ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Unit 1: The Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies Definition, scope and importance(2 Lectures) Need for

public awareness. Unit 2 : Natural Resources : Renewable and non-renewable resources : Natural resources and associated problems. 1. Forest resources : Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people.Water resources : Use and overUtilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts and water, dams-benefits and problems. 2. Mineral resources : Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies. 3. Food resources : World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies.

4. Energy resources : Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies. 5. Land resources : Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification.

Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.

Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.

Unit 3: Ecosystems
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Concept of an ecosystem. Structure and function of an ecosystem. Producers, consumers and decomposers. Energy flow in the ecosystem. Ecological succession. Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids. Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the following ecosystem :1. Forest ecosystem

2. Grassland ecosystem 3. Desert ecosystem 4. Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)(6 lectures) Unit 4: Biodiversity and its conservation

Introduction – Definition : genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. Biogeographical classification of India Value of biodiversity : consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values

Biodiversity at global, National and local levels. India as a mega-diversity nation Hot-spots of biodiversity. Threats to biodiversity : habitat loass, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts.

Endangered and endemic species of India Conservation of biodiversity : In-situ conservation of biodiversity.

Nuclear hazards o Solid waste Management : Causes. Disaster management : floods. Water pollution 3. Noise pollution 6.(8 lectures) o o Unit 6 : Social Issues and the Environment • • From Unsustainable to Sustainable development Urban problems related to energy . Pollution case studies. Air pollution 2.• • Unit 5: Environmental Pollution Definition Causes. Marine pollution 5. earthquake. effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes. effects and control measures of :- 1. o Role of an individual in prevention of pollution. cyclone and landslides. Soil pollution 4. Thermal pollution 7.

• • Wasteland reclamation. nuclear accidents and holocaust. its problems and concerns. ozone layer depletion.• Water conservation. Consumerism and waste products. Air (Preventation and Control of Pollution) Act. global warming. acid rain. • • • • • • • • Public awareness. Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act Wildlife Protection Act Forest Conservation Act Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation.(7 lectures) . • Environmental ethics : Issues and possible solutions. Climate change. watershed management • Resettlement and rahabilitation of people . rain water harvesting. Case studies. Environment Protection Act. Case studies.

Unit 7 : Human Population and the Environment
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Population growth, variation among nations. Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme. Environment and human health. Human Rights. Value Education. HIV / AIDS Women and Child Welfare. Role of Information Technology in Environment and human health.

Case Studies.

Unit 8 : Field work

Visit to a local area to document environmental and river forest grassland hill mountain. Visit to a local polluted site – Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural

Study of common plants, insects, birds. Study of simple ecosystems-pond, river, hill slopes, etc. (Field work Equal to 5 lecture hour

UNIT-1 THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES: • INTRODUCTION • DEFINITION • SCOPE • IMPORTANCE • NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS INTRODUCTION • Environment:As the name suggests,means surroundings • Environment is the sum total of air,water • It is divided into: • Physical(non-living)-abiotic • Living-biotic ENVIRONMENT • ‘ENVIRONMENT’-derived from the French word;Environner,which means to encircle or to surround. • Thus,an environment includes,all the biological and non-biological things surrounding an organism. DEFINITION • 1.Conditions that surround one; surroundings. • 2. The totality of circumstances surrounding an organism or group of organisms, especially: a. The combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the growth, development, and survival of organisms • b The complex of social and cultural conditions affecting the nature of an individual or community. DEFINITION • “An environment is sum total of water,air and land,inter-relationships among themselves and also

with the human beings,other living organisms and property”. • …….(Environment Protection Act,1986) CONCLUSION • Hence,an environment is made up of the biotic and abiotic factors that act on an organism, population, or ecological(study of relationship of living organisms with each other and their environment) community and influence, its survival and development. • Biotic factors include the organisms themselves, their food, and their interactions. • Abiotic factors include such items as sunlight, soil, air, water, climate, and pollution. • Organisms respond to changes in their environment by evolutionary adaptations in form and behavior • An environment includes all the physical and biological surroundings and their interactions. • ABIOTIC COMPONENTS • Physical surroundings(abiotic) surroundings,includes: • 1.Forces of nature(wind,gravity) • 2.Conditions(temperature,time factor,gravity) • Non-living material(soil,water) BIOTIC COMPONENTS • Living environment(biotic) surroundings includes: • Biological surroundings • Organisms,their food,their actions, their interactions

TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT •Natural Environment – Environment that comes into existence without interference of man is Natural Environment.

which has been modified by human activities.microbiology.biotechnology-help in studying biotic components and their interactions. called man-made Environment Product of Human Brain Scientific Technology Disturb Environment Environmental Studies—A Multidisciplinary Subject • Effective study of environment requires knowledge inputs from many disciplines/subjects.geography-helps in understanding the physical and chemical structure of the abiotic components and energy transfer and flow.Environmental laws-implemented by govt-provides the tools for effective management and protection of environment .chemical engineering-forms the basis for various technologies(pollution control.Mathematics.Life sciences:botany.computer sciences-serves as effective tool in modelingand Management of environment • 4. • • 5Environmental engineering.civil engineering. • 2. • 3.zoology.Economics.mass-communicationhelps in understanding socio-economic aspects of environment.atmospheric sciences. • 1.waste treatment.geology.hydraulics.ocenography.chemistry.Physics.statistics. •Man-Made Environment – Environment.Operate through self-regulating mechanism.sociology..Education.development of cleaner technologies-helps in protection of environment) • 6.genetics.

• Conclusion:environmental studies is a multidisciplinary subject where different aspects are dealt with holistic approach help in studying biotic components and their interactions Life sciences: botany.while still maintaining them for continued use in future . statistics. biotechnology En vironmental engineering. oceanography. chemistry .ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND CONTROL • Environmental pollution has become a global problem. geography physical and chemical structure of the abiotic components Environmental studies Mathematics. de velopment of cleaner technologies-helps in protection of environment) Physics. genetics. chemical engineering pollution control. masscommunication En vironmental lawsImplemented by govt provides The tools f or protection of environment helps in understanding socio-economic aspe cts of environment.their conservation and management • The environmentalists all over the globe are engaged in development of strategies which enable us to make use of our natural resources to the fullest extent. sociology. civil engineering hydraulics. Economics.NATURAL RESOURCES. zoology micro-biology. Environmental Studies—A Multidisciplinary Subject SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1. atmospheric sciences. computer sciences effective tool in modeling and Management of environment Education. waste treatment.geology. • Environmental studies helps in understanding the causes of pollution and gives measures for its control 2.

SPECIALIZED BRANCHES OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES • ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE • ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING • ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES • HELPS IN SOLVING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • HELPS IN SOLVING LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM • OTHER AREAS HELPS IN SOLVING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • a)Global warming • b)Depletion of Ozone layer • c)Dwindling Forests • d)Reducing energy resources • e) Depletion in global bio-diversity a)Global warming .ECOLOGY AND BIO-DIVERSITY • The problems of varied nature all in some way are correlated with ecology(Ecology is the study of relationship between organisms with each other and their environment ).political and other similar policies of the world are now basedon ecological aspects 5. can be taken up only with the help of trained environmentalists.HUMAN POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT • The problems and effect (result) of disposal (throwing away) of wastes. contamination (pollution) of sea. deterioration (decline) of habitat.SOCIAL ISSUES IN RELATION TO DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT • Various socio-economic.The ecological knowledge has proved helpful in solving various problems faced by living organisms 4.3.

Hence.reduction in atmospheric CO2.The decline in ozone layer thickness is called as ozone hole.This layer acts as as ozone shield. theree is a layer called as ozone layer and is called as ozonosphere.which absorbs the harmful UVradiations.water mist technologies etc can be used in fire fighting equipments such as HFC’s(hydro-fluro carbons )which contain chlorine in less quantities c) Dwindling(decline) Forests d)Reducing energy resources e) Depletion in global bio-diversity HELPS IN SOLVING LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS a)Solid waste management b)Impacts of mining c)Impacts of hydro-electric projects OTHER AREAS • a)Town Planning • b)Public health • c)Location of industries • d)Providing clean drinking water .afforestation(planting more trees).automibles made more efficient) b) Depletion (reduction)of Ozone layer • Ozone layer-Betweeen 20 and 26 km above sea level and situated in stratosphere.• a)Global warming • It is the increase in average global temperature due to in crease in amount of GHG’S in earth’s temperature(by controlling population growth.halons.main chemicals responsible are:CFC’s(chloro-fluro carbons).methane.Halons(used in fire exinguishers). alternatives and CO2 or dry powder .

Govt of India.time immemorial.• e)Hygenic living surroundings NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS • Since.about what need to be done • D.instructed the various states to make all curricula environment oriented.in 1991.The decision was given in response to Public Interest Litigation Filed by MC Mehta v/s Union of India (1988) • here is a chinese proverb.1992.plant trees.Indian culture has endorsed.”If you plan for one year plan rice.the fact that life owes its existence and obtain its sustenance from environment • Environmental awareness at mass level has always been the prime agenda of Ministry of Environment and Forest.Thoreeau says”What’s the use of beautiful house if you don’t have decent planet to put it on?” • Even if we begin today the restroration would take 4050 yrs .if you plan for 100 yrs. • Earth Summit(The united Nations Conference on Environment and Development) was held in Rio de Janerio in 1992 • World Summit on’Sustainable Development’ was held in 2002 at Johannesberg • Both the summits highlighted and discussed the major problems of global environment • Supreme court of India.educate people” • Today everyone talks about environment but only a few have clear ideas about it.if you plan for 10 yrs.

Objective •Awareness •Skill for identifying Environmental problem •Knowledge •Evaluation ability •Participation •Attitude Guideline Principle •Consider Environment in its totality.Environmental Education •It is a process of recognizing value and classifying concepts in order to develop skill an attitude necessary to understand the interrelatedness of man his culture and surrounding. natural as well as artificial •Consider environment education a continuous life process •To examine Environmental issues •To develop critical thinking and problem •To discover rot causes of environmental degradation .

to make recommendations.1981 Setting up of Independent Ministry of Environment and forest Independent Ministry of Environment and forest was established at Central Govt level. Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974.environmenet education) • Tiwari Committee on Environment • In 1980 Govt of India appointed tiwari Committee.INDIAN EFFORTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION • CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION • Within 5 yrs of Stockholm Conference (held convened by UN in 1972.1980.1980 • National Committee on environmental planning • The NCEPC was replaced by National committee on Environmental Planning • • • • Environment Protection Enactments After Stockholm Conference.first International meet on Environment).1985 .on environmental issues.hence separate department was set up on Nov 1.India has also embarked on several legislative measures for the protection of environment and for maintaing ecological balance.Forest(conservation)Act.India ammended its Constitution(the 42nd Constitutional Ammendment 1976) to include Environment Protection as a Constitutional Obligation • National committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination(NCEPC) • This committee concerened with various issues (survey of ecosystems. • The committee recommended for the establishment of a separate department of Environment .Air(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.

1986 • In 1986 the Govt of India passed a comprehensive Environment Protection Act as and aftermath of Bhopal Tragedy of 1984. • It was passed for the protection of Environment .. • Seventh and Eighth Plan • The seventh Plan lays down well defined strategy for environment protection.• Environment Protection Act.This strategy is the result of realisation that environemnt and natural resources represents the most fundamental building blocks for national developments and social being • Eighth Plan further Strengthened the Environmental Policies .regulation of discharge of pollutants etc • It may be pointed out that of late various agencies CPCB’s (central pollution control board) have become more stringent and have recommended strong actions against those who violate the act.

CLASSIFICATION OF NR 1. Exhaustible Resources-These resources have limited supply on the earth and are therefore. liable to be exhausted if use indiscriminately. reproduction and replacement within a reasonable time.Inexhaustible Resources-Resources are present in unlimited quantity in nature and they are not likely to be exhausted by human activities. which living organism can take from the nature for the sustenance of their life. 2. . Or Any component of the natural environment that can be utilized by man to promote his welfare is considered as natural resources.UNIT-2 NATURAL RESOURCES The natural resources are the materials. a) Renewable Resources-These resources have the capacity to reappear or replenish themselves by quick recycling.

medicine etc used by local people for it subsistence. non-edible oils. b) Non-renewable resources-The resources. rubber. the same cannot be replenished MAJOR NATURAL RESOURCES Forest resources Water resources Mineral resources Food resources Energy resources Land resources FOREST RESOURCES A forest is a biotic community. shrubs or an wood vegetation etc. which is predominantly composed of tree. food item.g. -They are storehouse of biodiversity and provide important environmental services to mankind USES OF FOREST 1 Productive use-Forest provide large number of commercial goods which include timber. they may even totally exhausted. 2 Consumptive use-Like fodder for cattle. gum. -Approximately one third of the earth total land area is covered by forest.Maintenance of soil nutrient and structure. . 3 Land bank. paper pulp. not only their quantity become affected. Once we exhausted these resources. firewood. which are collected and sold in the market as a source of income. petroleum etc.: Coal.b)If consumption of these resources continue to exceed their rate of renewal. fibers etc. which cannot be regenerated e.

-Biodiversity is lost . mineral etc. The current rate of deforestation is estimated to be more than 10 million ha per year. -If this rate continues. expansion of industrial areas and overgrazing has together lead to over exploitation of our forests leading to their rapid degradation. DEFORESTATION Destruction of forests is formidable threat to the quality of life. country’s economy and future development. Causes of Deforestation Shifting cultivation Explosion of human population Demand of wood for industries Contraction of roads Development projects Overgrazing Weather Growing food need Major Consequences of Deforestation It threatens the existence of many wild life species due to destruction of natural habitat.4 Ecological uses: a) Production of oxygen b) Reducing global warming c) Wildlife habitat d) Soil conservation e) Pollution moderators Large demand for raw material like wood. Excessive use of fuel wood. the remaining tropical forests may disappear with in country.

-forests are repositories of invaluable gift of nature in form of biodiversity and by destroying them. -Problem of soil erosion and loss of soil fertility increases -It also contributes to global warming by realizing stored carbon into the atmosphere as CO2 Major activities in Forest Timber extraction: Logging for valuable timber such as teak. we going to loose these species. -Use of timber and fuel wood by minimizing the wastage. -Mining operation: This operation for extracting minerals and fossils fuels like coal often involves vast forest. Also for road construction-making approach to trees causes damages to forest. -Forest should be protected from fire. thereby influencing rainfall. which have economic and medicinal values. -Grazing of cattle's in forest should be discouraged. Effects For building big dams. However.-Hydrological cycle gets affected. Afforest ration programme . droughts and landslides become more prevalent in such areas. -Loss of storehouse of species. which breaks the natural ecological balance of the region. -Dames-Big dams and river valley projects have multipurpose uses. -Floods. these dams are responsible for the destruction of vast area of forest. large-scale devastation of forests takes place. Mining and its associated activities require removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle and overlying rock masses.

-Water cycle plays an important role in maintaining different form of water in nature. Forms of fresh water: It mainly occurs in two forms: Ground water and surface water . -A special programme of tree plantation called “van mahotsava” is held every year in our country Water resources Water is indispensable natural resources on this earth on which all life depends. -It is needed for daily use by organism.In order to save the diminishing forest cover. there is a dire need of extensive planting of trees through afforest ration programme -This is the important programme due to which we can reduce the effect of deforestation. electricity production etc. Forest conservation & management Based on two basic principles: -Substantial supply of tree products and services to people and industry -Maintenance of long-term ecological balance through protection. -Distribution of water resources is quite uneven depending upon several geographical factors. restoration and conservation of forest cover. -About 71% of earth’s surface is covered by water. industrial use. Measure to conserve forests: -a tree removed from forest for any purpose must be replaced by new trees.

The ground water is contained in aquifers. lakes. -Human being depend on water for almost every developmental activities. which is taken up but not. It is mainly used for irrigation of crops.Surface Water: It is available in the form of streams. -Water use by humans is of two types: Water withdrawal: taking water from ground water or surface water resources Water consumption: The water. ponds etc. Lowering water table 2. washing and water disposable of industries -Water shapes earth’s surface and regulate our climate. Aquifer is a highly permeable layer of sediment or rock contains water. Unconfined aquifers: These are covered by permeable earth material and are recharged by seeping down of water from rainfall and snowmelt. transportation. oceans.1.86% of the total fresh water resources. . 2. Water Uses Due to its unique properties water is multiple uses for all living organism. public water supply and industrial supply. Ground water: It constitutes about 9. Aquifers are of two types: 1. -Water is used for drinking. It is about 35-40 times that of surface water supplies. Effects of overuse of ground water It has following ill effects 1. rivers. Confined aquifers: these are representing between two impermeable layer of rock and are recharged only in those areas where the aquifer meets the land surface. returned for reuse. Ground subsidence 2.

-Overuse of ground water for drinking and domestic purpose has resulted in rapid depletion of ground water. -Deforestation. drought condition is created. Conflicts over water Indispensability of water and its unequal distribution had often lead to inter-state or international disputes. -Africa and west Asia is likely to be worst affected by water scarcity but with increasing population. mining. these drought-hit areas are having a high population growth which lead to poor land use and makes the situation worse. the world water withdrawal demands have increased. thereby increasing the vulnerability of large part of country to drought. overgrazing. Prolonged downpour can also cause the overflowing of lacks and rivers resulting into floods.Drought When annual rainfall is below normal and less than evaporation. which otherwise a natural disaster. -Ironically. . -Heavy rainfalls often cause floods in the low-lying coastal areas. rather it is concentrated into a few months (June-sep). rapid industrialization. Over-exploitation With increasing human population & rapid development. water may fall short in other part of world. mining etc. -Anthropogenic causes like deforestation. -Rivers and streams have long been used for discharging the waters and indirectly responsible for pollution of the rivers. Floods In some countries rainfall does not occur throughout the year.

-According to the latest report some 80 nations including India and 40% of the world population are already in the theories of the “water stress”. sharing of kaveri river water between Karnataka and Tamil nadu are some examples of such conflicts. Madhypradesh.P are in the grip of sever water shortage. hungry and dark land ravaged with floods and drought every year. In India. Reduction in domestic water wastage. Without them India would have been a thirsty. It creates problems. many states like Rajas than. . Gujarat. orissa and A. like big dams submerge forest. -Recycling of used water in industries so as to reduce water wastage. It is reported that River valley projects in countries like India and China displace large number of people because of high population densities of these countries. -Harvesting of rainwater by adapting practices like storing of rainwater and ground water. displace local people. -Dispute over sharing Yamunna river water between Haryana and Delhi. -Protection of water sheds and afforest ration to improve water economy Dams-Benefits and problems: The dams like Heera kund and Damodar have played a significant role in India’s social and economic progress during the past five-year. Conservation and management of water Increase in irrigation efficiency in agriculture fields by reducing water wastage. cause water logging and siltation and may result in earthquakes.

does not degrade the envt and is economically viable and socially acceptable. Europe.Food Resources The main sources of human food are plant and animals. World food problem -During last 50-year world grain production has increased almost 3times but at the same time population growth has increased at such rate in LCD that it outstripped food production. . Reason-India has half as much as land as USA but it has 3times population to feed. milk. The main food sources include wheat. -Meat & milk consumed more by developed nation of North America. fish and seafood. potato. -Although India is self-sufficient in food production. animal genetic resources. The FAO of united nation defines unsustainable agriculture as that which conserve land. oats. Japan. India scenario-Third largest production of crops. who consume 80% of total. water. it is only because of modern pattern of agriculture that are unsustainable and which pollute our environment with excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. -Every year 40 million people die of undernourishment and malnutrition. rice. but 300 million Indian is still undernourished.

hightech equipment and lots of energy subsidies in form of fertilizers. England etc. Pesticide related problem . It become cause of serious health hazard affects the infant to maximum extended-France. Food production has increased-Green revaluation. pesticides and irrigation water.K causes imbalances. It near to natural conditions and result low production. Due to excessive fertilizers. there is total devastation of crop by the disease due to uniform conditions Fertilizer related problem A)Micro nutrient imbalance-Excessive use of these chemical fertilizer which include N.Deforestration 2. naturally available water. lack ecosystem get degraded. organic fertilizer and mix of crops. simple tools.P. Impact of this agriculture: 1.AGRICULTURE Traditional agriculture: Usually involve small plots. Impacts: . In case of attack by some pathogen.Depletion of nutrients Modern Agriculture Use of hybrid seeds of selected and single crop variety.Impacts related to high yielding varietiesEncourage monoculture.Soil erosion 3. C) Eutrophication: Excessive use of N. B)Nitrate pollution-Nitrogenous fertilizer applied in the field often leach deep into the soil and ultimately contaminate the ground water.P fertilizers in the field lead to another problem relate to water bodies like lakes.

