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Objectives

1. To construct voltage level detector.

2. To construct an under voltage indicator which gives L.E.D signal
whenever a low voltage is detected compare to reference voltage.

3. To combine voltage level detector and under voltage indicator for
observing their relationship.

A. Voltage Level Detector

Components:

1. IC (Integration circuit) LM741 ×3

2. L.E.D (light emitted diode) ×1 green

×1 yellow

×1 red

3. 330Ω resistor ×3

4. 3.3kΩ resistor ×3

5. 24kΩ resistor ×1

Procedures:
1. The voltage level detector is constructed as shown in the diagram.

2. The voltage level detector is connected to the voltage supply.

3. The diode change due to voltage changes is observed.

4. The changes of the diode is recorded in Table 1.

5. The observation is discussed.

B. Under voltage Indicator

Components:

1. 10kΩ resistor ×1

2. 680Ω resistor ×1

3. 4.7kΩ resistor ×1

4. 4.7MΩ resistor ×1

5. 43Ω resistor ×1

6. L.E.D ×1

7. 0.68uF capacitor ×1

8. PN2907 transistor ×1

9. PN2222 transistor ×1
Procedures:
+ Vref
-

+ Vin

-

1. The circuit shown in diagram is constructed.

2. 3V (around 0.07A) is supplied to Vref.

3. Vin with voltage below 3V and above is supplied, the difference is
observed.

4. Vref with 2V,4V and 5V is supplied. When the LED begin to flash, the
voltage value of Vin is jot down in Table 2.

C. Combination of Voltage Level Detector and Under voltage Indicator

Procedures:

1. Both voltage level detector and under voltage indicator is combined
by gathering both Vref of voltage level detector and under voltage
indicator while VBat of voltage level detector with Vin of under voltage
indicator.

2. Vref with a constant voltage value which is 5V is supplied.

3. The combination of VBat and Vin is supplied with 5V, 4.5V, 4V, 3.5V and
until 0V.
4. The observation is recorded in Table 3.

Results:

Observation
Voltage Diode
(v) Gree Yello
Red
n w
5.0 On On On
4.5 < V <
On On On
5.0
4.5 Off On On
4.0 < V <
Off On On
4.5
4.0 Off Off On
3.5 < V <
Off Off On
4.0
3.5 Off Off Off
3.0 < V <
Off Off Off
3.5
3.0 Off Off Off

Table 1

Vref (v) Vin (v)
2.0 0.4
3.0 1.4
4.0 2.6
5.0 3.8

Table 2

Observation
Voltage (v)
LED Diode
Vref Vin Green Yellow Red
5.0 5.0 Not flash On On On
5.0 4.5 < V < Flash On On On
5.0
5.0 4.5 Flash Off On On
4.0 < V <
5.0 Flash Off On On
4.5
5.0 4.0 Flash Off Off On
3.5 < V <
5.0 Flash Off Off On
4.0
5.0 3.5 Flash Off Off Off
5.0 V < 3.5 Flash Off Off Off

Table 3

Discussion:

1. Functions of the components which have been used in the
experiments;

a. Light Emitted Diode (L.E.D.) is use for emitting the light when an
electric current passes through it.
b. Integration circuits (IC or chips) are the complex circuits which
have been etched on to tiny chips of semiconductor.

c. Transistor has the ability to use a small signal applied between a
pair of its terminals to control much larger signal at another pair
of terminals. It can act either as a switch or as an amplifier.

d. Capacitor is a component which capable to store electrical
charge for a long time after power has been turned off in a
circuit.

e. Resistors are used to produce the require constant value of
voltage for each part of circuit.

2. The first experiment which construct the voltage level detector, the
resistors are arranged in series and acted as voltage divider.
3. In a series circuit, there is only one path for current between two point,
so that, the current is the same for the whole circuit. Since the current
is same, the value of voltage is proportional to the value of resistor.

4. In this circuit, the voltage level can be determine when only the specify
value of voltage will make the specify L.E.D. off. Thus, the voltage level
can be detected.

5. The second experiment which construct the under voltage indicator,
the transistors are used to produce the signal for L.E.D. which blink
when the value of voltage provided is lower than the reference one.

6. About the capacitor, it stores the charge, therefore, although the value
of voltage is zero, the L.E.D. can still blink for some period.

7. In the combination of voltage level detector with under voltage
indicator, it gives the same result as it is alone. The L.E.D. in voltage
level detector off one by one due to the value of voltage through it.
And in the under voltage indicator, L.E.D. will start blink when the
value of voltage lower than reference voltage and it is still blinking
although the value of voltage turn to zero.

8. Some cautions need to be considered through the experiments;

a. Make sure the components are connected correctly due to its
polarity

b. Make sure all the components are correctly connected to each
other to avoid the short circuit.

c. Make sure the right wires are connected either for positive path
or negative path.
d. For the integration circuits, the pin configuration should be
correctly determined and connected in the circuit, especially for
the positive and negative terminals. Any reverse or wrong
connection could damage the component.

e. Make sure to connect a resistor in series with the base of the
transistor to limit the base current. Otherwise the transistor
could be damaged.

9. Both voltage level detector and under voltage indicator are used in
widely range of electrical appliances and electronic devices to give
signal or detect for any low voltage happen.

10. Other than that, the application of the circuits can be improved other
than detecting low battery voltage to such as power fail indicator,
battery backup control and so on.

Suggestions for further work in the future:

1. Prepare the electrical and electronic components which in good
condition.

2. Do not use red maker while writing on the whiteboard because it is
unclear.

3. Use LCD projector to show how to do the experiment.

4. Use microphone to give the explanation.

Conclusions:

1. The voltage level detector was constructed.

2. The under voltage indicator was constructed and gave the L.E.D
signal whenever a low voltage was detected compare to reference
voltage.

3. The voltage level detector and under voltage indicator were
combined and their relationship were observed.

References:
1. J. David Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, (7th Edition), John Wiley and
Sons Inc,2002

2. David E. Johnson, John L. Hilburn, Johnny R. Johnson, Peter D. Scott, Basic
Electric Circuit Analysis, (5th Edition), Prentice Hall, 1995

3. Robert J. Herrick, DC/AC Circuits and Electronics: Principles & Applications,
Theorem Delwan Learning, New York, 2003

4. Thomas L. Floyd, Principles Of Electric Circuits: Electron Flow Version, (3rd
Edition), Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1993

5. Thomas L. Floyd, Principles Of Electric Circuits: Conventional Current
Versions, (8th Edition), Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2007