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- Kirchhoff’s Laws
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:

1. To verify Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law in RLC series circuit.

2. To verify Kirchhoff’s Current Law in RLC parallel circuit.

(B) Equipments and Components:

1. Resistor : 1kΩ , 10Ω

2. Capacitor : 0.01µF

3. Inductor : 10mH

4. Breadboard

5. Signal Generator

6. Multimeter

7. Oscilloscope

(C) Procedures:

A. To verify Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law in RLC series circuit.

Figure 1

1. Circuit as diagram on breadboard was assembled.

2. R was measured using a multimeter.

**3. Voltage of every components (VR, VL and Vc) with E=8 Vp-p was measured using an
**

oscilloscope.

4. Ip-p was calculated using the equation Ip-p = V Rp-p / Rmeasured

5. ZT was calculated using equation ZT = Ep-p / Ip-p

**6. Using L and C values used and Rmeasured, ZT was calculated and the result was
**

compared with the result in step 4.

**7. I, VR, VL and VC were calculated using peak-to-peak values and E=8V 0°.
**

8. Phasor diagram was drawn including I and all voltages.

**9. Kirchhoff’s Law was vrified by showing E = (VR 2 + (VL – VC)2) using peak-to-peak
**

voltage values.

10. Voltage divider method was used to calculate Vab(p-p)

11. The observation from the experiment were discussed.

B. To verify Kirchhoff’s Current Law in RLC parallel circuit.

1. Circuit was assemble as diagram on breadboard

**2. current was measured through of every components (IR1, IL and Ic) with E=8 Vp-p using
**

the multimeter.

3. Verify the Kirchhoff’s Law by calculating IS using the equation IS = IR1 + IL + IC

**4. Discuss the observation from the experiment.
**

Result :

Series Circuit

1. Rmeasured = 980 Ω

2.

Components Voltage

R1 (VRp-p) 8V

L1 (VLp-p) 8V

C1 (Vcp-p) 0.8 V

Voltage measure using oscilloscope.

**3. Calculate Ip-p using this equation;
**

Ip-p = VRp-p / Rmeasured

= 8 V / 980 Ω

= 8.163 mA

4. Calculate the ZT

ZT = Ep-p / Ip-p

= 8 V / 8.163 mA

= 980 Ω

**5. Using L and C values used and Rmeasured, calculate ZT
**

.

ω = 2πf

= 2π(1000Hz)

= 6283.19

Xc = 1/ωc = 1 / 6283.19 (0.01 x 10-6) = 15915.48Ω

Zc = 1 / jωc = 15915.48Ω = 15915.48 ∠ - 90°

XL = ωL

= 6283.19 (10 x 10-3)

= 62.8319Ω

ZL = jωL

= 62.8319 ∠ - 90°

ZT = R + j XL - j Xc

= 1000 + j62.8319 - j15915.48

= 1000Ω

6. Using E = 8 V ∠ 0° , calculate I, VR, VL and VC using peak-to-peak values.

I = V / ZT

= 8 ∠ - 0° / 15884.16 ∠ - 86.39°

= 5.0366 x 10-4∠ 86.39°A

V = IR

= 5.0366 x 10-4∠ 86.39° x 1000 ∠ 0°

= 0.50366 ∠ 86.39°V

VL = Ij XL

= 5.0366 x 10-4 (j62.8319)

= 0.03165 ∠ 90°V

VC = Ij XC

= 5.0366 x 10-4 (-j 15915.48)

= 8.01599 ∠ -90°V

**7. Draw phasor diagram including I and all voltages.
**

8. E = √(VR2 + (VL - VC)2)

= √(82 + (8 - 8)2)

= 8V

9. Vab(p-p) = E ∠ 0° x (ZLC / ZT) ∠ 0°

ZLC = ZL + ZC = j ZL – j ZC

= (62.8319 ∠ 90°) + (15915.48 ∠ -90°)

= 15852.96 ∠ -90°

Vab(p-p) = (8 ∠ 0°) x (15852.96 ∠ -90°) / 15884.16 ∠ - 86.39°

= 7.9841 ∠ -90°

10. Vab = 8V

Parallel Circuit

1.

Components Current

IR1 8.00 mA

IL 128.00 mA

IC 5.00 mA

IS = IR1 + IL + IC

= 8.00 mA + 128.00 mA + 5.00 mA

= 141 mA

2. Verify Kirchhoff’s Law by calculation

IR = 8 ∠ 0° / 970Ω = 8.247 x 10-3 ∠ 0°

IL = 8 ∠ 0° / 62.8319 ∠ 90° = 0.12732 ∠ -90°

IC = 8 ∠ 0° / 15915.48 ∠ -90° = 5.0266 ∠ 90°

IS = IR + IL + IC = 0.12707 ∠ 86.39°

Discussion:

1. RLC circuit contains resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

**2. Inductive reactance and capacitive reactance have opposite effect on the circuit phase
**

angle.

**3. Each of the three ideal circuit elements may be represented by one such impedance
**

element

Suggestions for further work in the future:

1. Prepare the electrical and electronic components which in good condition.

**2. Do not use red maker while writing on the whiteboard because it is unclear.
**

3. Use LCD projector to show how to do the experiment.

4. Use microphone to give the explanation.

Conclusions:

1. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law in RLC series circuit is verified

2. Kirchhoff’s Current Law in RLC parallel circuit is verified

References:

**1. J. David Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, (7th Edition), John Wiley and Sons
**

Inc,2002

**2. David E. Johnson, John L. Hilburn, Johnny R. Johnson, Peter D. Scott, Basic Electric
**

Circuit Analysis, (5th Edition), Prentice Hall, 1995

**3. Robert J. Herrick, DC/AC Circuits and Electronics: Principles & Applications, Theorem
**

Delwan Learning, New York, 2003

**4. Thomas L. Floyd, Principles Of Electric Circuits: Electron Flow Version, (3rd Edition),
**

Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1993

**5. Thomas L. Floyd, Principles Of Electric Circuits: Conventional Current Versions, (8th
**

Edition), Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2007

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