Inadequate Drainage Accumulation of Excess water Reduce soil Fertility Salinity Problem At present one-third of total cultivable land area of world effected by salts. It protect our crops from huge losses.Pesticides include chemical like sulphur. Impacts: 1.Death of non-target organism 3. Remedy: Common method for getting rid of salts is to flush them by applying more good quality water to such soils. Water Logging Over irrigation of croplands by farmers for good growth of their crops lead to water logging. Main causes of Stalinization of soil is excessive irrigation. Salinity causes stunted plant growth and lower crop yield. Most of the crops cannot tolerate high salinity.Creating resistance in pests and producing new pests.Biological magnification: Many of pesticides are nonbiodegradable and keep om accumulating in food chain. 2. Called BM and getting pesticide in bio-magnified form is very harmful. . mercury to kill the pests.

south Africa and Australia are having the major world revenue. Due to rapid expansion of industries. settlement. diamond The USA. housing. Gold. This process is known as mining. Four stages: 1. Iron. Defense equipments Transportation means Communication-Telephone wires. the consumption of minerals has increased tremendously. clay. non-renewable resources found in the earth crust. Zinc. magnesia and copper are important raw material for industrial use. salt. cement etc. Medical system-Ayurvedic system. Important non-metal resources include coal. Japan has virtually no metal reserves and depends on other countries for its resources.Network of perforated drainage pipes for flushing out salts slowly. fungicides. aluminum. Jewelry e.Prospecting: Searching for the minerals . Mineral with special properties that human values for their aesthetic and ornamental values such as diamonds Uses & Exploitation Development of industrial plat and machinery Generation of energy eg coal Construction. Agriculture as fertilizer.g. Mining and its stages Minerals and their role need to be extracted from the earth interior so that they can use. HR Mineral Resources Minerals are exhaustible. Canada. This tried by CSSRI at sampla.

Mining poses several long-term occupational hazards to the miners Environmental Damages Mining operation-Main sources of envt degradation.Development: Work for preparing access to the deposit so that minerals can be extracted from it. alloys. 2.Exploitation: Extracting the minerals from the mines.Use of waste: The manufacturing industries use the waste products of one manufacturing process as the raw materials for another industry. Conservation of Minerals Recycling and reuse: used the resources again and again but also help in saving unspoiled land from disruption of mining and reducing the amount of solid waste. 1 Devegetation and defacing of landscape 2 Subsidence of land Ground water contamination Air pollution Occupational health hazards The limited stock of minerals once exhausted cannot be replenished. 3. 4.Decrease consumption: To maintain the extended supply of minerals for a longer time.2. consumption of minerals need immediate action. 4.Substitution: The scare minerals can be substituted with more abundant minerals like use glass fibers.Exploration: Assessing the size. 3. shape. therefore. Energy Resources . location and economic value of the deposits.

A) Direct solar energy: It can be used for direct heating or sun’s heat is converted into electricity. some of which are immediately useful to do work. Biomass energy is form of stored solar energy. sugarcane waste and other farm by product to make energy. Energy consumption of a nation is usually considered as an index of its development Renewable energy resources: regenerated by natural process and can be used as again & again in an endless manner.Approx one-fourth of world electricity is produced by hydropower.Gas-is produced from plant material and animal waste. Coal. . Charcoal 2. while other require a process of transformation. It includes plant and trees.Liquid-Like methanol and ethanol 3. Global warming and air pollution. Biomass-Release energy is of three types 1. Renewable Resources Solar energy: Sun is an inexhaustible and pollution free source of energy. Hilly and high land areas are suitable for this purpose. Non-renewable energy resources: Include fossil-fuel and nuclear energy. Photovoltaic cells convert direct solar energy into electricity. waste from household and some type of industrial waste from biogas.Energy is found on our planet in a variety of forms. agriculture waste. B) Indirect solar energy: Bio mass energy is most important one. Burning of fossil fuels. It is called photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. 2) Hydropower (hydroelectric energy):This is produced from the kinetic energy of water falling from a height.Solid-Wood. petroleum and gas. It is used for human welfare.

Conservation of energy: Solar cooker may be used for cooking food on sunny days to cut down LPG consumption. Make a habit of switching off lights. Water leakages in pipes and toilets if any. Wastage of water can be avoided by installing water saving toilets. while marinating its potential to meet the requirement of the future generations. high pressure steam fields exist below the earth surface. fill the machine with water only to the level required for your clothes. Watering of plants in kitchen garden and lawns should be doe only in the evening when evaporation losses are minimum. fans and other appliances when not in use. should be repaired promptly. shaving etc. Rainwater harvesting should be installed in the house for future use. High temperature. While using washing machine.3) Geo-thermal energy: The energy harnessed from the hot rocks present inside the earth is geo-thermal energy. Conservation of water: Continuous running of water taps should be avoided while brushing. Role of Individual in conservation of natural resources: Conservation of resources means the management of human use of the resources so that it may give maximum benefit to present generation. .

on the other hand. Avoid storng flow of water to irrigate lawn and plants. Conservation of soil: Don’t throw vegetable peeling and kitchen waste and make compost from the same to use it in kitchen garden or flower pots. The poor and less developed countries. Equitable use of resources for sustainable life styles There is a great variation in the utilization of natural resources among different countries. The rich countries will have to reduce utilization of natural resources and much of the portions of resources will have to be diverted to the poor countries. disease etc can be brought under control only with the help of MCDs. . Build your house with provision for sunspace to keep the house well lit and save electricity.One can save petrol or diesel by using public transportation and by sharing a car pool if you have to go to the same place regularly. Crop residues should should be incorporated in the soil by ploughing instead of burning it in the field. Avoid over irrigatin of agricultural fields to prevent water logging and salination. are still struggling hard with their large population and poverty problems. unhygienic conditions. The problems of LCDs like pollution. The rich have grown richer and poor have stayed poor and gone even poorer. The rich and more developed countries are contributing more to pollution and threating the sustainability of life supporting systems of the earth.

Ecology can proceeds at three levels: 1) At the level of organism. we can consider ecology as the study of organism and their environment. The Earth as a single ecosystem constantly converts solar energy into myriad organic products. and has increased in biological complexity over time. Like all systems they are a combination of interacting. oceans. For practical purposes. it includes all plants.UNIT-3 ECOSYSTEM Ecosystems (short for ecological systems) are functional units that result from the interactions of abiotic. bacteria and animals. it is the study of the interrelations between living organisms and their environment. . fresh water. All ecosystems are "open" systems in the sense that energy and matter are transferred in and out. interrelated parts that form a unitary whole. and air. ECOLOGY Ecology refers to the study of organisms in various habitats like land. Organism refers to any form of life. In other words. biotic. and cultural (anthropogenic) components. ecology deals with how individuals are affected by and how they effect their environment.

nitrites. Chemoautotrophs are bacteria that obtain energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds such as ammonia.2) At the level of population.g.. therefore they are also called producers 1. an ecosystem is a community plus its abiotic factors. Major parts of biotic components: Biotic components of an ecosystem A. rain. Population refers to the group of individual organisms of the same spices living within an area. An ecosystem is a community of organisms interacting within a particular physical environment. etc. soil. Stated another way. The organisms in an ecosystem are either autotrophs or heterotrophs: B. they synthesize carbohydrates and are found in cave communities and ocean depths . Autotrophic organisms . 3) At the level of community. A community refers to the assemblage of population living in a prescribed area or physical habitat that has characteristics in addition to its individual and population component. and sulfides. and with the natural resources affected by them. ecology deals with the composition and structure of communities. sunlight) and incorporate it into organic compounds. temperatures.capture energy (e. e. ecology deals with the presence and absence of particular species and with trends and fluctuation in their numbers.g.

lion. In terrestrial ecosystems.feed upon a variety of organisms. Heterotrophic organisms . Photoautotrophs possess chlorophyll and carry on photosynthesis 3. caterpillars.. producers are mostly plants. zooplankton. human) 5.g.) 2.need a source of preformed nutrients and consume tissues of other organisms 1. Detritivores . Decomposition returns nutrients back to the soil. Secondary consumers eat the herbivores c.the decomposing products of organisms. etc.animals (e.g. Sequences of carnivores that feed in a chain can be labeled primary.) 3. dominant producers are algae D. hawks. Herbivores are animals that feed directly on green plants (e.g.g. Primary consumers are herbivores b.2. Carnivores are animals that eat other animals (e.. including plants and animals (e. in aquatic ecosystems. earthworms) that feed on detritus . etc. secondary and tertiary consumers: a... Some also recognize decomposers but there is little distinction between them and detritivores . Tertiary consumers feed on secondary carnivores 4. Autotrophs are at the beginning or bottom of a food chain 4. Omnivores .

are organism that can manufacture organic compound they use as a source of energy and nutrients. which produce their own food (high energy organic compounds) by fixing light energy in the presence of simple inorganic abiotic substance. In other words. mainly green plants that synthesis their own organic compound (food) from inorganic substance.g. Most producers are green plants that can manufacture their food through the process of photosynthesis. The secondary consumer or carnivores is an animal that devours the Flesh of herbivore or other animals. e. They are the self-nourishing and the first group in the food chain. .-gazing cattle. Carnivores can also consume other carnivore. b) Carnivore: Organism that feed on herbivores is called carnivores. We can distinguish two main types of consumer a) Herbivore: An organism that feed primarily upon the plant life. Hetrotrops get their energy and nutrients by feeding directly or indirectly on producers. 2) Consumer: Consumer are heterotrophic organism. In other words. a consumer which drives nutrition by eating plants is called primary consumer or herbivores. They are the organisms.1) Producer: Producer or autotrops. The food of the consumers consists of organic compounds produced by other living organisms. mostly animals which generally ingest and swallow their food.

On the other hand. water. tropical rain forest) show tall plant canopy and a bewildering number of biological species. are known as detritivores or decomposers. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF AN ECOSYSTEM: Structure and function are the two major concepts used to describe the role of individual element (plants. Elements will have both structural and functional components. or detritus. Important structural features are: species composition and stratification. Plants and animals supply organic matter to the soil system through shed tissues and death. discontinuous herb layer consisting of fewer . Biotic and abiotic components are physically organized to provide a characteristic structure of the ecosystem. the desert ecosystems show a low. animals. minerals) play in creating an ecosystem. returning the constitutes of organic matter to the environment in inorganic form so that the plant can again assimilate them. Consumer organisms that feed on this organic matter. Decomposer play a vital role in the ecosystem.3) Decomposer: An organism that obtains energy from the chemical breakdown of dead organisms or animal or plant waste. Some ecosystem (eg. Examples are earthworms and many bacteria and fungi. The organic matter that is consumed by the detritivores is eventually converted back into inorganic nutrients in the soil. STRUCTURE: Structure refers to the spatial relations of an ecosystem’s element.

the overall amount of energy held in the system. such as water. This type of layering is called light stratification. Other organisms will develop niches based on the existence of the particular wildlife forming a third layer of structure dependent on the first two. Ecosystem possesses a natural tendency to persist. For example in a forest. Organisms. carbon. and how that energy is able to move within the system. There is a direct relationship between the structural complexity that forms in an ecosystem and the diversity of species. are all cycled through an ecosystem. all layers (i. will convert (cycle) compounds into forms that are usable by . by the mere nature of their existence. Therefore.species and extensive bare patches of soil. Wildlife will develop niches at different levels within this forest structure forming a secondary degree of structure.e. living organism) are dependent on one another for the providing the structure of the niche they inhabit. FUNCTION: Function refers to the processes that move and cycle energy through and among all elements (living and non-living) within the structure of an ecosystem. trees and shrubs will form multilayered tiers of structure. This is made possible by variety of functions (activities undertaken to persistence) performed by the structural components. which results from light diffusion through the canopy. which is dependent on the first. the richness of species. Compounds. nitrogen and phosphorus.

excrete wastes. These functions are carried out in the ecosystem through delicately balanced and controlled process. This process releases the energy. The dark arrows represent the movement of this energy. in turn. and that of decomposition. and. When respiration occurs. which is either used by the organism (to move its muscles. Herbivores perform the function of utilizing part of the plant production. We need to define some terminology first. and roots absorb nutrients from the soil. the process of photosynthesis is involved in the food production. etc. For instance. Decomposers carry out the function of breaking down comlex organic materials into simpler inorganic product. The diagram below shows how both energy and inorganic nutrients flow through the ecosystem. It is this energy which helps to drive biotic systems.) or the energy may be lost as heat. which can be used by the producers. The sun's energy allows plants to convert inorganic chemicals into organic compounds. ENERGY FLOW IN THE ECOSYSTEM: Many of the most important relationships between living organisms and the environment are controlled ultimately by the amount of available incoming energy received at the Earth's surface from the sun. serve as the food for carnivores. lead to release of nutrients contained in the organic matter. Note that all . think. Energy "flows" through the ecosystem in the form of carbon-carbon bonds.other organisms. green leaves function as sites of food production. digest food. For example. the carbon-carbon bonds are broken and the carbon is combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

3. The ability of water to absorb and release great quantities of heat keeps climate within livable range B. The ultimate fate of energy in ecosystems is for it to be lost as heat. energy is not. Inorganic nutrients are cycled. Hydrosphere . and that the ultimate fate of all energy in ecosystems is to be lost as heat. Water evaporates from oceans. rivers and living communities to become clouds 3.the zone of water that covers three-quarters of the earth 1. The ultimate source of energy (for most ecosystems) is the sun 2. I. Decomposers remove the last energy from the remains of organisms. a few generalizations can be made: 1. Atmosphere . 5.energy comes from the sun. Energy and nutrients are passed from organism to organism through the food chain as one organism eats another. Sunlight drives the water cycle 2. 4. Water condenses and precipitation cycles through freshwater habitats as it returns to the ocean 4. Energy does not recycle!! To summarize: In the flow of energy and inorganic nutrients through the ecosystem.the gaseous layer near earth . The earth A.

Major gases in the atmosphere are nitrogen. If one animal’s source of food disappears. Weathering of rocks supplies minerals to plants and eventually forms soil 2. While being food for animals higher in the food chain.a rocky substratum that extends about 100 kilometers deep 1.000 km 2. Oxygen is involved in cellular respiration.1. many other animals in the food . Biosphere . The food chain shows how some animals eat other animals to survive. such as from over fishing or hunting. The atmosphere is concentrated in the lowest 10 kilometers but extends thinly out to 1. Lithosphere . oxygen and carbon dioxide 3. and in the upper atmosphere becomes protective ozone (O3) C. Soil contains decayed organic material (humus) that recycles nutrients to plants D. these animals may eat other animals or plants to survive.the thin layer where life is possible between the outer atmosphere and the lithosphere Energy flow and nutrient cycling FOOD CHAIN All living things depend on each other to live. The food chain is a complex balance of life. Carbon dioxide is a prime input for photosynthesis 4.

Animals that eat other animals are called carnivores. energy is passed from one link to another. Likewise. Some animals eat plants and some animals eat other animals. Grass → Grasshopper Toad Snake → Hawk Bacteria → → → of decay In general. A food chain always starts with plant life and ends with an animal. Animals that eat only plants are called herbivores. In other words. the giraffes (that eat trees & shrubs). Food chain shows how each living thing gets its food. the rest of the energy is lost as waste or used up (by the herbivore as it moves). When a herbivore eats.chain are impacted and may die. For example. only a fraction of the energy (that it gets from the plant food) becomes new body mass. Each link in this chain is food for the next link. when a carnivore eats another animal. organisms along a food chain pass on much less energy (in the form of body mass) than they receive. Autotrop Herbivores Carnivores (Secondary. Each level of consumption in a food chain is called a trophic level The table gives one example of a food chain and the trophic levels represented in it. only a portion of the energy from the animal food is stored in its tissues. a simple food chain links the trees & shrubs. Decompos . Do you know why there are more herbivores than carnivores? In a food chain. Such a path of food consumption is called a food chain. and the lions (that eat the giraffes).

Energy flow in an ecosystem is a consequence of two fundamental laws of thermodynamics: a. about 55% c. Soil. this is net primary productivity 5. and other factors affect gross primary productivity b. Carbon. 55% of gross primary productivity is available to heterotrophs. oxygen. hydrogen.energy can neither be created nor destroyed. climate. nitrogen. Ecosystems are dependent upon solar energy flow and finite pools of nutrients 2. (Producer Consumers) → consumers) → s) → ers A. Plants must use organic molecules to fuel their own cellular respiration. Ecosystems 1. it can only be changed from one form of energy to another. etc. . phosphorus and sulfur make up over 98 percent of body weight of life 3.hs (Primary tertiary. Plants can make use of inorganic nutrients while animals must take in organic nutrients 4. Primary productivity is the total amount of energy an ecosystem's producers capture within plant material over a length of time a. First law of thermodynamics .

ecosystems are unable to function unless they receive a constant input of energy a.b. The complex feeding relationships that exist in nature are called food webs 2. A grazing food web begins with leaves. Detritus food chains are connected to a grazing food chain when consumers of a grazing food chain feed on the decomposers of the detrital food chain . Only a small portion of food taken in by heterotrophs becomes available to the next consumer d. there is always some loss of energy from the system.the portion of energy converted into increased body weight B. All energy content of organic matter is eventually lost to environment as low grade heat c. Therefore. Primary source of energy for ecosystems is sunlight. A detritus food web begins with detritus. which photo synthesizers use to produce organic food b. followed by decomposers (including bacteria and fungi) 4. Second law of thermodynamics . stems and seeds eaten by herbivores and omnivores 3. Secondary productivity .when energy is transformed from one form to another. usually as low grade heat 6. Food webs 1.

all the secondary consumers E. In some ecosystems. A food chain represents passage of energy through populations in a community 2. Ecological pyramids 1.all the primary consumers c. or energy content of each trophic level in a food web 2. First trophic level . A pyramid of numbers is based on the number of organisms in each trophic level . less than 1% of energy may move through the grazing food web while over 99% moves through the detritus food web C. Second trophic level . An ecological pyramid shows the trophic structure of an ecosystem as a graph representing biomass. Trophic levels 1. The base of the pyramid represents the producer trophic level.a feeding level of one or more populations in a food web. Third trophic level . and from there the consumer trophic level is stacked. Trophic level . those organisms in an ecosystem that are the same number of food chain steps from the energy input into the system: a. with the apex representing the highest consumer trophic level 3. organism number.primary producers b.5.

DDT was once a widely used insecticide. Energy pyramid concept helps explain the phenomenon of biological magnification . 1. which converts to 10 kg of first carnivores. A pyramid of biomass is based on the weight (biomass) of organisms at each trophic level at one time a. The DDT caused fragile eggs such that populations of large predator birds rapidly declined. Since . about 10 percent of energy at a particular trophic level is incorporated into the next trophic level a. In general.4.the tendency for toxic substances to increase in concentration at progressively higher levels of the food chain. This rapid loss of energy is the reason food chains have from three to four links. However when washed off croplands into streams and lakes it became concentrated in fish that were ultimately eaten by birds such as bald eagles. This rapid loss of energy is also the reason there are few large carnivores 7. Thus. rarely five c. Usually a large mass of plants supports a medium mass of herbivores and a small mass of carnivores 5. A pyramid of energy is based on the total amount of energy in each trophic level and is always pyramidal 6. which can support 1 kg of second level carnivores b.000 kg (or kcal in an energy pyramid) of plant material converts to 100 kg of herbivore tissue. For example.

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION Succession is the process of community change and development that happens most obviously when a natural community is disturbed or when new land become available to life.DDT was banned in the US in 1968 bird populations have made dramatic comebacks. Within any community some species may become less abundant over some time interval. This observed change over time in what is living in a particular ecosystem is "ecological succession". or rock left behind by retreating glaciers. the way we heal a cut. other species within the community may become more abundant. Ecological succession" is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. is the process of life colonizing dead or sterile areas such as volcanic lava flows and new sand dunes. on the other hand. But biological communities are always changing. over some time interval. Global biogeochemical cycles . Some succession (primary succession). Example: a tree falls and creates an opening in the canopy of leaves. and transforms them into living communities. IV. Succession fills in the opening. Many lakes and wetlands gradually become filled in and over thousands of years become dry land. or new species may even invade into the community from adjacent ecosystems. or they may even vanish from the ecosystem altogether. Such succession transforms a disturbed or damaged part of a community. Some succession (secondary succession) is an ecosystem's response to an injury. Similarly.

primarily carbon. oxygen.global loops of nutrient recycling. freshwater evaporates and condenses on the earth a. the continuation of life depends on the recycling of essential chemical elements. and from land and plants (transpiration) 2. Hydrologic (water) cycle 1. Despite an inexhaustible influx of energy from the sun. is called a renewable resource . The cycling of nutrients in within ecosystems is second in importance only to the transformation of energy via photosynthesis C. Rainfall that permeates the earth forms a water table at the surface of the groundwater 4. Biogeochemical cycles . but water also evaporates from bodies of freshwater. An aquifer is an underground storage of freshwater in porous rock. Evaporation of water from the oceans leaves behind salts 3. They involve both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems D.A. Freshwater. water and phosphorous B. nitrogen. which makes up only about 3 percent of the world's supply of water. Oceans are the greatest source of evaporated water. In the (hydrologic) cycle. trapped by impervious rock strata 5.

calcium carbonate in shells. Similarly. as well as fossil fuels 7. Short term cycling of carbon through living organisms via photosynthesis. when aquatic organisms respire. Very long term cycling via land and sea through crustal folding and solutions of limestone and dolomites . primarily algae 4. The amount of bicarbonate in the water is in equilibrium with the amount of CO2 in the air 6. Freshwater can become unavailable when consumption exceeds supply and/or is polluted so it is not usable E. CO2 from the air combines with water to produce bicarbonate (HCO3). Photosynthesis removes CO2 from the atmosphere. Carbon cycle 1. respiration and decay b. and limestone. The carbon cycle involves: a.6. respiration and combustion add CO2 to the atmosphere 3. Longer cycles involving reduced organic deposits (fossil fuels) c. The exchange pool for the carbon cycle is the atmosphere 2. The reservoir for the carbon cycle is largely composed of organic matter. the CO2 they release combines with water to form HCO3 5. which is a source of carbon for aquatic producers.

where the climate is cool to cold during winter and hot in summer. Each forest type forms a habitat for a specific community of animals that are adapted to live in it.P present in air. shrubs and ground cover. Aquatic Ecosystems FOREST ECOSYSTEM Forest are formed by community of plants which is mostly structurally defined by its trees .are highly dependent on grassland. Components: Abiotic:element supplied by Co2. These biomes occur in the region .ex-deodar. Biotic:The producer. Grassland used for grazing by cattle. .consumer and decomposer GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM Grassland cover areas where rainfall is usually low and/or soil depth and quality is poor.beer •Broadleaved forests-have large leaves of various shape. Terrestrial Ecosystem 2.N. Two component: Abiotic:The climate and soil vary from forest to forest. Forest types in India: •Coniferous forests-grow in Himalayan mountain region.H2o.TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM 1.The low rainfall prevents the growth of grass cover during monsoon.where temperature are low.sheep.

