkmistan has been discovered. from ground into air.  Since the equipment is to be mounted on a helicopter. DISADVANTAGES  It cannot detect plastic land mines. but researches are working hard to overcome this.com 17 .For example: .2.   www. cost can never be considered as a disadvantage. Therefore weak signals are obtained. But in radar bullet principle the radiation has to change the medium only once i.. 9. 9. from the ground into the air and hence stronger signals are obtained. It can be used for detecting buried pipelines . But considering its future prospects and the static’s released by red –Cross.

seminarsonly. Mine clearance normally broken into three stages. Ten thousands of anti .personal mines lied buried in the hilly regions of Cambodia / north . And according to UN it would these. magnetic resonance imaging] to biological detection schemes (dog snuffers and insect or bacteria ) to simple brute forces detection methods (Rails. The invention of radar bullet helps to speed up the destruction of mines.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report CHAPTER 10 FUTURE PROSPECTS As the UN has already implemented a worldwide ban on anti- personal mines. So with helicopter and radar bullet.com 18 . www. the mines can be cleared easily. Detection.Most of these methods are very slow and/or expensive and suffer from a high false alarm rate. Rollers and plows) and use of hand-held mechanical plodders . Removal Current detection methods range from high tech electronic [ground penetrating radar infrared.Korea / Afghanistan etc. if worked take more than 100 years to detect and destroy or demining is and Disposal. out manually.

in that case we can shoot this bullet in to the ground and detect mineral deposits and other deposits. when we go to a different planet. This can be applied is future space travels.seminarsonly. Kosoro and in same African nations can be detected using radar bullets.com 19 . www.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report Mass graveyards which result from internal civil wars as in Combodia.

seminarsonly. www. Detection and removal of mines is very important as it is hazardous to both man and animals alike. The conventional methods that are being used right now for mine detection involves working in close proximity for the mines. So overall mine detection using radar bullets is a cutting edge technology that is safe and effective.com 20 . With all its advantages it may be hoped that mine detection using radar bullets will be more used in detection of mine there by making the world safer place to live in.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Mines are major cause of concern in many countries.

“Polarimatic SAR imaging of buried land mines” • MERILL .com www.CARIN “ Late –time resonant frequencies buried bodies of revolution” • L.1.com www.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report REFERENCES BOOKS • S.com 21 . SKOLNIK.sew_lexicon.nationalgeography. Tata MC Grawhill WEBSITES • • • • www.VITEBSKIY AND L.com www.com www. R KAPOOR. C.CARIN.seminarsonly.altavista.google.E BAVAM.

especially in mine-affected countries like Afghanistan and Iraq . such as metal detection and explosive detection. These ways of detection are dangerous because they are done very close to the mine.The mines which are implanted during the war time may remain undetected for several decades and may suddenly be activated after that. Detection is usually done from helicopters. As the name suggests detection is done using Radar Bullets and hence can be done further away from the mine. A safe method for detecting land mines is “mine detection using radar bullets”. www. There are several methods for detection of land mines.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report ABSTRACT Land mines are a case of serious threats to the life of civilians.com 22 .seminarsonly. Researchers are being conducted to overcome certain inefficiencies of this method.

FIELD TEST 9. FUTURE PROSPECTS 11.com 23 . EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 8.1 METAL DETECTION 4. CONCLUSION 12. WHAT IS A RADAR BULLET? 6. HOW IS METAL DETECTION CURRENTLY BEING CONDUCTED? 4.2 EXPLOSIVE DETECTION 5.Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets Seminar Report CONTENTS CHAPTERS 1.3 APPLICATIONS 10. MINE AFFECTED COUNTRIES 3. INTRODUCTION Page No. WHAT IS A LAND MINE? 4.seminarsonly. MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION 9. REFERENCES www.1 ADVANTAGES 9. RADAR PRINCIPLE 7. 1 2 3 5 5 6 8 9 12 14 15 15 16 16 17 19 20 2.2 DISADVANTAGES 9.