They are occupied about 17% of the land. decomposer. ponds and wetlands. The . The vegetation in the water consist of floating weeds and rooted vegetation on the periphery which grow on the muddy floor under water and emerge out of the surface of water. Conumer. cacti etc Consumer. Component: Abiotic: rainfall is very low and temperature found to be high. Aquatic Ecosystem These ecosystems constitute the marine environments of the seas and the fresh water systems in lake. Having highly specialized insects and reptiles. Some plants and animals such as snails and other animals can withstand the rapid flow of hill streams.decomposer. Biotic:producer-like lichens. DESERT ECOSYSTEM The desert biomes are characterized by extremely low rainfall(less than 25cm). Ocean and marine ecosystem: Oceans cover more than two thirds of the earth’s surface. It provides human beings with a wealth of natural resources. rivers. Pond and lake ecosystem: These are the example of a selfsufficient and self-regulating ecosystem. River or stream ecosystem: Stream and river are flowing water ecosystems in which all the living forms are specially adapted to different rates of flow.Desert and semi-arid area are located in western India.cynodon. The ocean represents a large and stable ecosystem. Feature is scarcity of water and high temperature.used by camel and some goat etc.Biotic:Producer-likeSpecies of Imparata.

The term biodiversity refers to the totality of genes. spices. plants. biodiversity of the fret patch.marine environment is characterized by its high concentration of salts and mineral ions. birds. and ecosystem of a region. insects. This includes the different:  types of animals. bacteria and other species . fish. UNIT.4 Biodiversity INTRODUCTION The occurrence of different kind’s organisms reflects the biological diversity or in short. CONCEPT OF BIODIVERSITY Biological diversity refers as the variety of life on Earth.

 characteristics within a species. genetic diversity gets diminished. 3) Ecosystem biodiversity: Ecosystem biodiversity refers to variety of ecosystem in a particular region or zone as for example various ecosystems include forests. Such diversity can be measured on the basis of species in a region. deserts. for example. wetlands. for example. for example. 2) Species biodiversity: It means variety of species within a region. More species diversity means more biological wealth.  Biological diversity includes three hierarchical levels: Biodiversity is often talked about as having three different levels 1) Genetic biodiversity: It means the variation of genes with in a species. for example. some wetland plants like to be flooded. dune lands or geothermal areas  Ways in which species interact with their environment. Diversity of genes in a species increases its ability to adapt disease. A species can have varieties and each variety has it own genes or genetic make up. When a variety of a species is destroyed. arid zones. All these have their own fauna and flora . etc. pollution and other changes in environment. how wood pigeons help to sow seeds  types of places species live together. how one giant skink differs from another  ways species live together.

 Establishing a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation:  Reform existing public policies that invite the waste or misuse of biodiversity.(biodiversity) Bio diversity at global levels: The Global Biodiversity Strategy calls for:  Catalyzing action through international cooperation and national planning. Bio diversity at national level:  Creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation:  Integrate biodiversity conservation into international economic policy. and accountable ways to raise funds and spend them effectively.  Reduce demand for biological resources. and develop innovative.  Strengthen the international legal framework for conservation to complement the Convention on Biological Diversity.  Increase funding for biodiversity conservation.  Adopt new public policies and accounting methods that promote conservation and equitable use of biodiversity. Bio diversity at local level:  Creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation: .  Make the development assistance process a force for biodiversity conservation. decentralized.

Strengthening protected areas:  Identify national and international priorities for strengthening protected areas and enhancing their role in biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources that cause biodiversity loss. and genetic diversity:  Strengthen capacity to conserve species.  Managing biodiversity throughout the human environment:  Create the institutional conditions for bioregional conservation and development.  Ensure the sustainability of protected areas and their contribution to biodiversity conservation.  Expand and encourage the sustainable use of products and services from the wild for local benefits.  Ensure that those who possess local knowledge of genetic resources benefit appropriately when it is used.  Incorporate biodiversity conservation into the management of biological resources. and genetic diversity in natural habitats (in-situ).  Strengthen the capacity of off-site conservation facilities (ex-situ) to conserve .  Support biodiversity conservation initiatives in the private sector. populations.  Conserving species. and develop new resource management partnerships between government and local communities. populations.

 Expanding human capacity to conserve biodiversity:  Increase appreciation and awareness of biodiversity's values and importance. The fundamental social. and contribute to sustainable development.  Help institutions disseminate the information needed to conserve biodiversity and mobilize its benefits.biodiversity. educate the public. Biodiversity is 1) The source of food and improved verities 2) Pharmaceutical drugs and medicines 3) Asthetic and cultural benefits 4) Ecosystem services VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY Biological resources provide the basis for life on earth. and economic values of these resources have been . ethical.  Develop human capacity for biodiversity conservation USES OF BIODIVERSITY Human derives many direct and indirect benefits from the living world. cultural. including that of humans.  Promote basic and applied research on biodiversity conservation.

and production of soil ("non-consumptive use value"). and literature from the earliest days of recorded history. policies regarding biological diversity first need to demonstrate in economic terms the contribution biological resources make to the country's social and economic development. photosynthesis. such as timber. along with the intangible values of keeping options open for the future ("option value") and simply knowing that certain species exist ("existence value"). regulation of climate. fish. Pressure on biodiversity . without passing through a market ("consumptive use value"). Three main approaches have been used for determining the value of biological resources:  assessing the value of nature's products -.  assessing the value of products that are commercially harvested. and medicinal plants ("productive use value"). fodder. art. and  assessing indirect values of ecosystem functions. Even partial valuation in monetary terms of the benefits of conserving biological resources can provide at least a lower limit to the full range of benefits and demonstrate the conservation can yield a profit in terms that are meaningful to national accounts. But in order to compete for the attention of government and commercial decision-makers in today's world.recognized in religion. game meat sold in a market. and game meat--that are consumed directly.such as firewood. ivory. such as watershed protection.

regional and local.The pressures on biodiversity include:  population growth. The essence of nature is not only diversity. due to human actions. conceptualizing biodiversity solely in terms of the numbers of species and sites within a specified area. The threat to biodiversity occurs when these dynamics are disturbed beyond the point of recovery. but also dynamism. It amounts to more than an account of how many species exist in a particular area and which of them are on the Red List of 'at risk' plants and animals. In the modern era. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY: Biodiversity refers to the diversity of species and habitats. including the economic pressures from those who derive income directly from the state's natural resources. However. but also the failure of markets to value all biodiversity considerations  Lack of awareness and knowledge about biodiversity. settlement patterns and the accompanying consumption levels  economic factors. Probably only during the handful of mass extinction events have so many species been threatened. as measured at a number of scales: global. There are two main ways in which this can occur. there may be a change in management practices in an area where there has been . in so short a time. First. often gives a rather static impression of biodiversity. or in terms of the scale of populations at risk of extinction. species and ecosystems are threatened with destruction to an extent rarely seen in earth history.

we have transformed. such as whales and many African large mammals . we can examine six specific types of human actions that threaten species and ecosystems . However. In many cases. in some cases the changed management practice--increased numbers of leisure visitors or larger amounts of killed game. degraded or destroyed roughly half of the word's forests Second. nomadic hunting in Africa or provision for leisure activities in the North American National Parks. or most controversially the introduction of genetically modified organisms into conventional agriculture--can push the ecosystem beyond its threshold and tip it into degradation.let's consider two. and that can continue in cases where human involvement does not exceed the capacity of the area to cope. This could be rubber tapping in the Brazilian rainforest. the use of new pesticides or mechanized harvesting. What are these human actions? There are many ways to conceive of these . All these anthropocentric engagements with nature to some extent involve exploitation of existing ecosystems.the "sinister sextet Over-hunting has been a significant cause of the extinction of hundreds of species and the endangerment of many more. First. As the human population passes the six billion mark. intensive agro-industry in the European countryside. existing ecosystems will have already changed over time in response to past human involvement.no change in the actual land use. 'Management' here means the whole range of human involvement in an area. we can attribute the loss of species and ecosystems to the accelerating transformation of the earth by a growing human population.

While not commonly a cause of extinction. this promises to become THE cause of mass extinctions caused by human activity. Several species of desert pupfish. termed "species flocks". . As deforestation proceeds in tropical forests. Malawi and Tanganyika . species and biotic community-is important and needed to be conserved. occurring in small isolated pools in the US southwest. as is the distribution of ecosystems and plant vegetation zones (biomes) CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY Most people are beginning to recognize the diversity at all levels-gene pool.are famous for their great diversity of endemic species. of cichlid fishes Pollution from chemical contaminants certainly poses a further threat to species and ecosystems. are examples Climate change: A changing global climate threatens species and ecosystems. Invasion of non-native species is an important and oftenoverlooked cause of extinctions.Habitat loss/degradation/fragmentation is an important cause of known extinctions. We may appreciate the fact that the most effective and efficient mechanisms for conserving biodiversity is to prevent the further destruction or degradation of habitats by us. and threatened by contamination. it likely can be for species whose range is extremely small. The African Great Lakes Victoria. The distribution of species (biogeography) is largely determined by climate.

2) The ex-situ strategies include botanical gardens. Disaster management The environmental disaster may be defined as “the extreme events either natural or man included. . earthquakes. pollen. The environmental disaster always viewed in terms of human beings. Flood-It simply means inundation of extensive land area with water for several days’ inn continuation. seedling. droughts and flood. and gene. income and lives”. which exceed the tolerable magnitude with in or beyond limits.There are two basic strategies of biodiversity conservation: 1) in-situ (on site) approach 2) ex-situ (off site) approach 1) The in-situ strategies emphasis protection of total ecosystems. conservation stands. These become more disaster because of their high speed. tissue culture and DNA banks. make adjustment difficult and results in catastrophic losses of property.is the most powerful destructive dangerous and deadly atmospheric storm on the earth. People conceive flood as the outcome of accumulation of huge volume of water coming out of the rivers through over trapping of river banks during peak discharge period. Tropical cyclones. volcanic eruptions. 2. The environmental events that causes disaster for human society include cyclone. zoos. 1. The in-situ approach includes protection of a group of typical ecosystems through a network of protected areas. seed.

ranging from a faint tremor to a wild motion capable of shaking buildings apart and causing gaping fissures to open in the ground. Drought are more deadly natural environmental hazards because these are directly related to one of the basic requirement of life i. The drought control measure include afforestation to increase the content of air moisture. 4.Disaster Research: it includes the study of the contributing factors and mechanisms of natural disasters and identification of Terrain risk areas on the basis of remote sensing.Education: Disaster education plays a significant role in disaster reduction It arouse awareness about the hazards of disasters. . Disaster Management Measure The natural disaster management involves the following steps: 1. Relief measure: It should be provided immediately to the disaster victims 2.e. 4. help the people to improve the standard of constructions to escape the disasters. Drought-The term 'drought' refers to the condition of dryness for prolonged period. water.Earthquake-An earthquake is a motion of ground surface. introduction of dry farming tecquines.3.Disaster Predictions: The predictions of natural hazards may be made on the basis of past history of the area prone to a particular hazard. 3.

Names India’s world ranking No of species in India Mammals 8th 350 Birds 8th 1200 Reptiles 5th 453 Amphibia 15th 182 Fungi 23.INDIA AS A MEGA-DIVERSITY NATION: Among the biologically rich-nation.000 species of pants & 81. Our globally accepted national ‘hot-spots’ are in the forests of the North-east and the western ghats. India stands among the top 10 or 15 countries for its great variety of plants and animals. HOT-SPOT OF BIODIVERSITY Areas which exhibits high species richness as well as high species endemism are termed as hot spots of biodiversity.000 Algae 2500 It is estimated that 18% of Indian plants are endemic to the country and found nowhere else in the world. . Endemism-species which are restricted only to a particular area known as endemic. Western ghats are the site of maximum endemism.Govt of India(2000) records 47.which are included in the world’s most bio-rich areas.000 species of animals which is about 7% and 6. About 62% -amphibians & 50% -lizards are endemic to India.5% respectively of global flora and fauna. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are extremely rich in species like 2200-flowering plant &120-species of ferns. The Ministry of Environment and Forests.

The gulf areas of Gujarat and TamilNadu.in retaliation the villagers killed 98 elephants and badly injured 30 elephants.especially by trawling is leading to serious depletion of fish stocks. -Animals move out of forest in search of food.Lakshadweep Island are rich in species as tropical evergreen forests. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Extinction or elimination of a species is a natural processes of evolution.ex-taxa.elephants etc. due to shrinking forest cover. Causes: Loss of habitat:over harvesting of fish. A species is said to be in vulnerable category if its population is facing continuous decline due to overexploitation or habitat destruction.Orissa 195 humans were killed in last 5 yr by elephants. ENDANGERED AND ENDEMIC SPECIES OF INDIA A species is said to be extinct when it is not seen in the wild for 50 yr at a stretch ex-dodo. Causes -Dwindling habitats of tigers. Measures-Tiger Conservation Project(TCB)has made provisions to tactfully deal with any imminent danger. . A species is said to be endangered when its number has been reduced to a critical level or whose habitat. Illegal trade of wildlife products by killing prohibited endangered animals. Man-wildlife conflict:In Sambalpur.passenger peg ion. Poaching of wildlife:specific threats to certain animals are related to large economic benefits.have been drastically reduced. To protected endangered species India has created the Wildlife protection Act. Species which are not endangered or vulnerable at present but are at a risk are categorized as rare species.

In situ conservation(within habitat): This is achieved by protection of wild flora and fauna in nature itself.ex-Kaziranga(Assam) 2.ex-national parks.zoos. TYPES OF POLLUTION: Air pollution Noise pollution . cheetah.Gulf of Mannar (TamilNadu) -National park-dedicated for the conservation of wildlife along with its envt.snow leopard.spotted owl etc Some important endemic floura include orchids.seed banks. The following important gene /seed bank facilities: -National bureau of plant genetic resources -National facility for plant tissue culture repository. Ex situ conservation(outside habitat):This is done by establishment of gene banks.botanical gardens etc.Some important endangered and extinct species are:red panda . tortoise.P).sanctuaries etc.tiger. CHAPTER-5 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Pollution refers to substances which are released into the environment because of anthropogenic activities that can either deliberately and accidentally or occur naturally which have an adverse effects on human and on environment.platycerium etc CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY Two approaches of biodiversity conservation: 1.Mainly done for the conservation of crops and all local varieties and variability of crop species. -Biosphere reserves -conserve some representative ecosystem as a whole for long term ex-Nanda devi(U.

Water pollution Thermal pollution Soil pollution Nuclear hazard Marine pollution AIR POLLUTION The Air (Prevention and control of pollution)Act.1981. Air Pollutant can bePrimary pollutant-Co2. Effect on climate-ozone depletion CONTROL MEASURE Preventive Measures .CFC etc.gaseous substance present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human being or other living creatures or plants or property or environment.carbon monoxide.No2.liquid. Secondary pollutant-acid rain & ozone Root Causes Increase in number of vehicles Increase in industrial activity increase in power generation Domestic pollution Secondary air pollutant Effect Contributing to various diseases Reduce plant growth Detritions of material-discolored irreplaceable monuments. define “Air Pollutant” means any solid.So2. historic buildings etc. Air pollution means the presence in the atmosphere of any air pollutant.

Effects poisonous drinking water& food animals (due to these organisms having bio accumulated toxins from the environment over their life spans). Source of Water pollution Direct sources -effluent outfalls from factories.  Indirect sources -contaminants that enter the water supply from soils/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rainwater. refineries. it is said to be polluted. waste treatment plants etc.Selection of suitable fuel Modification in Industrial processes &equipment to reduce emission Selection of suitable industrial site Substitution of raw material Control measures Control of particulate matter Control of gaseous pollutant Control of automobiles exhaust WATER POLLUTION When the quality or composition of water changes directly or indirectly as a result of man’s activities such that it becomes unfit for any purpose. that emit fluids of varying quality directly into urban water supplies. Eutrophication-The excessive growth of algae & aquatic plant due to added nutrient  NOISE POLLUTION . Unbalanced aquatic ecosystems Deforestation from acid rain.

unpleasant sound.anxiety and stress. Causes: Waste dumping on soil Industrial waste Pesticide used to kill pests Organic and Inorganic compounds Excessive fertilizers .physiological lead to deafness Sources of Noise •Industry •Road Traffic •Trains •Aircraft •Construction Work •Loud Speaker Control of noise pollution •Devising noise control devices •Creating noise free zones •Legal means SOIL POLLUTION Soil is the thin covering over the land consisting of mixture of minerals.organic material.living organism. Effect Physical health-hearing loss Mental health-psychological effect lead to tension. Sound of 60db is normal conversation and 140db is the level when sound become irritating & unbearable.Not all sound is noise. Soil pollution chiefly occurs through chemicals and human refuse.air and water that together support the growth of plant life.Noise is unwanted.Climate and time are also important for the development of soils. Sound is measured in a unit called decibel.

•Obstruction of marine activities and •lowering the quality of sea water. Biogas should be used Solid waste to be collected before proper disposal Recovery of useful products from waste MARINE POLLUTION Marin pollution can be defined as the introduction of substances to the marine environment directly or indirectly by man resulting in adverse effects. Effects: •Hazards to human health.liquefied natural gas.pesticides.Effect of soil pollution Sewage & industrial effluents which pollute the soil effect human health.in huge quantities. Recovery of useful products from waste. Reduce soil productivity N & P fertilizers run-off the soil and causes eutrophication. Ships carry many toxic substances such as oils. . Causes Petroleum and oils washed off from the roads normally enter the sewage system .industrial chemicals etc. Control of Soil pollution Effluents to be treated before discharge. storm water overflows carry these materials into rivers & eventually into seas.

Thermal pollution can lead to: Decrease in the dissolved oxygen level in the water while also increasing the biological demand of aquatic organisms for oxygen.So. Control of Marine pollution Toxic pollutants should not be discharged. . Dumping of waste in sea should be banned. Oil ballast should not be dumped into sea.. Off shore oil exploration and extraction also pollute the sea water to a large extent.Inputs of waste through pipes directly discharging waste into the sea. Biologically sensitive costal areas should be protected from drilling.Thermal Pollution can occur when water is used as a coolant near a power or industrial plant and then is returned to the aquatic environment at a higher temperature than it was originally . Composition of flora and fauna changes. Increase temperature are barrier for O2 penetration Metabolic activities of marine organism increases at high temperature.  THERMAL POLLUTION The discharge of warm water into a river is usually called a thermal pollution. Sewer overflow should be prevented.Fish migration due to thermal zones. •Discharge of heated water disturbed fishes. Pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture.need for the introduction of sewage treatment plants.

NUCLEAR HAZARDS •Nuclear energy can be both beneficial and harmful depending on the way in which it is used. Affecting genes and chromosomes. Safety measures against nuclear accident . Man-made source:like nuclear power plant.Test laboratories etc. •Sources of Radioactivity:  Natural sources:Include cosmic rays from outer space. Control Measures Proper disposal of wastes from laboratory involving using of radioisotopes should be done.•Changes the ecological balance of the river.radium-224.damages transmitted up to several generation.here the heat get dissipated from the pond into the atmosphere. -Cooling tower-take less land area than ponds.lungs and skin problem.uranium-238 present in the earth’s crust.It spontaneously emit alpha. Eye cataract and cancer of bone. Causes: •Industry. •Radioactive substance present in the nature. Control Measure: -Cooling pond-to construct a large shallow pond.nuclear weapons.power plants utilize only 1/3 of energy provided by the fossils fuels. Sitting of nuclear power plants should be carefully done after studying long term and short term effect.here heat tranfer occur through evaporation. Effect of Radiations Ionisation radiations can affect living organism by causing harmful changes in the body cells and also changes at genetic level. •Increase 10-16*c temperature higher.beta particles and gamma rays by disintegration of their atomic nuclei.

Solid waste can be classified as municipal. Incineration-process of burning a large amount of material at high temperature. chemical. Management of Solid waste Reduction in the use of raw material Reuse of waste materials  Recycling of material Control of generation Disposal of solid wastes: Sanitary landfills-all collected material is directly placed in a dump but it should be away from human habitation.Thermal power plants etc Effects of solid waste: Unhygienic conditions create foul smell Breeds various type of insect & infectious organism.SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT •Any substance that is discarded is designated as waste.and sewage sludge.medical. Composting-degradation of organic wastes by microorganisms in the presence of O2 and provide a number of attractive features.mineral processing. industrial.packaging material. Biomedical waste include pathological waste Construction waste like debris.agriculture. • •Sources of Urban and Industrial wastes: Waste from home(Domestic) Waste from shops like bottles.mining. Recycling Provide knowledge of it Disaster Management .concrete etc Industrial waste like acids and metals.

The environmental events that cause disaster for human society include cyclones. Cyclones The most powerful. Management-long term measures like planting more trees on coastal belts.loss of human lives.(Temperature above 26*c) Also called hurricanes in Atlantic.Create destruction of building.make adjustment difficult and result in catastrophic losses of property. earthquakes. Recurring phenomena in the tropical coastal region.agriculture crops. The magnitude or intensity of energy released by an earthquake is measured by Richter scale .dangerous and deadly atmospheric storms on the earth.high tidal.drought and floods. low atmospheric pressures causes unusual rise in sea level.proper drainage  Earthquake It occur due to sudden movement of earth’s crust which has several tectonic plates of solid rock which slowly move along their boundaries.typhoons in Western pacific. volcanic eruption .income and lives.domestic and wild animals.destructive.The environmental disaster may be defined as “the extreme events either natural or man included which exceed the tolerable magnitude with or beyond certain limits. Tropical Cyclones in the warm oceans are formed because of heat and moisture. The place on the ground surface recording the seismic waves for the first time is called epicenter.willy willy in Australia.

deep well disposal of liquid waste.000 people.Largest earthquake occurred on May 22. Man-made activities-underground nuclear testing.1960 in Chile9.Culturally suitable . Intra-generational Equity:emphasizes that the development processes should seek to minimize the wealth gap within and between nations (Principle of equity). CHAPTER-6 SOCIAL ISSUES AND ENVIRONMENT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT S.D. To ensure S. Measures for S.Eco-friendly.5magnitude affecting 90.“Design with nature”.  .D is defined as development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.D Inter-generational Equity:try to minimize any adverse impact on resources and environment for future generation.000 square miles and killing 60.D Using Appropriate technology.any activity that is expected to bring about economic growth must also consider its environmental impact so that it is more consistent with long term growth and development KEY ASPECTS OF S.

Strategies for conserving it: .we should save it and begin to have a more sustainable lifestyle.recycle approach 2. So.consumption should not exceed regeneration and changes not to occur beyond the tolerance capacity of the system.It has two component: =Supporting capacity:the capacity to regenerate =Assimilative capacity:the capacity to tolerate different stresses. Carrying capacity:The maximum no of living thing that can be supported indefinitely by a given ecosystem or area without deterioration.reuse. 1. WATER CONSERVATION Water conservation is linked closely with overall human-well being.Reduce. URBAN PROBLEM RELATED TO ENERGY Urban center use enormous quantities of energy Residential and commercial lighting Transportation means Industrial plants using large energy proportion Need energy for cooling(A.It has to be equitably and fairly distributed so that all get a share of the water.The technology should use less of resources and should produce minimum waste.C) Energy to operate lifts in buildings  Waste generation which has to be disposed off used energy based techniques. So.Promoting environmental education and awareness 3.Resource utilization as per the carrying capacity.

The stored water has to be kept pollution free and clean so that it can be used for drinking purposes. Preventing wastage of water:Like closing taps when not in use.This can be achieved by the following system: •Contour cultivation-prepare ridges across the slope trap rainwater and allow more time for infiltration. RAIN WATER HARVESTING Rain water harvesting is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing rain water.dug-outs etc •Chemical conditioners:like gypsum to improve soil permeability and reduce run-off.repairing any leakages from the pipes. OBJECTIVES To To To To To To reduce run-off loss avoid flooding of roads meet the increasing demands of water raise the water table by recharging ground water reduce ground water contamination supplement ground water supplies during lean season . Increasing block pricing:has to pay proportionally higher bill with higher use of water.Thus.This is done by constructing special water harvesting structure like dug wells. keeping the water uncontaminated is of great importance. Storing water in the soil.lagoons etc.irrigation in early morning or late evening to reduce evaporation. •Water-storage structure-Like farm ponds. Reducing irrigation losses-like supplies water to plants to its roots through a system of tubes. Re-use of water-treating waste water can be used for fertiirrigation.Decreasing run-off losses:can be reduced by allowing most of the water to infiltrate into the soil.

METHODS By storing in tanks or reservoirs above or below ground By constructing pits,dug-wells or check-dams By recharging the groundwater Techniques One way is groundwater dams have advantages of minimum evaporation loss,reduce chance of contamination. Second way is using rooftop rainwater harvesting to collect it so that it percolates into the ground to recharge well instead of flowing over the ground into river. This is low cost methods with little maintenance expenses. It helps: in recharging the aquifers, Improves groundwater quality , Improve soil moisture and Reduce soil erosion by minimizing run-off water. Water shed Management

The land area that drains into a stream;the watershed for a major river may encompass a number of smaller watersheds that ultimately combine at o common delivery point. A water shed effect us as it directly involved in sustained food production,water supply for irrigation, power generation,transportation,vegetation growth,drought,floods. Water shed degradation found due to uncontrolled, unplanned and unscientific land use activities. Overgrazing, deforestation, mining, industrialization, soil erosion, ignorance of local people are responsible for degradation several of water sheds.

Objectives Rational utilization of land and water resources for optimum production causing minimum damage to natural resources is called watershed management. To manage watershed for beneficial development activities. To minimize risk of floods, drought etc. To develop rural areas in the region with the clear plan for improving the economy.  Measures Soil conservation measures-by constructing long trenches just to hold the rain water. Water harvesting-proper storage of water for using in dry seasons. Afforest ration-help to prevent soil erosion and retention of moisture. Measures to reduce soil erosion and run-off losses-like strip cropping, contour cropping Scientific mining and quarrying-not to lose hills stability. Public participation. RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION OF PEOPLE Problem and Concerns Various types of projects result in the displacement of native people who undergo tremendous economic and psychological distress like Displacement problems due to dams-Hirakund dam, Terhi dam

Displacement due to Mining-Jharia coal fields,Jharkhand Displacement due to creation of national parks-Wayanad wildlife sanctuary in kerala REHABILITATION POLICY Land for land” is the better policy than cash settlements of displaced people . People displaced should get an appropriate share in fruit of development. Rehabilitation by creating new settlement within their own environment. Removal of poverty should also be an objective of this policy. Should give the assurance of employment. Training facilities ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS Environmental ethics deals with issue related to the rights of individuals that are fundamental to life and well being,but also deals with the right of other living creature that inhabit our earth. Resource consumption pattern and the need for their equitable utilization. Equity-Disparity in the northern and southern countries Urban-rural equity issues The need for gender equity Preserving resources for future generation. The right of animals The ethical basis of environmental education and awareness. So,it provides us the guidelines for putting our beliefs into action and helps us to decide what to do when faced with crucial situation.

1998 was the warmest year and the 1990’s the warmest decade on record. Contribution Ch4 20% CFCs 14% No2 6% Co2 60% .The amount of heat trapped in the atmosphere and the length of time they stay here. famines & death of humans as well as livestock. GLOBAL WARMING The increase amount of green house gases in the atmosphere are affecting the global climate and this phenomenon is called global change.various disease spread up due to climate change. Globally. changes in agriculture productivity.Our teaching on “having fewer wants” ensure to put “limits to growth” and guide us to have an eco-centric lifestyle. Anthropogenic activities are upsetting the balance between the various components of environment Result in floods and droughts in different regions. CLIMATE CHANGE Climate-Average weather of an area.upset the hydrological cycle.

sleet and so forth that is more acidic than normal(generally polluted due to human produced air pollutants)also known as acid precipitation Effects It dissolves and washed away nutrients in the soil which are needed by plants.other harmful pollutant.chemical are produced. Effect on human health. Effect on Food production-due to increased incidence of plant diseases and pests.snow. Measures Use energy more efficiently Plant more trees Remove Co2 Concentration. Effect on range of species distribution-species occur within a specific range of temperature.Impact Effect on weather and climate Rise in sea level-due to melting of glaciers and ice sheet. these chemical react with water and other chemicals in the air & form sulphuric acid. ACID RAIN Rain polluted by sulphur and nitrogen based acids from combustion process When fossil fuels burned. Rain. .

Degradation of paints. By adversely affecting one species.Molina Effect of Ozone Depletion Depletion of Ozone layer. Liming of lakes and soil should be done to correct the adverse affect of acid rains.Causes deterioration of building especially made up of marble.ultimately endangering the entire ecosystem.plastics and other polymer material will result in economic loss .increase skin cancer. OZONE LAYER DEPLETION Ozone layer in the stratosphere forms a shield for earth against harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) from outer space. In plants. Depletion of Ozone results in the form of holes in its shield.5% loss of ozone result in 10% increase in UV-B radiation. In humans.lakes causes the water in them acidic. UV-B arising from sun would reach the earth if there are ozone holes.damages to eyes of human being.No2. Ozone is a colourless gas.Yield of vital crops decreases. Control Emission of So2 & No2 from industries and power plant should be reduced.allow more UV-B radiation reaching the earth surface. The various pollutant like CFCs. The discoveries related to ozone layer destruction were made by Rowland. It flow as ground water to reach river.the entire food chain disturbed.the process of photosynthesis get effected.but CFCs are the most damaging agents of ozone layer. decline in the functioning of immune system.Ch4.

which ultimately create wastelands. It causes loss of life. Reclaimable with some difficulty-putting land to multiple uses(agro-forestry). M.P.P. Killed thousand of people. In Haryana the wasteland cover about 8.is one worst disaster. But accident can occur at any stage like In 1986-Nuclear power station at Chernobyl in USSR led to fire and number of explosions in nuclear reactor.genetic disorder.sodic and sandy land area.NUCLEAR ACCIDENT& HOLOCAUST Nuclear energy was researched and discovered by a man as a source of alternate energy which would be cheap and clean compared to fossil fuel. The use of nuclear energy in war has had devastating effect on man and earth. . Maximum wasteland areas in our country lie in Rajasthan . Loss of vegetation cover leads to loss of soil erosion.destruction of property on a large scale. Reclaimable with extreme difficulty-Forestry like use indigenous species of trees. A.4% and most of it comprises saline. Wasteland can be classified into three forms: Easily reclaimable-can used for agriculture purpose.radioactive fall-out leads to cancer.long-term illness.thus affecting all form of life for generation to come In Nuclear holocaust in 1945. two nuclear bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities of Japan during world war II.left many thousand injured and devastated everything for miles around. WASTELAND RECLAMATION Economically unproductive lands suffering from environmental deterioration are known as wastelands .

flooding Conserve biological resources of land foe sustainable use. Afforestration programmes CONSUMERISM AND WASTE PRODUCTS Consumerism refers to the consumption of resources by the people. . Irrigation practices.overgrazing. Prevent soil erosion. Drainage-create system to remove the excess water.  WASTELAND RECLAMATION PRACTICES Land development and leaching-by applying excess amount of water to push down the salts.mustard and coconut are salt tolerant crops. Causes-Increase in population size along with increase in our demands due to change in life-style. Improve the availability of good quality of water. Selection of tolerant crops and crop rotation-like wheat.soyabean. Wasteland reclamation objectives: To improve the physical structure and quality of marginal soils. Two conditions of population & consumerism exist: People over-population-when there are more people than available supplies of resources(LDCs) Consumption over-population-occur in developed countries.mining and erroneous agriculture practices.Causes-deforestation.This is due to the pattern of economic development that ensures that people go on consuming even more than actually they need.

under this act include: Prohibition and restriction on the handling of hazardous substances in different areas. EPA has also made provision for environmental audit as a means of checking whether or not company comply with the environmental laws and regulation. Emphasis on the implementation of clean technologies by the industries in order to increase the fuel efficiency Action for the presence of excessive concentration of harmful chemicals Needed-public concern and support is crucial for implementing the EPA along with good administrator. The Environment (Protection) Act. USA known for maximum consumerism. water and soil for various areas and purposes. loss of forest cover and increasing threat to biodiversity. It create wasteful use of energy and material far beyond the need for everyday living at a comfortable level. Inordinate amount of waste generated by consumeroriented societies around the world create serious envtal issues. The decline in the environmental quality was evidenced by increasing pollution.1981 . Setting up the standard of quality of air. highly policy maker and trained technocrats So. -Need for wider general legislation Important function of Central and state govt. enlightened media. 1986 The act was passed to protect the environment. Prohibition and restriction on location of industries. The Air(Prevention and Control of pollution)Act.

Acute in Industrialized & urbanized areas-densely populated-Monitored by pollution control board (PCBs) set up in every state. Central Pollution Control Board Advices the central govt. Objectives of the Act are as follows: To provide the prevention. which conferred the following duties and powers. control of water pollution and the maintenance or restoration of the wholesomeness of water. Organize training and awareness programmes . 1974 The objectives of the act are to provide for the preservation. Coordinates the activities of State PCBs and provide them technical assistance. The main regulatory bodies are the Central and State PCBs. in matter related to prevention and control of water pollution. 1981 was amended in 1987 and noise was recognized as an air pollution.The act deals with the preservation of air quality and the control of air pollution with a concern for the detrimental effects of air pollutants on human health and also on biological world. control and abatement of air pollution To provide for the establishment of central and state boards with a view to implement the act. The board have to check whether or not the industry strictly follows the norms and standards The Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act. To confer on the boards the powers to implement the provision of the act and assign to boards functions relating to pollution. Design to assess pollution levels and punish polluters. The Air act.

duties etc. Objectives.Collect. birds and plants and has following objectives. Provides for legal powers to officers and punishment to offenders. Provide for the appointment of wildlife advisory board. Provides for captive breeding Programme for endangered species. wildlife warden.1972 The act deals with the declaration and task of setting up of National Parks and Wildlife sanctuaries Act safeguards wild animals. Wildlife (Protection) Act. It define wild-life related terminology. Lays down the rules and standards in consultation with State boards State Pollution Control Board Have similar functions executed at state level and govern by the direction of CPCB. The amendment to the Wildlife protection act in 2002 is more stringent and prevent the commercial use of resources by local people . compile and publishes technical and statistical data related to pollution. treatment and disposal of trade effluents. The act provide for the constitution of central zoo authority The act impose a ban on the trade or commerce in animals. their powers. Industry had to obtain consent from the board for effluent is carried out Board suggests efficient methods for utilization . Installation and proper functioning of Effluent treatment plants(ETP) in all polluting industries is a must for checking pollution of water and land.

Issues Involved in Enforcement of Environmental legislation In spite of these act. Drawbacks of wildlife act: The offender of the act is not subject to very harsh penalties The wildlife traders in J& k easily get illegal furs and skins from other states. The status of environment shows that there are drawbacks in environmental legislations and problem in their effective implementation. has to take the prior approval of central govt. Provide for the Advisory committee. we find we are not able to achieve the target of forestation. Drawbacks of forest act -the tribal who lived in the forest were totally dependent on . which recommends funding for it to the central govt. To control deforestation No person is allowed to make clearing or set fire to a reserved forest.some construction work in the forest for wildlife or forest management is exempted from non-forestry activity. The state govt has been empowered under this act to use forests only for forestry purpose. If wants to use in any other way.1980 The act deals with the conservation of forests and related aspects. Any illegal non-forest activity within a forest area can be immediately stopped under this act. still losing wildlife etc. Penalties-punishable for a term which may extend to six month or with a fine of Rs 500 or both. But.A person who breaks any of the conditions of any license or permit granted under this act shall be guilty of the offence against this act-in term of three year imprisonment or with a fine of Rs 25000 Forest (Conservation)Act.

Publication of environmental-related resources material in the form of pamphlets or booklets published by minister of environment and forest. -Poor public support Drawbacks of pollution related act -power and authority at the central level create problem for proper execution at state level.Narmada bachao andolan organised by Kalpavriksh.decision-makers and leaders. Provision for penalties is very insignificant -Restrict the involvement of general public -lack of adequate funds and expertise to pursue their objectives. . transparency.forests retaliate when stopped taking any resources from there and start criminal activities like killing also. So. community-state partnership.Two main things -Environment Impact Assessment -Citizen actions It need to be aimed at decentralization of power. -Pollution control laws are not backed by sound policy and guiding principles. Several advertising campaigns Role of NGOs-voluntary organization by advising the govt about local issues. Methods Among students through education Among the masses through mass-media Among the planners. Public awareness Awareness should be in proper manner because incomplete knowledge and information and ignorance about many aspects has often lead to misconception. Chipko movement. accountability & more stringent penalties to offender .

3.3.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN HEALTH 220 7.3 Infectious diseases 224 7.4 HUMAN RIGHTS 233 7.1 Global population growth 214 7.1 Environmental health 221 7.punished through legal action. UNIT 7: Human Population and the Environment 7.if broken.World widw fund for nature.2 Nutrition.2. For a successful Environmental Legislation to be implemented.2 Climate and health 223 7. Environmental Legislation Environmental Legislation is evolved to protect our environment as a whole.there has to be an effective agency to collect the relevant data.3.our health and the earth resources.1 POPULATION GROWTH.2 Urbanization 217 7.1 Methods of sterilization 217 7.1 Equity 233 7.1.6 Cancer and environment 232 7.3.4.Centre for science and environment.4 Water-related diseases 227 VARIATION AMONG NATIONS 214 7.process it and pass it on to a law enforcement agency.5 Risks due to chemicals in food 231 7.2 POPULATION EXPLOSION – FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAM 215 7.1. health and human rights 234 .

Pastures will be overgrazed by domestic animals and industrial growth will create ever-greater problems due to pollution of soil.7 WOMEN AND CHILD WELFARE 244 7. 6 billion at present.3 Valuing cultures 241 7. Larger ozone holes will develop due to the discharge of industrial chemicals into the atmosphere.5.7 Common Property Resources 242 7.4 Social justice 241 7. submerging coastal agriculture as well as towns and cities. Global warming due to industrial gases will lead to a rise in sea levels and flood all low-lying areas.5. VARIATION AMONG NATIONS Our global human population. will cross the 7 billion mark by 2015.6 HIV/AIDS 243 7. without degrading the quality of human life. Seas will not have enough fish. 5:09 PM 213 214 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses 7.3 Intellectual Property Rights and Community Biodiversity Registers 235 7. water and air.5.p65 4/9/2004.1 POPULATION GROWTH. The needs of this huge number of human beings cannot be supported by the Earth’s natural resources. VALUE EDUCATION 236 7.4. Water .8 Ecological degradation 242 Human heritage 242 7.2 Valuing Nature 240 7.5. which will affect human health. It will be impossible to meet the demands for food from existing agro systems.1 Environmental Values 237 7.6 Equitable use of Resources 242 7. In the near future.8 ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH 247 Chapter7. fossil fuel from oil fields will run dry.

destabilizing natural ecosystems of great value. These are only some of the environmental problems related to an increasing human population and more intensive use of resources that we are likely to face in future. Increase in production per capita of agricultural produce at a global level ceased during the 1980’s. On the other hand. These effects can be averted by creating a mass environmental awareness movement that will bring about a change in people’s way of life. food shortage has become a permanent feature. In some countries.‘famines’ due to the depletion of fresh water. will lead to grave economic conflicts between biotechnologically advanced nations and the biorich countries. Similarly. The increasing pressures on resources place great demands on the in-built buffering action of nature that has a certain ability to maintain a . Present development strategies have not been able to successfully address these problems related to hunger and malnutrition. which is vital for producing new medicinal and industrial products. The control over regional biological diversity. will create unrest and eventually make countries go to war. Degradation of ecosystems will lead to extinction of thousands of species. Two of every three children in South Africa are underweight. only 15% of the world’s population in the developed world is earning 79% of income! Thus the disparity in the extent of per capita resources that are used by people who live in a ‘developed’ country as against those who live in a ‘developing’ country is extremely large. the disparity between the rich and the poor in India is also growing. In other regions famines due to drought have become more frequent.

in 14 years. in 11 years. Human population growth increased from: 1 to 2 billion. of which 93% is in developing countries.1. it will still grow to 7. if no action is taken it will become a staggering 7. Chapter7. in 33 years. . 5:09 PM 214 215 Human Population and the Environment 3 to 4 billion. In the recent past. 2 to 3 billion.1 Global population growth The world population is growing by more than 90 million per year. This will essentially prevent their further economic ‘development’.balance in our environment. 5 to 6 billion. 7.27 billion by 2015. In the past. that less fortunate people. However. However.p65 4/9/2004. the escalation in growth of human numbers has become a major cause of our environmental problems. current development strategies that essentially lead to short-term gains have led to a breakdown of our Earth’s ability to replenish the resources on which we depend. This is of great relevance for developing a new ethic for a more equitable distribution of resources. but an appreciation of the impact on natural resources of the rapid escalation in the rate of increase of human population in the recent past. It is not the census figures alone that need to be stressed. Present projections show that if our population growth is controlled. population growth was a gradual phenomenon and the Earth’s ability to replenish resources was capable of adjusting to this increase. in 123 years. in 13 years. The extent of this depletion is further increased by affluent societies that consume per capita more energy and resources.92 billion. 4 to 5 billion.

and an inability to handle solid waste. fertility continues to remain high in sub Saharan African countries. There are cultural. economic. Lack of Government initiatives .In the first half of the 1900s human numbers were growing rapidly in most developing countries such as India and China. Though population growth shows a general global decline. Poverty alleviation programs failed. Several environmental ill-effects were linked with the increasing population of the developing world. In some African countries the growth was also significant. By the 1970s most countries in the developing world had realized that if they had to develop their economics and improve the lives of their citizens they would have to curtail population growth. as whatever was done was never enough as more and more people had to be supported on Earth’s limited resources. By the 1990s the growth rate was decreasing in most countries such as China and India. In the urban sector it led to inadequate housing and an increasing level of air pollution from traffic. political and demographic reasons that explain the differences in the rate of population control in different countries. It also varies in different parts of certain countries and is linked with community and/ or religious thinking. in the developed world population growth had slowed down. there are variations in the rate of decline in different countries. However. The decline in the 90s was greatest in India. It was appreciated that the global growth rate was depleting the Earth’s resources and was a direct impediment to human development. In contrast. water pollution from sewage. In rural areas population growth led to increased fragmentation of farm land and unemployment.

and lower in developing countries .55%. and the use of condoms for men. Informing the public about the various contraceptive measures that are available is of primary importance. India seriously took up an effective Family Planning Program which was renamed the Family Welfare Program. 7. intrauterine devices for women. Female sterilization is the most popular method of contraception used in developing countries at present. This must be based on good advice from doctors or trained social workers who can suggest the full range of methods available for them to choose from. It however has taken several decades to become effective. At the global level by the year 2000.2 POPULATION EXPLOSION – FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAM In response to our phenomenal population growth. 600 million. This must be done actively by . or 57% of women in the reproductive age group.p65 4/9/2004. Slogans such as ‘ Hum do hamare do’ indicated that each family should not have more than two children. However the use of contraceptive measures is higher in developed countries – 68%. India and China have been using permanent sterilization more effectively than many other countries in the developing world.for Family Welfare Program and a limited access to a full range of contraceptive measures are serious impediments to limiting population growth in several countries. This is followed by the use of oral contraceptive pills and. 5:09 PM 215 216 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses The best decision for the method used by a couple depends on a choice that they make for themselves. Chapter7. were using some method of contraception.

The decision to limit family size depends on a couple’s background and education. It is evident that without controlling human numbers. Soil will become unproductive. Water related diseases already kill 12 million people every year in the developing world. Free access to Family Welfare information provided through the Health Care System. As population expands further. MPs. there will be 48 countries that are starved for water. Air will become increasingly polluted. It is of great importance for policy makers and elected representatives of the people – Ministers. MLAs at Central and State levels – to understand the great and urgent need to support Family Welfare. The media must keep people informed about the need to limit family size and the ill effects of a growing population on the worlds resources. By 2025.Government Agencies such as Health and Family Welfare. This is related to Government Policy. lakes and coastal waters will be increasingly polluted. the Earth’s resources will be rapidly exhausted. is in some cases unfortunately counteracted by cultural attitudes. the educational level. and information levels in mass communication. The greatest challenge the world now faces is how to supply its exploding human population with the resources it needs. water shortages will become acute. In addition economically advanced countries and rich people in poorer countries use up more resources than they need. Air pollution already . as well as Education and Extension workers. Frequently misinformation and inadequate information are reasons why a family does not go in for limiting its size. Rivers. the effectiveness of Family Welfare Programs.

Global climate change is now a threat that can affect the very survival of high population density coastal communities. packaging. It will be impossible to support further growth in coastal populations on existing fish reserves. Human populations will inevitably expand from farm lands into the remaining adjacent forests. kill rivers by building large dams. a new green revolution is needed. to provide enough food for our growing population. and transport. Many such encroachments in India have been regularised over the last few decades. or spread at the cost of critically important forests. both due to an increasing population. But forest loss has long-term negative effects on water and air quality and the loss of biodiversity is still not generally seen as a major deterrent to human well-being.p65 4/9/2004. The extinction of plant and animal species resulting from shrinking habitats threatens to destroy the Earth’s living web of life. Energy use is growing. The first ‘green revolution’ in the ‘60s produced a large amount of food but has led to several environmental problems. Our . over fishing has depleted stocks extremely rapidly.kills 3 million people every year. and a more energy hungry lifestyle that increasingly uses consumer goods that require large amounts of energy for their Chapter7. Once considered an inexhaustible resource. In the sea. 5:09 PM 216 217 Human Population and the Environment production. fish populations are suffering from excessive fishing. grasslands and wetlands. These are critical ecosystems and are being rapidly destroyed. The world’s most populous regions are in coastal areas. that will not damage land. Now.

Family Welfare Programs have become critical to human existence. Tubectomy in females is done by tying the tubes that carry the ovum to the uterus.growing population also adds to the enormous amount of waste. reduce habits that create excessive waste. is done by tying the tubes that carry the sperm. Planning for the future How Governments and people from every community meet challenges such as limiting population size. The Urban Challenge Population increases will continue in urban centers in the near future. 7. Urban centers are already unable to provide adequate housing. With all these linkages between population growth and the environment. or better opportunities for income generation.2. growing energy needs. Male sterilization or vasectomy. services such as water and drainage systems. The Family Welfare Program advocates a variety of measures to control population. The most effective measure is the one most suited to the couple once they have been offered all the various options that are available. change their consumer oriented attitudes. Permanent methods or sterilisation are done by a minor surgery. protecting the natural environment. The UN has shown that by 2025 there will be 21 "megacities" most of which will be situated in developing countries.1 Methods of sterilization India’s Family Welfare Program has been fairly successful but much still needs to be achieved to stabilize our population. elevates poverty and creates an effective balance between conservation and development will determine the worlds future. Both are very .

Condoms are used by males to prevent sperms from fertilizing the ovum during intercourse.simple procedures. grasslands and wetlands but also grows skywards with high rise . are painless and patients have no post operative problems. Chapter7. There are several methods of temporary birth control. By 2000 this had grown to 40% and by 2030 well informed estimates state that this will grow to 56%. 7. They do not disturb any functions in the woman’s life or work. There are also traditional but less reliable methods of contraception such as abstinence of the sexual act during the fertile period of the women’s cycle and withdrawal during the sexual act.p65 4/9/2004. done under local anesthesia. As a town grows into a city it not only spreads outwards into the surrounding agricultural land or natural areas such as forests. The developed world is already highly urbanized with 75% of its population living in the urban sector. Oral contraceptive tablets (pills) and injectable drugs are available that prevent sperms from fertilizing the ovum. Intrauterine devices (Copper Ts) are small objects which can be placed by a doctor in the uterus so that the ovum cannot be implanted. Vasectomy does not cause any loss in the male’s sexual ability but only arrests the discharge of sperm. even if fertilized.2.2 Urbanization: In 1975 only 27% of the people in the developing world lived in urban areas. 5:09 PM 217 218 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Urban population growth is both due to migration of people to towns and cities from the rural sector in search of better job options as well as population growth within the city.

In many cities growth outstrips the planner’s ability to respond to this in time for a variety of .buildings. Good urban planning is essential for rational landuse planning. All these aspects are closely linked to the population growth in the urban sector. roadside tree cover is maintained. This includes a variety of “Dos and Don’ts” that should become an integral part of our personal lives. river and water fronts are managed appropriately. Failure to do this leads to increasing urban problems which eventually destroys a city’s ability to maintain a healthy and happy lifestyle for its dwellers. providing adequate sanitation. Increasing solid waste. developing effective waste water treatment plants and an efficient public transport system. While all these issues appear to be under the preview of local Municipal Corporations. hill slopes are afforested and used as open spaces and architectural and heritage sites are protected. better living conditions can only become a reality if every citizen plays an active role in managing the environment. Unplanned and haphazard growth of urban complexes has serious environmental impacts. for upgrading slum areas. Apart from undertaking actions that support the environment every urban individual has the ability to influence a city’s management. He or she must see that the city’s natural green spaces. improper garbage disposal and air and water pollution are frequent side effects of urban expansions. parks and gardens are maintained. This destroys the quality of life in the urban area. improving water supply and drainage systems. The town also loses its open spaces and green cover unless these are consciously preserved.

There were 23 metros in India in 1991. the inability of governments to sustainably develop the rural sector.3 16. Chapter7.reasons.9 Small urban centers too will grow rapidly during the next decades and several rural areas will require reclassification as urban centers. India’s urban areas will grow by a projected 297 million residents. Poor opportunities in the rural sector thus stimulates migration to cities. all push people from the agricultural and natural wilderness ecosystems into the urban sector. which grew to 40 by 2001. more than 290 million people live in towns and cities in India. and a lack CASE STUDY Urban Environments Nearly half the world's population now lives in urban areas. 5:09 PM 218 219 Human Population and the Environment of supporting infrastructure in rural areas. . a shift of population is inevitable.7 Delhi 13.6 Kolkata 13.0 20. Loss of agricultural land to urbanisation and industry.5 22.p65 4/9/2004. In India people move to cities from rural areas in the hope of getting a better income. As our development strategies have focused attention mostly on rapid industrial development and relatively few development options are offered for the agricultural rural sector. Today. Mega cities Population Projection in India (in millions) (in millions) in 2001 for 2015 Mumbai 16. The high population density in these areas leads to serious environmental issues. This is the ‘Pull’ factor.

3 hectares of land per capita. In general the growing human population in the rural sector will only opt to live where they are if they are given an equally satisfying lifestyle. health care and relatively higher living standards. improvements in the supply of clean water. sanitation. Thus in reality. education and health care has all been urban centric. waste management. The wilderness – rural-urban linkage The environmental stresses caused by urban . At present the average ecological footprint of an individual at the global level is said to be 2. A different pattern of development that is based on the sustainable extraction of resources from their own surroundings would satisfy their development aspirations. The "Ecological footprint" corresponds to the land area necessary to supply natural resources and disposal of waste of a community. But it is estimated that the world has only 1. but also better education.7 hectares of land per individual to manage these needs sustainably. The pull factor of the urban centers is not only due to better job opportunities. It is not appropriate to use the development methods used for other rural communities for tribal people who are dependent on collecting natural resources from the forests. This is thus an unsustainable use of land. For people living in wilderness areas in our forests and mountain regions.. During the last few decades in India. even though the stated policy has been to support rural development. development has lagged behind in the rural sector that is rapidly expanding in numbers. development has been most neglected.As population in urban centers grows. they draw on resources from more and more distant areas.

About 60% of the world's water is used by urban areas of which half irrigates food crops for urban dwellers. Urban centers occupy 2% of the worlds' land but use 75% of the industrial wood. By 2015 these will increase to 554. being added to the list from India). 5:09 PM 219 220 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Urban poverty and the Environment The number of poor people living in urban areas is rapidly increasing. 2001 – there were 15 (with Mumbai. Kolkata. 1975 – there were 5.p65 4/9/2004.individuals covers an 'ecological footprint' that goes far beyond what one expects. and Delhi. and one third goes to industry and the rest is used for household use and drinking water. Cities over 1 million in size: In 2000 there were 388 cities with more than 1 million inhabitants. 1950 – there was only 1 – New York. Chapter7. The urban sector affects the land at the fringes of the urban area and the areas from which the urban center pulls in agricultural and natural resources. A third of the poor people in the world live in urban centers. The impact that urban dwellers have on the environment is not obvious to them as it happens at distant places which supports the urban ecosystem with resources from agricultural and even more remote wilderness ecosystems. 2015 – there will be 21 megacities. Megacities – Over 10 million inhabitants. of which 75% are in developing countries. These people live in hutments in urban slums and suffer .

etc. On the riverbanks floods can render these poor people homeless. fuelwood and non wood forest products. Living conditions for the urban poor are frequently worse than for rural poor. Adequate legal housing for the urban poor remains a serious environmental concern. riverbanks. while in the rural sector they can grow a substantial part of their own food. Well paid and consistent jobs are not as easily available in the urban centers at present as in the past few decades. on hill slopes. while food prices have risen. One billion urban people in the world live in inadequate housing. along railway tracks. marshes. mostly in slum areas. It is the ‘common’ areas used by the community that lacks the infrastructure to maintain a hygienic environment. Urban poverty is even more serious than rural poverty. the urban poor have no direct access to natural resources such as relatively clean river water. the dwellings themselves are kept relatively clean. Illegal slums often develop on Government land. In most cases while a slum invariably has unhygenic surroundings. The urban poor can only depend on cash to buy the goods they need. However.from water shortages and unsanitary conditions. as unlike the rural sector. low income groups that live in high rise buildings can also have high densities and live in poor unhygienic conditions in certain areas of cities. During the 1990s countries that have experienced an economic crisis have found that poor urban dwellers have lost their jobs due to decreasing demands for goods. the majority of which are temporary structures. Both outdoor and indoor air pollution due to high levels of particulate matter and sulphur dioxide from industrial and . that are unsuitable for formal urban development.

This can only be altered by stabilizing population growth on a war footing. a new crisis of unimaginable proportions will develop in the next few years. Changes in our environment induced by human activities in nearly every sphere of life have had an influence on the pattern of our health. Most efforts are targeted at outdoor air pollution. hoods and chimneys to remove indoor smoke. Crime rates. We expect urbanization and industrialization to bring in prosperity. Agricultural pesticides that enhanced food supplies during the green revolution have affected both the farm worker and all of us who consume the produce. waste material. etc. 7. Indoor air pollution due to the use of fuel wood. especially . Modern medicine promised to solve many health problems. and serious environmental health related issues can be expected to escalate. terrorism. With the growing urban population. but on the down side.3 ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH Environment related issues that affect our health have been one of the most important triggers that have led to creating an increasing awareness of the need for better environmental management. coal. The assumption that human progress is through economic growth is not necessarily true.vehicle emissions lead to high death rates from respiratory diseases. it leads to diseases related to overcrowding and an inadequate quality of drinking water. in ‘chulas’ is a major health issue. High-density city traffic leads to an increase in respiratory diseases like asthma. This can be reduced by using better designed ‘smokeless’ chulas. resulting in an increase in waterborne diseases such as infective diarrhoea and air borne bacterial diseases such as tuberculosis. unemployment.

and floods still kill many people every year. and preventing those factors in the environment that adversely affect the health of present and future generations. Many drugs have been found to have serious side effects. Public health depends on sufficient amounts of good quality food. Unprecedented rainfall trigger epidemics of malaria and water borne diseases. comprises those aspects of human health. Many countries will have to adapt to . Our environment affects health in a variety of ways. and adequate shelter. safe drinking water. that are determined by physical. as defined by WHO. and psychosocial factors in the environment. Natural disasters such as storms.associated with infectious diseases through antibiotics. social. making it necessary to keep on creating newer antibiotics. controlling. At times the cure is as damaging as the disease process itself. While better health care has led to longer life spans. biological.p65 4/9/2004. Thus development has created several long-term health problems. it has also led to an unprecedented growth in our population which has negative implications on environmental quality. 7. coupled with a lowered infant mortality. but bacteria found ways to develop Chapter7. correcting. chemical. Climate and weather affect human health. Global climate change has serious health implications. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing.1 Environmental health. frequently even changing their behaviour in the process.3. A better health status of society will bring about a better way of life only if it is coupled with stabilising population. 5:09 PM 220 221 Human Population and the Environment resistant strains. hurricanes. including quality of life.

led to 3. CASE STUDY Bhopal Gas Tragedy The siting of industry and relatively poor regulatory controls leads to ill health in the urban centers. On the other hand.330 deaths and 1. New strategies must be evolved to reduce vulnerability to climate variability and changes. Industrial development without pollution control and traffic congestion affect the level of air pollution in many cities. The depletion of ozone in the stratosphere (middle atmosphere) also has an important impact on global climate and in turn human health. increasing the amount of harmful ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface. Economic inequality and environmental changes are closely connected to each other. It created serious drought. drought in others. Development strategies that do not incorporate ecological safeguards often lead to ill health. development strategies that can promote health . Poor countries are unable to meet required emission standards to slow down climate change. As our climate is changing. floods. and a temperature rise throughout the world. There are increasing storms in some countries. The El Niño event of 1997/98 had serious impacts on health and well-being of millions of people in many countries.5 lakh injuries to people living in the area.uncertain climatic conditions due to global warming. This results in diseases such as skin cancer. Accidents such as the Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984 where Union Carbide's plant accidentally released 30 tones of methyl isocyanate. we may no longer know what to expect. and triggered epidemics. used in the manufacture of pesticides. The El Niño winds affect weather worldwide.

Thus environmental health and human health are SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT HEALTHY PEOPLE Chapter7. An improvement in health is central to sound environmental management. have poor health due to parasitic infections. Wastewater and/or sewage entering water sources without being treated leads to continuous gastrointestinal diseases in the community and even sporadic large epidemics. This is a result of inadequate environmental management and is mainly due to inadequate purification of drinking water. which forms breeding sites of Anopheles mosquitoes is the most important factor in the spread of malaria. such as amoebiasis and worms. 5:09 PM 221 222 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses closely interlinked. However this is rarely given sufficient importance in planning development strategies. An inadequate environmental management of stagnant water. mainly children. • Millions of people. In India. The resurgence of malaria in India is leading to cerebral malaria that affects the brain and has a high mortality.invariably also protect the environment. An estimated 2000 million people are affected by these diseases and more than 3 million children die each year from waterborne diseases across the world. Large numbers of people in tropical countries die of malaria every year and millions are infected. Examples of the linkages: • Millions of children die every year due to diarrhoea from contaminated water or food. This occurs from .p65 4/9/2004. it is estimated that every fifth child under the age of 5 dies due to diarrhoea.

Poor management at the accident site. This is related to high inequalities in the distribution of wealth and living space. • Hundreds of millions of people suffer serious respiratory diseases. contribute to respiratory diseases. including lung cancer and tuberculosis.eating infected food. from crowded homes and public places. • Millions of people are exposed to hazardous chemicals in their workplace or homes that lead to ill health due to industrial products where controls are not adhered to. and inability to reach a hospital within an hour causes a large number of deaths. Motor vehicle exhaust fumes. tobacco smoke and cooking food on improper ‘chulas’. • Tens of thousands of people in the world die due to traffic accidents due to inadequate management of traffic conditions. • Basic environmental needs such as clean water. industrial fumes. In India. It is estimated that 36% of children in low-income countries and 12% in middle income countries are malnourished. • Population growth and the way resources are being exploited and wasted. • Several million people live in inadequate shelters or have no roof over their heads especially in urban settings. about half the children under the age of four are malnourished and 30% of newborns are significantly underweight. especially from head injuries. threatens . or using poor quality water for cooking food. clean air and adequate nutrition which are all related to environmental goods and services do not reach over 1000 million people living in abject poverty.

as well as food consumers. • Providing clean energy sources that do not affect health is a key to reducing respiratory diseases. 5:09 PM 222 223 Human Population and the Environment Important strategic concerns • The world must address people’s health care needs and sustainable use of natural resources. • Changing industrial systems into those that do not use or release toxic chemicals that affect the health of workers and people living in the vicinity of industries can improve health and environment.environmental integrity and directly affects health of nearly every individual. • Changing patterns of agriculture away from harmful pesticides. • Strategies to provide clean pottable water and nutrition to all people is an important part of a healthy living environment. • Health is an outcome of the interactions between people and their environment. • Reducing environmental consequences of industrial and other pollutants such as transport emissions can improve the status of health. Chapter7. herbicides and insecticides which are injurious to the health of farmers and consumers by using alternatives such as Integrated Pest Management and non-toxic biopesticides can improve health of agricultural communities. which are closely linked to each other. • There is a need to change from using conventional energy from thermal power that . Better health can only come from a more sustainable management of the environment.p65 4/9/2004.

Definition of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) by WHO: Health impact assessment is a combination of procedures. Rich countries consume 50 times more per capita than people in less developed countries. 7. is linked to poor health. This means that developed countries also generate proportionately high quantities of waste material. • Poverty is closely related to health and is itself a consequence of improper environmental management.pollutes air and nuclear power that can cause serious nuclear disasters to cleaner and safer sources such as solar. leads to health hazards. An inequitable sharing of natural resources and environmental goods and services. Activities that go on wasting environmental goods and destroying its services by producing large quantities of non degradable wastes. From the hot . program or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population. methods and tools by which a policy. which has serious health concerns. Providing clean energy is an important factor that can lead to better health.2 Climate and health Human civilizations have adapted mankind to live in a wide variety of climates. wind and ocean power. and the distribution of those effects within the population. The world’s consumption of non-renewable resources is concentrated in the developed countries.3. • The key factors are to control human population and consume less environmental goods and services which could lead to ‘health for all’. Unsustainable use of resources by an ever growing population leads to unhealthy lives. that do not affect human health.

hurricanes) which occur over Chapter7. Malaria transmission is particularly sensitive to . within certain limits. 5:09 PM 223 224 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses a short period of time.000 deaths.p65 4/9/2004. Both climate and weather have a powerful impact on human life and health issues. floods.tropics to the cold arctic. crops and other resources are lost. The cyclone in Orissa in 1999 caused 10. waste management. rainfall patterns and wind. Of approximately 80. marshlands and in the high mountains. marked short-term fluctuations in weather lead to serious health issues. Climate affects their distribution and abundance through its effects on host plants and animals. Natural disasters created by extremes of weather (heavy rains. Climate plays an important role in vector-borne diseases transmitted by insects such as mosquitoes. Poor people are more vulnerable to the health impacts of climate variability than the rich.000 deaths which occur world-wide each year as a result of natural disasters about 95% are in poor countries. These disease transmitters are sensitive to direct effects of climate such as temperature.g. Heat waves in India in 1998 were associated with many deaths. Public health infrastructure. Heat waves cause heat-related illness and death (e. can severely affect health of a community. in deserts. such as sewage disposal systems. homes are destroyed. The total number of people affected was estimated at 10 to 15 million! Human physiology can adapt to changes in weather. In weather-triggered disasters hundreds of people and animals die. However. The elderly and persons with existing heart or respiratory diseases are more vulnerable. heat stroke). hospitals and roads are damaged.

when weather conditions (rainfall and temperature) favour transmission. While these cannot be directly related to environmental change. severely affecting national economies. malaria transmission is unstable and the human population lacks inherent protective immunity. serious epidemics occur in such areas. AIDS. In the desert and at highland fringes of malarious areas. for example a heavy downpour. due to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) caused through sexual transmission and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) are two such examples. Why have infectious diseases that were related to our environment that were under control suddenly made a comeback? Diseases such as tuberculosis have been effectively treated with anti-tubercular drugs for decades.weather and climate. Unusual weather conditions. can greatly increase the mosquito population and trigger an epidemic.3. 7. have led to a return of these diseases decades after being kept under stringent control. Other diseases were not known to science earlier and seem to have suddenly hit our health and our lives during the last few decades. These antibiotics are used to kill off the bacteria that causes . Thus. airline companies and the tourism industry. Fluctuations in malaria over the years have been linked to changes in rainfall associated with the El Niño cycle. they affect the environment in which we live by forcing a change in lifestyles and behaviour patterns.3 Infectious diseases: Many infectious diseases have re-emerged with a vengeance. For example the SARS outbreak prevented people from several countries from traveling to other countries for months. Loss of effective control over diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis.

antiseptics. disinfectants. Overcrowding due to the formation of slums in the urban setting leads to several health hazards. While antibiotic resistance is a well-known phenomenon there are other reasons for the reemergence of diseases. and vaccines once thought of as the complete answer to infectious diseases Chapter7. Those that change in a way so that they are not affected by the routinely used antibiotics begin to spread rapidly.p65 4/9/2004. Tropical diseases spread by vectors such as the mosquito will undoubtedly spread malaria further away from the equator. . This is frequently related to HIV which reduces an individual’s immunity to bacteria such as mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes tuberculosis. The newer broad-spectrum antibiotics. With increasing global warming disease patterns will continue to change.the disease. Inadequate drinking water quality and poor disposal of human waste due to absence of a closed sewage system and poor garbage management are all urban health issues. including easier spread of respiratory diseases. Experts in fact now feel that these diseases will be the greatest killers in future and not diseases such as malignancy or heart disease. However nature’s evolutionary processes are capable of permitting bacteria to mutate by creating new genetically modified strains. This has led to a comeback of diseases such as cholera and an increased incidence of diarrhea and dysentery as well as infectious hepatitis (jaundice). This leads to a reemergence of the disease. 5:09 PM 224 225 Human Population and the Environment have thus failed to eradicate infectious diseases. In the case of tuberculosis this has led to multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

approximately 1000 million people will be newly infected. The spread of HIV/AIDS and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is contributing to the increasing morbidity of this disease. In India the disease has reemerged and is now more difficult to treat. Only people who are sick with pulmonary TB are infectious. In 1993. and 36 million will die of TB – if its control is not rapidly strengthened. A global epidemic is spreading and becoming more lethal. sneeze. economic and political adjustments. encephalitis. When infectious people cough. TB is a contagious disease that is spread through air. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2020. Whilst globalization has the potential to enhance the lives and living standards of certain population groups. etc. It involves parallel changes such as rapid social. globalization enhances economic inequalities. Warmer wetter climates could cause serious epidemics of diseases such as cholera. Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately 2 million people each year. they emit the tubercle bacilli into the air.Global warming will also change the distribution of dengue. When a healthy person inhales . El Nino which causes periodic warming is likely to affect rodent populations. This could bring back diseases such as the plague. trade and economic organization. the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that tuberculosis had become a global emergency. Globalisation and infectious disease Globalization is a world-wide process which includes the internationalization of communication. yellow fever. for poor and marginalized populations in both the non-formal as well as formal economic sectors of developing countries. talk or spit. over 150 million people will get sick.

these, he gets infected by the disease. Symptoms include prolonged fever, coughing spells and weight loss. It is estimated that, left untreated, each patient of active tuberculosis will infect on an average between 10 to 15 people every year. But people infected with TB will not necessarily get sick with the disease. The immune system can cause the TB bacilli, which is protected by a thick waxy coat, to remain dormant for years. When an individual’s immune system is weakened, the chances of getting active TB are greater. • Nearly 1% of the world’s population is newly infected with TB each year. • It is estimated that overall, one third of the world’s population is likely to be infected with the tuberculosis bacillus at some point in time. • Five to ten percent of people who are infected with TB (but who are not infected Chapter7.p65 4/9/2004, 5:09 PM 225 226 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses with HIV) become sick or infectious at some time during their life. (WHO, 2002). Factors Contributing to the rise in tuberculosis • TB kills about 2 million people each year (including persons infected with HIV). • More than 8 million people become sick with TB each year, one person in the world every second! • About 2 million TB cases per year occur in sub-Saharan Africa. This number is rising rapidly as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. • Around 3 million TB cases per year occur in South-east Asia. • Over a quarter of a million TB cases per year occur in Eastern Europe. sis is a leading cause of death among people

who are HIV-positive, accounting for about 11% of AIDS deaths worldwide. Poorly managed TB programs are threatening to make TB incurable Until 50 years ago, there were no drugs to cure tuberculosis. Now, strains that are resistant to one or more anti-TB drugs have emerged. Drugresistant tuberculosis is caused by inconsistent or partial treatment, when patients do not take all their drugs regularly for the required period, when doctors or health workers prescribe inadequate treatment regimens or where the drug supply is unreliable. From a public health perspective, poorly supervised or incomplete treatment of TB is worse than no treatment at all. When people fail to complete standard treatment regimens, or are given the wrong treatment regimen, they may remain infectious. The bacilli in their lungs may develop resistance to anti-TB drugs. People they infect will have the same drug-resistant strain. While drug-resistant TB is treatable, it requires extensive chemotherapy that is often very expensive and is also more toxic to patients. Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The cause of malaria, a single celled parasite called plasmodium, was discovered in 1880. Later it was found that the parasite is transmitted from person to person through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito, which requires blood for the growth of her eggs. Today approximately 40% of the world’s population, mostly those living in the world’s poorest countries, risk getting malaria. The disease was once more widespread but it was successfully eliminated from many countries with temperate climates during the mid 20th century.

Today malaria has returned and is found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions CASE STUDY Tuberculosis in India There are 14 million TB patients in India, account for one third of the global cases of TB. Everyday 20,000 Indians contract TB and more than 1,000 die due to this chronic illness. TB attacks working adults in the age group of 15 to 50 years. HIV is accelerating the spread of TB The link between HIV and TB affects a large number of people, each disease speeding the other’s progress. HIV weakens the immune system. Someone who is HIV-positive and infected with TB is many times more likely to become seriously sick with TB rather than someone infected with TB who is HIV-negative. TuberculoChapter7.p65 4/9/2004, 5:09 PM 226 227 Human Population and the Environment of the world and causes more than 300 million acute illnesses and at least one million deaths annually (WHO). There are several types of human malaria. Falciparum malaria is the most dangerous type of infection and is most common in Africa south of the Sahara, where it accounts for extremely high mortality rates. There are also indications of the spread of P. falciparum malaria in India and it has reappeared in areas where it had been eliminated. The malaria parasite enters the human host when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites an individual. Inside the human host, the parasite undergoes a series of changes as part of its complex life-cycle. Its various stages allow plasmodia to evade the immune system, infect the liver and red blood cells, and finally develop into a

the burden of malaria on society will be significantly reduced. headache. vomiting and body ache. Malaria produces high fever. the parasite matures until it reaches the sexual stage where it can again infect a human host when the mosquito takes her next blood meal. such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). 10 or more days later. although this varies with different plasmodium species. Malaria symptoms appear about 9 to 14 days after the mosquito bite. If countries can apply these and other measures on a wide scale and monitor them carefully. Prevention of malaria in pregnant women. Mosquito nets treated with insecticide reduce malaria transmission and child deaths. results in improvement in maternal health.4 Water-related diseases . If drugs are not available for treatment. Prompt access to treatment with effective up-to-date medicines. through measures such as Intermittent Preventive Treatment and the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Malaria parasites are developing unacceptable levels of resistance to drugs. many insecticides are no longer useful against mosquitoes transmitting the disease.form that is able to infect a mosquito again when it bites an infected person.3. the infection can progress rapidly to become life-threatening. Besides this. saves lives. Inside the mosquito. Good environmental management by clearing pools of stagnant water during the monsoons is effective in reducing the number of mosquitoes. 7. Malaria can kill by infecting and destroying red blood cells (anaemia) and by clogging the capillaries that carry blood to the brain (cerebral malaria) or other vital organs. as well as infant health and survival. or the parasites are resistant to them.

erratic water supply and sanitation services. Japanese encephalitis. This can be easily reduced through education and awareness of how waterborne diseases are transmitted. sanitation and hygiene development Among the main problems are a lack of priority given to this sector. poor hygiene related behaviour patterns.p65 4/9/2004. schistosomiasis. and introducing sound hygiene related behaviour can reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by these risk factors. the provision of facilities for a sanitary disposal of excreta. One of the most important aspects is a lack of environmental education and awareness that these disease processes are related to poor environment management in various sectors. Health and Water Resources Development An important aspect related to water-related diseases (in particular: water-related vectorborne diseases) is attributable to the way water resources are developed and managed. health centers.Water Supply. lymphatic filariasis and other conditions. etc. hotels. Poor hygiene and behaviour pattern increase the exposure to risk of incidence and spread of infectious diseases. hospitals. and inadequate sanitation in public places such as schools. Water improperly stored in homes is frequently Chapter7. In many parts of the world the adverse health impacts of dam construction. 5:09 PM 227 228 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses contaminated by inadequate management at the household level.4 billion people globally live under highly unsanitary conditions. irrigation development and flood control is related to increased incidence of malaria. Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Development About 2. Providing access to sufficient quantities of safe water. lack of financial resources. .

Water borne diseases Arid areas with rapidly expanding populations are already facing a crisis over water. The demand and supply balance is a vital part of developing sustainable use of water. There are 4 major types of water related diseases: 1. Locally good watershed management is a key to solving local rural problems. The linkages between managing water resources and health issues are have not been prioritised as a major source of environmental problems that require policy change. and hepatitis A and E. cause serious epidemics. administrative capacity building and an increased financial support. are caused due to improper drinking water. or by chemical wastes from industry and agriculture. National. especially from urban sewage. Conservation of water and better management is an urgent need. State. Some of these diseases. NGOs and people to work together towards a better water policy at International. meningitis. such as cholera and typhoid.Other health issues indirectly associated with water resources development include nutritional status. They do not address pollution and overuse. polio. Diarrhoea. exposure to agricultural pesticides and their residues. regional and local levels. Pesticides entering drinking water in rural . Excessive levels of nitrates cause blood disorders when they pollute water sources. Water borne diseases: These are caused by dirty water contaminated by human and animal wastes. dysentery. This is being termed the ‘Blue Revolution’ and needs Governments. Present patterns of development are water hungry and water wasters.

especially of children. anti-malarial drugs are now unable to kill the parasites as they have become resistant to drugs. guinea worm affects the feet. etc. 4. there is a high incidence of diseases such as tuberculosis. 5:09 PM 228 229 Human Population and the Environment using fish to control mosquito larval populations. In addition. Dengue fever carries a high mortality. leprosy. Chapter7. which . neurological diseases and infertility. Water based diseases: Aquatic organisms that live a part of their life cycle in water and another part as a parasite in man. has now come back as the mosquitoes have become resistant to insecticides. Filariasis leads to fever and chronic swelling over the legs.p65 4/9/2004. 3. are ways to reduce these diseases without using toxic insecticides that have ill effects on human health. 2. lead to several diseases.areas cause cancer. Other vector born diseases in India include dengue fever and filariasis. Water related vector diseases: Insects such as mosquitoes that breed in stagnant water spread diseases such as malaria and filariasis. In India. Water scarcity diseases: In areas where water and sanitation is poor. Change in climate is leading to the formation of new breeding sites. Eliminating mosquito breeding sites when pooling of water occurs in the monsoon. tetanus. Round worms live in the small intestine. Improving sanitation and providing treated drinking water reduces the incidence of these diseases. Malaria that was effectively controlled in India.

China. In China (in the Province of Taiwan) exposure to arsenic leads to gangrene. Thailand and the United States. and diseases of the blood vessels of the legs and feet. India. cancers of the bladder. The main source of arsenic in drinking water is arsenic-rich rocks through which the water has filtered. Malnutrition may aggravate the effects of arsenic on blood vessels. known as ‘black foot disease’. WHO has worked with other UN organizations to produce a state-of-the-art review on arsenic in drinking water. high blood pressure and reproductive disorders. Water with high concentrations of arsenic if used over 5 to 20 years. It has attracted much attention since its recognition in the 1990s of its wide occurrence in wellwater in Bangladesh. Mexico. Chile. and timber treatment. Excessive concentrations are known to occur in some areas. Drinking water that is rich in arsenic leads to arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis. hard patches on the palms and soles. Arsenic in drinking water: Arsenic in drinkingwater is a serious hazard to human health. results in problems such as colour changes on the skin. . It may also occur because of mining or industrial activity in some areas. skin cancer. Bangladesh.occur when hands are not adequately washed. kidney and lung. It may also lead to diabetes. It occurs less frequently in most other countries. Natural arsenic contamination occurs in Argentina. The health effects are generally delayed and the most effective preventive measure is supplying drinking water which is free of arsenic. metal refining. Arsenic contamination of water is also due to industrial processes such as those involved in mining.

Long term solutions for prevention of arsenicosis is based on providing safe drinking-water: • Deeper wells are often less likely to be contaminated. • Testing of water for levels of arsenic and informing users. • Monitoring by health workers - people need to be checked for early signs of arsenicosis - usually by observing skin problems in areas where arsenic in known to occur. • Health education regarding harmful effects of arsenicosis and how to avoid them. CASE STUDIES Arsenic poisoning – Bangladesh More than half the population of Bangladesh is threatened by high levels of arsenic found in drinking water. This could eventually lead to an epidemic of cancers and other fatal diseases. Rezaul Morol, a young Bangladeshi man, nearly died from arsenic poisoning caused by drinking arsenic-laden well-water for several years. The doctor advised Rezaul to stop drinking contaminated water and eat more protein-rich food such as fish. Since then Rezaul feels a lot better and is happy that his skin is healing. Chapter7.p65 4/9/2004, 5:09 PM 229 230 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Diarrhoea Though several types of diarrhoea which give rise to loose motions and dehydration occur all over the world, this is especially frequently observed in developing countries. It causes 4% of all deaths. In another 5% it leads to loss of health. It is caused by gastrointestinal infections which kill around 2.2 million people globally each year. Most of these are children in developing countries. The use of contaminated water is an

important cause of this group of conditions. Cholera and dysentery cause severe, sometimes life threatening and epidemic forms of these diseases. Effects on health: Diarrhoea is the frequent passage of loose or liquid stools. It is a symptom of various gastrointestinal infections. Depending on the type of infection, the diarrhoea may be watery (for example in cholera caused by vibrio cholera) or passed with blood and mucous (in dysentery caused by an amoeba, E Histolitica). Depending on the type of infection, it may last a few days, or several weeks. Severe diarrhoea can become life threatening due to loss of excessive fluid and electrolytes such as Sodium and Potassium in watery diarrhoea. This is particularly fatal in infants and young children. It is also dangerous in malnourished individuals and people with poor immunity. The impact of repeated diarrhoea on nutritional status is linked in a vicious cycle in children. Chemical or non-infectious intestinal conditions can also result in diarrhoea. Causes of diarrhoea: Diarrhoea is caused by several bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms. They are mostly spread by contaminated water. It is more common when there is a shortage of clean water for drinking, cooking and cleaning. Basic hygiene is important in its prevention. Water contaminated with human feces surrounding a rural water source, or from municipal sewage, septic tanks and latrines in urban centers, are important factors in the spread of these diseases. Feces of domestic animals also contain microorganisms that can cause diarrhoea through water. Diarrhoea is spread from one individual to another due to poor personal hygiene. Food is a

major cause of diarrhoea when it is prepared or stored in unhygienic conditions. Water can contaminate food such as vegetables during irrigation. Fish and seafood from polluted water is a cause of severe diarrhoea. The infectious agents that cause diarrhoea are present in our environment. In developed countries where good sanitation is available, most people get enough safe drinking water. Good personal and domestic hygiene prevents this disease which is predominantly seen in the developing world. About 1 billion people do not have access to clean water sources and 2.4 billion have no basic sanitation (WHO website). In Southeast Asia, diarrhoea is responsible for 8.5% of all deaths. In 1998, diarrhoea was estimated to have killed 2.2 million people, most of whom were under 5 years of age (WHO, 2000). Interventions: Key measures to reduce the number of cases of diarrhoea include: • Access to safe drinking water. • Improved sanitation. • Good personal and food hygiene. • Health education about how these infections spread. Chapter7.p65 4/9/2004, 5:09 PM 230 231 Human Population and the Environment Key measures to treat diarrhoea include: • Giving more fluids than usual, (oral rehydration) with salt and sugar, to prevent dehydration. • Continue feeding. • Consulting a health worker if there are signs of dehydration or other problems. In rural India, during the last decade public education through posters and other types of communication strategies has decreased infant mortality due to diarrhoea in several States. Posters

. or the intentional use of various chemicals. Food additives and contaminants used during food manufacture and processing adversely affects health. many foods also transmit infection. While cholera is often waterborne. Investigations of SE outbreaks indicate that its emergence is largely related to consumption of poultry or eggs. salt and sugar solution to reduce death from dehydration has gone a long way in reducing both a serious condition requiring hospitalisation and intravenous fluids. coli) was first described in 1982.depicting a child with diarrhoea being given water. For example. as well as mortality.5 Risks due to chemicals in food Food contaminated by chemicals is a major worldwide public health concern. Subsequently. Diseases spread by food: Some foodborne diseases though well recognized.3. Toxic metals. such as pesticides. water and soil. Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) has become a predominant strain. In the Western hemisphere and in Europe. Contamination may occur through environmental pollution of the air. In Latin America. have recently become more common. 7. has increased within the last 25 years. While cholera has devastated much of Asia and Africa for years. outbreaks of salmonellosis which have been reported for decades. its reintroduction for the first time in almost a century on the South American continent in 1991 is an example of a well recognised infectious disease re-emerging in a region after decades. PCBs and dioxins. animal drugs and other agrochemicals have serious consequences on human health. Infection with a specific type of Escherichia coli (E. ice and raw or underprocessed seafood are important causes for cholera transmission.

Switzerland. In infants and persons with a poor immune system it may lead to septicemia (blood poisoning) and meningitis. United States. particularly in children. generally associated with beef. 5:09 PM 231 232 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Foodborne trematodes (worms) are increasing in South-east Asia and Latin America. game meat (meat of wild animals) and cheese curd. infections with Lm causes abortion and stillbirth. Listeria monocytogenes (Lm): The role of food in the transmission of this condition has been recognized recently. have been reported in Australia. and in southern Africa. including Australia. in various European countries. This is related to a combination of intensive aquaculture production in unsanitary conditions. Outbreaks have also implicated alfalfa sprouts. Outbreaks of listeriosis have been reported from many countries.300 school children and resulted in 2 deaths. Japan. In 1996. an outbreak of Escherichia coli in Japan affected over 6.p65 4/9/2004. France and the United States. lettuce.it has emerged rapidly as a major cause of bloody diarrhoea and acute renal failure. unpasteurized fruit juice. Canada. The infection is sometimes fatal. Foodborne . In pregnant women. because Lm can grow at low temperatures. Two recent outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes in France in 2000 and in the USA in 1999 were caused by contaminated pork tongue and hot dogs respectively. The disease is most often associated with consumption of foods such as soft cheese and processed meat products that are kept refrigerated for a long time. Chapter7. Outbreaks of infection. and consumption of raw or lightly processed fresh water fish and fishery products.

About 19 countries have reported BSE cases and the disease is no longer confined to the European Community. rectal and stomach cancer are among the five most common cancers in the world for both men and women. Among men. colon. By January 2002. is a fatal. most from the UK but five cases have been reported from France. In India. The agent affects the brain and spinal cord of cattle which produces sponge-like changes visible under a microscope. transmittable. 7. Recycling of the BSE agent developed into a common source epidemic of more than 180. A case of BSE has been reported in a cattle herd in Japan. In human populations.3. oral and .6 Cancer and environment Cancer is caused by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells that may affect almost any tissue of the body. It was first discovered in the United Kingdom in 1985. neurodegenerative disease of cattle. exposure to the BSE agent (probably in contaminated bovine-based food products) has been strongly linked to the appearance in 1996 of a new transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of humans called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). 119 people developed vCJD.000 diseased animals in the UK alone. Lung. It is estimated that 40 million people are affected worldwide. the most common cancers are breast and cervical cancer. which contaminated recycled bovine carcasses used to make meat and bone meal additives for cattle feed.trematodes can cause acute liver disease. and may lead to liver cancer. For women. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). lung and stomach cancer are the most common cancers worldwide. The cause of the disease was traced to an agent in sheep.

p65 4/9/2004. It is estimated that there will be 15 million new cases every year by 2020.pharangeal cancers form the most common type of cancer which are related to tobacco chewing. Chapter7. • Building international networks and partnerships for cancer control. Thus prevention of at least one-third of all cancers is possible. chemotherapy (drugs) or radiotherapy (X-rays). The chance of cure increases if cancer is detected early. Early detection and effective treatment is possible for a further one-third of cases. evidence-based interventions for early detection of cervical and breast cancer. • Advocacy for a rational approach to effective treatments for potentially curable tumours. Prevention of cancer: Tobacco smoking is the . • Promotion of organized. Cancer control is based on the prevention and control of cancer by: • Promotion and strengthening of comprehensive national cancer control programs. providing healthy food and avoiding exposure to cancer-causing agents (carcinogens). More than 10 million people are diagnosed with cancer in the world every year. Most of the common cancers are curable by a combination of surgery. Cancer is preventable by stopping smoking. • Development of guidelines on disease and program management. Cancer causes 6 million deaths every year – or 12% of deaths worldwide. 5:09 PM 232 233 Human Population and the Environment • Support for low-cost approaches to respond to global needs for pain relief and palliative care. The causes of several cancers are known.

use of sunscreens and protective clothing are effective preventive measures. Overweight individuals and obesity are known to be associated with cancer of the oesophagus. Infectious agents are linked with 22% of cancer deaths in developing countries and 6% in industrialized countries. oesophagus and stomach which are related to tobacco chewing. Human papilloma virus infection causes cancer of the cervix. larynx. especially in developing countries include deaths from cancer of the oral cavity. Asbestos is known to cause lung cancer. Preventive measures include bans on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. In some countries the parasitic infection schistosomiasis increases the risk of bladder cancer. colon. Dietary modification is an important approach to cancer control. and educational programs which are undertaken to reduce tobacco consumption. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori increases the risk of stomach cancer. It causes 80 to 90% of all lung cancer deaths. Another 30% of all cancer deaths. Benzene can lead to leukaemia (blood . Aniline dyes have been linked to bladder cancer. rectum. Fruit and vegetables may have a protective effect against many cancers. uterus and kidney. Excess consumption of red and preserved meat may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Avoiding excessive exposure to the sun.single largest preventable cause of cancer in the world. Liver fluke increases the risk of cancer of the bile ducts. breast. Viral hepatitis B and C cause cancer of the liver. Excessive solar ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of all types of cancer of the skin. Preventive measures include vaccination and prevention of infection. increased tax on tobacco products.

conflicts between people and wildlife especially around PAs. housing are all a part of our environment that we all share. the utilisation of resources and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). 7. Last but not the least. we in the present generation cannot greedily use up all our resources leaving future generations increasingly impoverished. 7. The access to a better lifestyle for men as against women is inherent in many cultures. regional community issues. food. While economic disparities remain a fact of life. These include the equitable distribution of environmental resources. However.4. Today the difference between the economically developed world and the developing countries is unacceptably high. while some live unsustainable lifestyles with consumption patterns that the resource base cannot support. national concerns and those related to a family or at the individual level.cancer). we as citizens of a community must appreciate that a widening gap between the rich and the poor. or between the present and future generations must be minimised if social justice is to be achieved. resources and energy must be distributed in a community. We can think of the global community. and access to health to prevent environment related diseases. between men and women.4 HUMAN RIGHTS Several environmental issues are closely linked to human rights. water.1 Equity One of the primary concerns in environmental issues is how wealth. Rights to land. The prevention of certain occupational and environmental exposure to several chemicals is an important element in preventing cancer. resettlement issues around development projects such as dams and mines. many others live well below the .

Even in a developing country such as ours. The people who live in the countries of the North and the rich from the countries in the South will have to take steps to reduce their resource use and the waste they generate. or hunt for food in forests and grasslands. These . fuelwood. They collect food. there are enormous economic inequaliChapter7. fish in aquatic ecosystems. and nonwood products.p65 4/9/2004. 5:09 PM 233 234 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses ties. This infringes on the human right to collect resources they have traditionally used free of cost. Take the case of subsidies given to the pulp and paper industry for bamboo which makes it several times cheaper for the industry than for a rural individual who uses it to build his home. Both the better off sectors of society and the less fortunate need to develop their own strategies of sustainable living and communities at each level must bring about more equitable patterns of wealth. It is related to disparities in the amount of resources available to different sectors of society. People who live in wilderness communities are referred to as ecosystem people.poverty line. When landuse patterns change from natural ecosystems to more intensively used farmland and pastureland the rights of these indigenous people are usually sacrificed. Another issue is the rights of small traditional fishermen who have to contend against mechanised trawlers that impoverish their catch and overharvest fish in the marine environment. This requires an ethic in which an equitable distribution becomes a part of everyone’s thinking. The right to the use of natural resources that the environment holds is an essential component of human rights.

develop. Nutrition affects and defines the health status of all people. The right to land or common property resources of tribal people is infringed upon by large development projects such as dams. Reversing actions that have already been taken decades ago is a complex problem that has no simple solutions. malnutrition and poorly managed environments . play. nutrition and health which must be seen from a humanrights perspective. Poverty is a major cause as well as a consequence of ill-health. Proper nutrition and health are fundamental human rights. As a deteriorating environment shortens life spans.people’s right to a livelihood conflicts with the powerful economic interests of large-scale organised fisheries. rich and poor. hunger. This needs a deep appreciation of local environmental concerns as well as a sensitivity to the rights of local people. There are serious conflicts between the rights of rural communities for even basic resources such as water. and industrial development which requires large amounts of water for sustaining its productivity. Poverty. The right to life is a Fundamental Right in our constitution. Movements to protect the rights of indigenous peoples are growing worldwide. health and human rights There are links between environment. 7. this in effect has an impact on our fundamental constitutional right. mining and Protected Areas. work.4. It is linked to the way we grow. In many cases a just tradeoff is at best achieved through careful and sensitively managed negotiations. Malnutrition makes people more vulnerable to disease and premature death. communities and societies. resist infection and reach our aspirations as individuals.2 Nutrition.

we must also realize that resources allocated to preventing and eliminating disease will be effective only if the underlying causes such as malnutrition and environmental concerns. To protect the rights of indigenous people who have used these products. children. better health and a better lifestyle.4. equity must begin at the bottom. We must ensure that our environmental values and our vision are linked to human rights and create laws to support those that need a better environment. especially those in developing countries – infants. In our globalized 21st century. The revenue generated from such ‘finds’ goes to the pharmaceutical industry that has done the research and patented the product. This storehouse of knowledge leads to many new ‘discoveries’ for modern pharmaceutical products. 7. Putting first things first. Chapter7. hand in hand with a healthy environment. and older persons are affected by this problem.3 Intellectual Property Rights and Community Biodiversity Registers Traditional people. a possible . as well as their consequences. and sustainable lifestyles. adolescents.p65 4/9/2004. especially tribals living in forests. adults. This leaves the original tribal user with nothing while the industry could earn billions of rupees. improved nutrition.together affect health and weaken the socioeconomic development of a country. Nearly 30% of humanity. A human rights approach is needed to appreciate and support millions of people left behind in the 20th century’s health revolution. 5:09 PM 234 235 Human Population and the Environment Health and sustainable human development are equity issues. are successfully addressed. have used local plants and animals for generations.

some of our primary health care needs are taken care of entirely by traditional medicine.tool is to create a Community Biodiversity Register of local products and their uses so that its exploitation by the pharmaceutical industry would have to pay a royalty to the local community. frequently of local or regional origin. while in Africa. as patients who use these alternative medicinal practices may rely on an ineffective measure. Traditional medicine is often handed down through the generations or may be known to a special caste or tribal group. This is a risk. In industrialized countries. up to 80% of the population uses it for primary health care. While there are advantages to traditional medicine as it is cheap and locally available. Traditional medicine has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world and its use is rapidly spreading in industrialized countries. Mechanisms have to be worked out so that the local traditional users rights are protected. approaches. It may be linked to spiritual therapies. manual techniques and exercises. adaptations of traditional medicine are termed “Complementary“ or “Alternative” Medicine (CAM). The consequences could be a serious delay in diagnosis and effective treatment of a treatable condition. There is a need . These may be used singly or in combination to treat. This however has still not been generally accepted. In India. Traditional Medicine: Traditional medicine refers to health practices. knowledge and beliefs that incorporate plant. diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. there are diseases which it cannot treat effectively. animal and mineral based medicines.

Traditional Medicine has been found to be effective against several infectious diseases. Twenty-five percent of modern medicines are made from plants first used traditionally. If extraction from the wild is not controlled. 5:09 PM 235 236 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses ditional medicinal methods. the requirements for protection provided under international standards for patent law and by most national conventional patent laws are inadequate to protect traditional knowledge and biodiversity. There are tried and tested scientific methods and products that have their origins in different traChapter7. Since we still put a high value only on economic growth. this can lead to the extinction of endangered plant species and the destruction of natural habitats of several species. In addition to patient safety issues. there is the risk that a growing herbal market and its great commercial benefit poses a threat to biodiversity through the over harvesting of the raw material for herbal medicines and other natural health care products. This mindset must change before concepts such as sustainable development can be acted upon.to carefully research the claims of traditional practices to ensure that they are effective. Yoga is known to reduce asthma attacks. This has been observed in the case of several Himalayan plants. The problems that are created by technology and economic growth are a result of our improper thinking on what ‘development’ means. to our destruction of our environment.p65 4/9/2004. . Another related issue is that at present. we have no concern for aspects such as sustainability or equitable use of resources.

Values in environment education must bring in several new concepts.Unsustainable development is a part of economic growth of the powerful while it makes the poor poorer. productive and happy lives in harmony with nature. obesity and blockage of arteries. They deal with a love and respect for nature. Why and how can we use less resources and energy? Why do we need to keep our surroundings clean? Why should we use less fertilisers and pesticides in farms? Why is it important for us to save water and keep our water sources clean? Or separate our garbage into degradable and non-degradable types before disposal? All these issues are linked to the quality of human life and go beyond simple economic growth. It is only recently that the world has come to realise that there are other more important environmental values that are essential to bring about a better way of life. These are the values that will bring about a better humanity. Consumerism is one aspect of this process favoured by the rich. As consumption of resources has till recently been an index of development. What are values? Values deal with ones own principles and standards from which we judge what is right and wrong behaviour. The use of pigeon pea extracts in India is well known. hypoglycemia. CASE STUDY A US company was granted a patent for discovering extracts of arhar (pigeon pea or Cajanus cajan) in the treatment of diabetes. one in which we can live healthy. although challenging the patent . CSIR has challenged this patent as it infringes on India’s traditional knowledge. consumerism has thrived.

equitable use of resources. There are several writings and sayings in Indian thought that support the concept of the oneness of all creation. valuing nature and cultures.5 VALUE EDUCATION Value education in the context of our environment is expected to bring about a new sustainable way of life.1 Environmental Values: Every human being has a great variety of feelings for different aspects of his or her surroundings. The provision of safe and effective TM/ CAM therapies could become a tool to increase access to health care. However true environmental values go beyond valuing a river for its water. Essentially. They are inculcated through a complex process of appreciating our environmental assets and experiencing the problems caused due Chapter7. managing common property resources and appreciating the cause of ecological degradation. This is a more spiritual. social justice. 5:09 PM 236 237 Human Population and the Environment 7. as India’s scientific documentation of its traditional knowledge is quite poor. of respecting and valuing . environmental values cannot be taught. 7. a forest for its timber and non-wood forest products. human heritage. Education both through formal and non-formal processes must thus address understanding environmental values. Over one-third of the population in developing countries lack access to essential allopathic medicines. modern approach values the resources of Nature for their utilitarian importance alone. The Western.is difficult.p65 4/9/2004.5. Environmental values are inherent in feelings that bring about a sensitivity for preserving nature as a whole. or the sea for its fish. Eastern traditional value.

This feeling for Nature is a part of our Constitution. cutting a few trees was not a significant criminal act. We need a . Values are not constant. Most of our actions have adverse environmental impacts unless we consciously avoid them. with wildlife reduced to a tiny fraction of what there was in the past. However.all the different components of Nature. which strongly emphasises this value. Wanting to unravel its mysteries is a part of human nature. It was considered a royal. For value education in relation to the environment. Concepts of what constitutes right and wrong behaviour changes with time. people tend to bond closely to Nature. this process is learned through an understanding and appreciation of Nature’s oneness and the importance of its conservation. Thus the value system has been altered with time. Similarly with the large tracts of forest that existed in the past. Once exposed to the wonders of the wilderness. Humans have an inborn desire to explore Nature. Our environmental values must translate to pro conservation actions in all our day to day activities. They begin to appreciate its complexity and fragility and this awakens a new desire to want to protect our natural heritage. Today this constitutes a major concern. modern society and educational processes have invariably suppressed these innate sentiments. The sentiment that attempts to reverse these trends is enshrined in our environmental values. Values lead to a process of decision making which leads to action. In today’s context. It was once considered ‘sport’ to shoot animals. it is now looked down upon as a crime against biodiversty conservation. brave and much desirable activity to kill a tiger.

Our current value system extols economic and technical progress as being what we need in our developing country. our value system must change to one that makes people everywhere support a sustainable form of development so that we do not have to bear the cost of environmental degradation. With the small human numbers in the past. rivers and wildlife. nor to the technology that produces .strong new environmental value system in which felling trees is considered unwise behaviour. Environmental problems created by development are due neither to the need for economic development. including forests. Appreciating the negative effects of our actions on the environment must become a part of our day to day thinking.” Chapter7. and to have compassion for all living creatures. Environmental values based on the Constitution of India Article 48A: “The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife in the country. But with enormous numbers of people throwing away large quantities of non-degradable waste.” Article 51A (g) The constitution expects that each citizen of the country must “protect and improve the natural environment.p65 4/9/2004. 5:09 PM 237 238 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses While we do need economic development. it is indeed extremely damaging to the environment and our value system must prevent this through a strong environmental value education system. lakes. throwing away a little household degradable garbage could not have been considered wrong.

this occurs only when a critical number of people become environmentally conscious so that they constitute a proenvironment lobby force that makes governments and other people accept good environmental behaviour as an important part of development. but rather to a lack of awareness of the consequences of unlimited and unrestrained anti-environmental behaviour. Every small child while growing up asks questions like ‘What does this mean?’. Looked at in this way. This is what environmental values are about. At the community level.pollution. Each action by an individual must be linked to its environmental consequences in his/her mind so that a value is created that leads to strengthening pro-environmental behaviour and preventing anti-environmental actions. it deals with concepts of what is appropriate behaviour in relation to our surroundings and to other species on Earth. It is this innate curiosity that leads to a personalized set of values in later life. They want an explanation for things happening around them that can help them make decisions and through this process develop values. Thus pro environmental actions begin to move from the domain of individuals to that of a community. Providing appropriate ‘meanings’ for such questions related to our own environment brings in a set of values that most people in society begin to accept as a norm. What professions require making value judgements that greatly influence our environment? Evidentally nearly every profession can and does . This cannot happen unless new educational processes are created that provide a meaning to what is taught at school and college level. How we live our lives in fact shapes our environment.

agriculturalists. water. media. I will not permit any individual or Government action spoil our environment or damage wilderness without protest. I will not permit others to cause harm to the wilderness and our wild species without protest. mining experts.p65 4/9/2004. most importantly. I will work towards this with other like minded individuals. architects. I will visit our wondrous wild places with clean air. I will use resources carefully by reducing. I will try not to damage her knowingly or unknowingly. Policy makers. but some do so more than others. and all their plants and animals. I will not carelessly throw away items that are made of our precious natural resources. soil. irrigation planners. landuse planners. paper. forest planners. I will always care for Mother Earth. I will use energy carefully and close off electrical appliances when not in use. I will consciously avoid committing acts that damage our environment and will publicly assert my dislikes for acts against the environment. Chapter7. I will not waste energy by using a fuel based vehicle when I can walk or cycle. administrators. reusing and recycling whatever I use such as water. metal and glass articles.influence our environment. and become party to their conservation. foresters. medical personnel. industrialists and. teachers at school and . 5:09 PM 238 239 Human Population and the Environment agricultural experts. Strategies for sustainable living I will work towards the protection of our environment and the preservation of our wild species. health care workers. plastic.

While we value resources that we use as food. the whale and elephant’s giant size. The list of wondrous aspects of Nature’s intricate connections is indeed awe-inspiring. there are some which man has come to admire for their beauty alone. We value its being there on Earth for us. maintaining climate regimes. This is the oneness of Nature. etc. water and other products. There is incredible beauty in some man-modified landscapes. This is also a part of our environment that we must value for its own sake. the coloured patterns of farmland or the greens of a tea or coffee plantation in the hills. This is called its ‘existance value’. and the tranquility of the Himalayan mountains are things that each of us values even if we do not experience it ourselves. are all closely related to pro environmental outcomes. the intelligence of our cousins the primates. While every species is of importance in the web of life. Urban gardens and open space are also valuable and thus must be of prime concern to urban . are parts of nature that we cannot help but admire. The tiger’s magnificence. But there are other aesthetic. there are also environmental services that we must appreciate. We must equally look at our environment beyond the wild sphere. the graceful flight of a flock of cranes. ethical values that are equally important aspects of our environment that we do not appreciate consciously. These include Nature’s mechanisms in cleaning up air by removing carbon dioxide and adding oxygen by plant life. The lush splendor of an evergreen forest. recycling water through the water cycle of nature.college level. the great power of the ocean’s waves. Environmental values have linkages to varied environmental concerns.

these centers of peace and tranquility give urban dwellers an opportunity to balance their highly man-modified environments with the splash of green of a garden space. although it is difficult to put a price tag on these values. the rights of future generations and animal rights. and perhaps where we should go. cultures. The characteristic architecture. Nevertheless. to conserving whole traditional landscapes in rural areas and streetscapes in urban settings. heritage.planners. As environmentally conscious individuals we need to develop a sense of values that are linked with a better and more sustainable way of life for all people. in pro environmental . Unless we learn to value these landscapes. poverty. The mental peace and relaxation provided by such areas needs to be valued. they will disappear and our heritage will be lost. or embedded. but also provide much needed psychological support. These green spaces act as not only the lungs of a city. where we are now. The positive feelings that support environment include a value for Nature. Environmental values must also stress on the importance of preserving ancient structures. sculpture. Architectural heritage goes beyond preserving old buildings. Several great philosophers have thoughts that have been based on. corruption in environmental management. and equity. We also need to become more sensitive to aspects that have negative impacts on the environment. pollution. There are several positive as well as negative aspects of behavior that are linked to our environment. It tells us where we have come from. artworks and crafts of ancient cultures is an invaluable environmental asset. loss of species. These include our attitude towards degradation of the environment.

5:09 PM 239 240 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses way of life on earth for all people and all living creatures. 7. Appreciating Her magnificence and treasuring life itself leads to positive feelings that are a manifestation of pro environmental consciousness. But for now we only know for sure that the Earth’s life forms are unique.behavior. The one-ness of our lives with the rest of nature and a feeling that we are only a miniscule part of nature’s complex web of life becomes apparent. We must appreciate that we belong to a global community that includes another 1. man does not even know if other complex forms of life exist outside our own solar system in distant space. when we begin to appreciate the wonders of nature’s diversity. We need to appreciate these values to bring about a better Chapter7. Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore are among the many internationally well-known scholars whose thought have included values that are related to environmental consciousness. The tiny creatures that live complex lives and the towering trees are all a part of this phenomenon we call ‘life’. completely different. feeling and exploring its beauty and experiencing its infinite variety. Nothing makes us more conscious of this wonderous aspect of our earth’s diversity than a walk through the wilderness. living forms. Today.p65 4/9/2004.2 Valuing Nature: The most fundamental environmental sentiment is to value Nature herself.5. We may be alone in space or may be accompanied by other.8 million known living forms. We thus have a great responsibility to protect life in all its glorious forms and must therefore respect the wilderness with all its living .

we must also learn to value and respect diverse human cultures. While currently the environmental movement focuses on issues that are concerned with the management of the natural environment for the ‘benefit’ of man. we must protect the rights of local people. Many of the tribal cultures of our country are vanishing because those with more dominant and economically advanced ways of life do not respect their lifestyles. On the one hand we need to protect natural ecosystems. For example some environmentalists emphasise the need to preserve wilderness for its aesthetic Deep ecology In the 1970s a new thinking on environmental . Yet apart from valuing the diversity of life itself. where man’s own hand has not created changes that have led to perturbing natural habitats. while on the other. that are in fact closer to nature and frequently more sustainable. There are thus conflicting values that need to be balanced carefully. However this cannot be done to the detriment of the millions of tribal or indigenous people who live in wilderness ecosystems. Deep Ecology promotes an approach that is expected to bring about a more appropriate ecological balance on Earth and is akin to a spiritual approach to Nature.creatures. This has great long-term implications not only for humans but for the whole of Nature. We need to develop a sense of values that lead us to protect what is left of the wilderness by creating effective National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. We believe that our modern technologybased lifestyles are the sole way for society to progress. Yet this is only a single dimension of life that is based on economic growth.

concerns began to emerge. this will be extremely difficult to achieve. and has recreational and economic value. Another new approach is that of ‘Gaia’. Chapter7. 5:09 PM 240 241 Human Population and the Environment and utilitarian functions. protecting nature and the wilderness for its own sake.p65 4/9/2004. In a country such as India. its services and goods that we use. Thus it is not enough to protect bits of what is left of the wilderness but to make attempts to restore degraded areas to their former natural ecological state. Wilderness is being preserved today in PAs because it is scenic and serves the purpose of tourism for nature lovers. It teaches that the wellbeing and flourishing of human and non-human life on Earth have value in themselves and that these values are independent of the usefulness of the non-human world for human purposes. a Norwegian professor of Philosophy and a great believer in Gandhian thinking and Buddhism. It was fostered by the thinking of Arne Naess. It recognises the intrinsic value of all living beings and looks upon mankind as a small segment of a great living community of life forms. which is now referred to as ‘Deep Ecology’. Deep Ecologists on the other hand stress that wilderness preservation is a means to achieve the conservation and protection of biological diversity. Other environmentalists stress that the goal is for protecting the useful ecological functions of the wilderness. with its enormous population coupled with poverty on the one hand and the need for economic industrial growth on the other. the hypothesis that the Earth is itself like one giant form of throbbing life consisting of all .

7. The dilemma is how to provide them with modern health care and education that gives them an opportunity to achieve a better economic status without disrupting their culture and way of life. anarchy and terrorism will spread and the people who are impoverished will eventually form a desperate seething revolution to better their own lot. We are now beginning to appreciate that many ancient and even present day sequestrated cultures have a wisdom and knowledge of their own environments that is based on a deep sense of respect for nature. Tribal cultures have over many generations used indigenous medicines which are proving to be effective against diseases. it is the duty of those who are better off to protect the rights of the poor who do not have the means to fight for their rights. This will happen only if we value their culture and respect their way of life.the unquantifiable numbers of individuals of its millions of known and unknown species. .3 Valuing cultures Every culture has a right to exist. They have produced unique art forms such as painting.5. and those who live near or below the poverty line. If this is not respected the poor will eventually rebel.4 Social justice As the divide widens between those people who have access to resources and wealth. Tribal people are frequently most closely linked with Nature and we have no right to foist on them our own modern way of life. based until recently on a belief that modern science holds the answer to everything. The developing world would face a crisis earlier than the developed countries unless the rights of poor people that are fundamental to life are protected. 7.5. Modern civilization is a homogenous culture.

a traditional rural landscape.the undisturbed wilderness. There is much that is beautiful on our Earth . These are all part of human heritage. Heritage preservation is now a growing environmental concern because much of this heritage has been undervalued during the last several decades and is vanishing at an astonishing pace.p65 4/9/2004. and crafts that are beautiful and can enrich living experiences for everyone.sculpture. Much that is beautiful and hand-crafted will disappear if we do not value these diverse aspects of human cultures. songs.5 Human heritage The earth itself is a heritage left to us by our ancestors for not only our own use but for the generations to come.5. 5:09 PM 241 242 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses 7. While we admire and value the Ajanta and Ellora Caves. The bamboo basket weaver who makes a thing of beauty that is so user friendly and aesthetically appealing. Chapter7. The art of the potter will be lost forever to the indestructible plastic pot. The world will be culturally impoverished if we allow these indigenous people to loose their traditional knowledge which includes sustainable use of water. will give place to yet another plastic box. They have their own poetry. dance and drama -all art forms that are unfortunately being rapidly lost as we introduce a different set of modern values to them through television and other mass media. the temples of the 10th to . and the value of a historical monument or place of worship. the architecture of a traditional village or town. They will soon lose the beauty within their homes that is based on the things they make from Nature. land and resources with a low impact on biodiversity.

As environmentally conscious individuals we need to lobby for the protection of the wilderness and our glorious architectural heritage. based on a world that is essentially only for the rich. The poor while polluting the environment have no way to prevent it. The rich damage the environment through a carelessness that proves only that they have no appreciation for environmental safety. This includes an appreciation of the fact that economically advanced countries and the rich in even poor nations consume resources at much greater levels than the much larger poorer sectors of humanity in the developing world.5.15th centuries that led to different and diverse styles of architecture and sculpture. leads to great pressures on the environment.6 Equitable use of resources An unfair distribution of wealth and resources. will bring about a disaster of unprecedented proportions. Equitable use of resources is now seen as an essential aspect of human well being and must become a shared point of view among all socially and environmentally conscious individuals. the Moghul styles that led to structures such as the Taj Mahal. This is equally true of the small number of rich people in poor countries whose per capita use of energy and resources. or the unique environmentally-friendly Colonial buildings. we have done little to actively preserve them. and the generation of waste based on the one time use of disposable products. As we begin to appreciate that we need more sustainable lifestyles we also begin to realize that . 7. the smaller number of people in developed countries use more resources and energy than those in the developing world. In spite of the great number of people in the more populous developing countries.

are all common property resources. While ecological degradation has frequently been blamed on the needs of fuelwood and fodder of growing numbers of rural people. the local people who until then had controlled their use through a set of norms that were based on equitable use.7 Common Property Resources Our environment has a major component that does not belong to individuals.5. Changes in landuse . When Government took over the control of community forests in British times. began to overexploit resources on which they now had no personal stake. 7. However. urbanized. The water that nature recycles. they will begin to protect them. 5:09 PM 242 243 Human Population and the Environment forces that bring about ecological degradation.5.8 Ecological degradation In many situations valuable ecological assets are turned into serious environmental problems. These consist of sectors of society that use a ‘get-rich-quick’ approach to development. the forests and grasslands which maintain our climate and soil. This essentially means sharing the power to control forests between the Forest Department and local people. Bringing back such traditional management systems is extremely difficult.this cannot be brought about without a more equitable use of resources. the rich. 7. This is because we as a society do not strongly resist Chapter7. in the recent past managing local forests through village level forest protection committees has shown that if people know that they can benefit from the forests.p65 4/9/2004. There are several commonly owned resources that all of us use as a community. the air that we all breathe. industrial sector is responsible for greater ecological damage.

As more and more people are affected. as their overall health and . as utilisation patterns change to unsustainable levels. or tea and coffee estates. for example.from natural ecosystems to more intensive utilization such as turning forests into monoculture forestry plantations. Wetlands.6 HIV/AIDS The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) through contact with tissue fluids of infected individuals. As it reduces an individual’s resistance to disease. provide usable resources and a variety of services not easily valued in economic terms. especially through sexual contact. and when destroyed to provide additional farmland. in many cases produce lower returns. 7. or marginal lands into intensive agricultural patterns such as sugarcane fields or changes into urban or industrial land carry an ecological price. The inability of these patients to have the strength to access natural resources also affects the outcome of the disease process. this disease will also have impacts on our natural resource base. A natural forest provides valuable non-wood forest products whose economic returns far outweigh that provided by felling the forest for timber. We cannot permit unsustainable development to run onwards at a pace in which our lives will be overtaken by a development strategy that must eventually fail as Earth’s resources are consumed and ecosystems rendered irreparable. It affects their income generation and/or their ability to utilise natural resources. it causes infected individuals to suffer from a large number of environment related diseases and reduces the ability of infected individuals to go about their normal lives. These values must form a part of a new conservation ethic.

People affected by the disease inevitably try to get whatever they can from their natural resource base as they are not in any position to think of the long-term future. HIV/AIDS seriously affects the patient’s working environment. people have a mistaken belief that turtle eggs can cure HIV/ AIDS. It creates an incorrect fear in the minds of co-workers.well being is likely to worsen the course of the disease when their nutritional status suffers. Incomes lost due to the stigma of HIV/AIDS must be met by the sufferers by overexploiting their resource base. affecting land management and productivity. thus leading to the eggs being over harvested. The capacity of these patients to work for their usual sources of income generation is lost. as natural resources on which the poor debilitated patients depend continue to be degraded. In sub Saharan Africa where the infection has become highly prevalent. It must be clearly understood that AIDS is not spread by casual contact during work. In Africa. In South Africa. As males die of the disease. Patients have a right to . access to clean water and wholesome food. it is leading to great suffering and worsening poverty. An increasing proportion of the poor are affected. It is evident that it is going to be increasingly difficult to manage environments sustainably. for example. this has led to degradation of the ecosystem and an increase of pressures from other impacts such as overuse of medicinal plants and poaching for wildlife. Providing balanced diets and nutritional support for these poverty stricken patients can be partially addressed by better natural resource management such as afforestation. work on agricultural land has to be taken over by already overworked women and their children.

must address the issues related to the linkages between natural resource management and this disease. Women also have an added burden of caring for HIV infected husbands. Education is also important to reduce the stigma and discrimination against these patients.continue to work as before along with unaffected individuals. This needs to be done through the formal educational sector and by using non-formal methods. HIV/ AIDS has a serious impact on the socioeconomic fabric of society. In more recent times. as well as the need to remove the social stigma attached to it. By 2002.97 million infected individuals. Women engaged in prostitution find it difficult . India had an estimated 3. in the formal and non-formal educational sectors. There is a great need to organise AIDS education on prevention and management of the disease. As patients are unable to continue their original hard labour related work. HIV in India is rapidly moving from a primarily urban sector disease to rural communities. it was mainly seen in males who migrated to urban centers. women who are not socially empowered are at a great disadvantage as they are powerless to demand safe sex from their partners. In India. Chapter7. Prior to 1992.p65 4/9/2004. a growing number of women are moving to Indian cities as sex workers. deforestation and a shift of population to urban areas resulting in a rising number of AIDS patients. This produces enormous economic stresses on their family. Research in Nepal has shown a linkage between rural poverty. Educators and extention information. 5:09 PM 243 244 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses it is essential that alternative sources of work must be created for them.

Behavioural change. where the number of individuals who have multiple partners. Seven out of 10 of childhood deaths in developing countries can be attributed to five main causes. more than one in five children die before they are 5 years old.7 WOMAN AND CHILD WELFARE There are several environmental factors that are closely linked to the welfare of women and children. such as the use of condoms that provide safe sex. Around the world. 7. measles. The diagnosis of common childhood disease conditions Presenting complaint Possible cause or associated condition Cough and/or Pneumonia fast breathing Severe anaemia . as well as drug abuse by sharing needles with an infected person.to make partners take protective measures. close to eleven million children worldwide are estimated to have died from the effects of disease and inadequate nutrition. three out of every four children suffer from at least one of these conditions. towards strictly single partners. reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS and thus reduces incidence of the disease in society. Most of these deaths are in the developing world. diarrhoea. the most important measure to prevent AIDS is the proper use of condoms that form a barrier to the spread of the virus during intercourse. or a combination of them. However. Each year. the use of condoms during intercourse is a key to preventing the disease. In some countries. Blood transfusion from an infected person can also lead to HIV/AIDS in the recipient. These are pneumonia. malaria and malnutrition. A large proportion became victims of the disease. In sexually transmitted AIDS.

400. Upto 40% of children seen in health centers suffer from respiratory conditions and many deaths attributed to other causes are. over half the diseases and premature deaths could be avoided in India. killing over two million children annually.P. sanitation.000 children under five and women die each year in India due to indoor smoke. Pneumonia: Acute respiratory infections (ARI). Children . “hidden” ARI deaths. 5:09 PM 244 245 Human Population and the Environment CASE STUDY Chula issue The World Health Organisation estimates that 1. Hence by providing access to clean water.000 to 550. is a major cause of death in children under five. Crowded ill-ventilated homes and living in smokey households with open fires can trigger respiratory conditions especially in children.p65 4/9/2004. Respiratory conditions: Most respiratory diseases are caused by or are worsened by polluted air. most frequently pneumonia. in fact. food and ventilated homes.6 billion early deaths occur annually from cooking stove pollution. Chula smoke is the third highest cause of disease and death after dirty water and lack of sanitation. falciparum malaria Lethargy or Cerebral malaria unconsciousness Meningitis Severe dehydration Very severe pneumonia Measles rash Pneumonia Diarrhoea Ear infection “Very sick” young infant Pneumonia Meningitis Sepsis Chapter7.

Improved hygiene and management of the home and surroundings is the most important preventative measure. is an important measure. Urgent diagnosis and treatment of diarrhoea is a priority for saving a child’s life. including antibiotics and simple measures such as oral rehydration using clean boiled water with salt and sugar. Correct management of diarrhoea could save the lives of up to 90% of children who currently die by promoting rapid and effective treatment through standardised management.may die very quickly from the infection and thus need treatment urgently. the second most serious killer of children under five worldwide. Correct management could save over 1 million lives per year globally. as well as improved nutrition. In severe cases intravenous fluids must be started. Most patients of pneumonia can be treated with oral antibiotics. Two million children die each year in developing countries from diarrhoeal diseases. Diarrhoea: Diarrhoea is caused by a wide variety of infections. Gastro intestinal conditions: Contaminated water and food causes widespread ill health especially in children. such as measles or malaria. Treating malnutrition that often accompanies diarrhoea can further reduce mortality. Increasing vigilance to detect other diseases that can occur concurrently with diarrhoea. Measles: Measles is a rash that appears with fever and bodyache in children and is caused by a virus. It infects over 40 million children and . In most cases diarrhoea is preventable and children can be saved by early treatment. Increased breastfeeding and measles vaccination have also been observed to have reduced the number of cases of diarrhoea.

Malaria is a widespread tropical disease Chapter7. Effective prevention and treatment could save 700. and vitamin A supplementation. 5:09 PM 245 246 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses which is caused by a parasite transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Approximately 700.kills over 800. diarrhoea and malnutrition that are all linked to poor environmental conditions in their surroundings. Prevention includes wider immunization coverage. Young children with measles often develop other diseases such as acute respiratory infections.000 children under the age of five. Young children are particularly vulnerable because they have not developed the partial immunity that results from . prompt recognition of conditions that occur in association with measles.000 lives per year. In India the disease was nearly wiped out a few decades ago but has now re-emerged in many parts of the country. Malaria: This condition is closely linked to pooling and stagnation of water in tropical environments. and improved nutrition. alternative newer drug therapies have been developed for use in areas where resistant parasites are found. It has proved difficult to control because mosquitoes have become resistant to insecticides used against them and because the parasite has developed resistance in some areas to the cheap and effective drugs that used to provide good protection in the past. including breastfeeding. Measles is prevented by a vaccine. However. Correct management could save 500.p65 4/9/2004.000 children die of malaria globally each year. most of them in sub-Saharan Africa. rapid referral of serious cases. Children who survive an attack of measles are more vulnerable to other dangerous infections for several months.000 lives per year.

Lack of access to food. giving food in insufficient quantities. Promoting breastfeeding. particularly frequent or persistent diarrhoea. pneumonia. a degraded environment. are major factors in mortality. poor feeding practices and infection. including encouraging parents to seek prompt care. Malnutrition: Although malnutrition is rarely listed as the direct cause of death. Poverty-environment-malnutrition: There is a close association between poverty. measles and malaria. and those with a low weight for their age must be intensively managed. prompt treatment with appropriate anti-malarial drugs. The nutritional status and feeding practices of every child under two years of age. and providing micronutrient supplements routinely for children who need them are measures that reduce mortality. providing the wrong foods. and malnutrition. Because fever may be the only sign of malaria. Malnourished children are more vulnerable to disease. accurate assessment of the condition of the child. Deaths from malaria can be reduced by several measures. This is further aggravated by a lack of awareness on how children become malnourished. it can be difficult to distinguish it from other potentially lifethreatening conditions. undermines nutritional status. or a combination of the two. and prevention by using mosquito-proof bednets. Counseling of parents on the .surviving repeated infections.inadequate breastfeeding. Infection. recognition and treatment of other co-existing conditions. it contributes to about half of all childhood deaths. improving feeding practices. such as malnutrition and anaemia. contribute to malnutrition. Poor feeding practices .

Changing family habits and the kinds of food offered to children is an important measure. maintains good nutritional status and helps prevent diarrhoea. such as helping them to eat rather than leaving them to fend for themselves. Continuing to breastfeed up to two years of age. Encouraging maximum support to mothers to establish optimal breastfeeding from birth. with relatively simple changes to better feeding practices. in addition to giving complemenChapter7. Even small amounts of water-based drinks decreases breastmilk intake and lead to lowered weight gain. Children between 6 months and 2 years of age are at increased risk of malnutrition when there is a transition between breastfeeding and sharing fully in the family diet. six months of life. Talking to mothers individually about home care and their child’s feeding. respiratory infections. to a lesser extent.correct foods for each age group and helping them to overcome various feeding problems is an essential health care measure. A one-on-one counseling with mothers . 5:09 PM 246 247 Human Population and the Environment tary foods. A minor increase in breastfeeding could prevent up to 10% of all deaths of children under five: When mothers breastfeed exclusively during at least the first four months and. can ensure that a child gets enough to eat. and providing individual counseling and support for breastfeeding mothers are measures that reduce malnutrition. equipping health workers with counseling skills. if possible.p65 4/9/2004. This increases the risk of diarrhoea. there is a decrease in episodes of diarrhoea and. Mothers often give their babies other food and fluids before six months because they doubt their breastmilk supply is adequate.

The daily collection of water. Thus they are providing an environmental service of great value. work longer hours than men. Women are often the last to get enough nutrition as their role in traditional society is to cook the family meal and feed their husband and children. a number of women eke out a living by garbage picking. where lower economic group women live in crowded smoke filled shantys in unhygenic slums. Thus CASE STUDY Karnataka’s GIS scheme. Bhoomi. they can get several infections. but earn a pittance from this work. They separate plastics. metal and other recyclable material from the waste produced by the more affluent groups of society. they spend long hours indoors. Karnataka has computerized 20 million records of land ownership . Farmers can now get a copy of the records of rights. The sorry plight of women includes the fact that the girl child is given less attention and educational facilities as compared to boys in India.on breastfeeding techniques and its benefits helps reduce incidence of malnutrition. In urban centers. There are strong connections between the status of the environment and the welfare of women and children in India. Their work pattern differs and is more prone to health hazards. especially in lower income group families. tenancy and crops from a computerized information kiosk without harassment and bribes. During this process. which is a cause of respiratory diseases. fuelwood and fodder is an arduous task for rural women. both in the rural and urban sector. In urban areas. Women. This leads to malnutrition and anemia due to inadequate nutrition. has revolutionized the way farmers access their land records.

of 6. The Internet with its thousands of websites has made it extremely simple to get the appropriate environmental information for any study or enChapter7. A few examples of the use of computer technology that aid environmental studies include software such as using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Specialised software can analyse data for epidemiological studies. an expert can ask a variety of questions which the software can answer by producing maps which helps in landuse planning. This social-environmental divide is a major concern that needs to be corrected throughout the country.p65 4/9/2004. accurately and spread the information through the world’s networks of millions of computer systems. 7. .7 million farmers in the State. IT can do several tasks extremely rapidly. The computer age has turned the world around due to the incredible rapidity with which IT spreads knowledge. 5:09 PM 247 248 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses vironmental management planning.8 ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH The understanding of environmental concerns and issues related to human health has exploded during the last few years due to the sudden growth of Information Technology. GIS is a tool to map landuse patterns and document change by studying digitized toposheets and/or satellite imagery. Once this is done. they are unable to compete with men in later life. This not only assists scientists and students but is a powerful tool to help increase public awareness about environmental issues. population dynamics and a variety of key environmental concerns.

This looks at infection rates.p65 4/9/2004.The relationship between the environment and health has been established due to the growing utilisation of computer technology. morbidity or mortality and the etiology (causative factors) of a disease. have greater memories and even perhaps begin to think for themselves. As knowledge expands. 5:09 PM 248 . computers will become increasingly efficient. Chapter7. They will be faster.