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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Unit 1: The Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies Definition, scope and importance(2 Lectures) Need for

public awareness. Unit 2 : Natural Resources : Renewable and non-renewable resources : Natural resources and associated problems. 1. Forest resources : Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people.Water resources : Use and overUtilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts and water, dams-benefits and problems. 2. Mineral resources : Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies. 3. Food resources : World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies.

4. Energy resources : Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies. 5. Land resources : Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification.

Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.

Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.

Unit 3: Ecosystems
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Concept of an ecosystem. Structure and function of an ecosystem. Producers, consumers and decomposers. Energy flow in the ecosystem. Ecological succession. Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids. Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the following ecosystem :1. Forest ecosystem

2. Grassland ecosystem 3. Desert ecosystem 4. Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)(6 lectures) Unit 4: Biodiversity and its conservation

Introduction – Definition : genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. Biogeographical classification of India Value of biodiversity : consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values

Biodiversity at global, National and local levels. India as a mega-diversity nation Hot-spots of biodiversity. Threats to biodiversity : habitat loass, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts.

Endangered and endemic species of India Conservation of biodiversity : In-situ conservation of biodiversity.

Nuclear hazards o Solid waste Management : Causes. cyclone and landslides. Air pollution 2. Disaster management : floods.• • Unit 5: Environmental Pollution Definition Causes.(8 lectures) o o Unit 6 : Social Issues and the Environment • • From Unsustainable to Sustainable development Urban problems related to energy . o Role of an individual in prevention of pollution. effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes. Soil pollution 4. Pollution case studies. Noise pollution 6. Water pollution 3. earthquake. Thermal pollution 7. effects and control measures of :- 1. Marine pollution 5.

Environment Protection Act. its problems and concerns. ozone layer depletion. Consumerism and waste products. Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act Wildlife Protection Act Forest Conservation Act Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation. Air (Preventation and Control of Pollution) Act. nuclear accidents and holocaust. Case studies.• Water conservation. • • Wasteland reclamation. rain water harvesting. watershed management • Resettlement and rahabilitation of people .(7 lectures) . Case studies. • Environmental ethics : Issues and possible solutions. acid rain. global warming. • • • • • • • • Public awareness. Climate change.

Unit 7 : Human Population and the Environment
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Population growth, variation among nations. Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme. Environment and human health. Human Rights. Value Education. HIV / AIDS Women and Child Welfare. Role of Information Technology in Environment and human health.

Case Studies.

Unit 8 : Field work

Visit to a local area to document environmental and river forest grassland hill mountain. Visit to a local polluted site – Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural

Study of common plants, insects, birds. Study of simple ecosystems-pond, river, hill slopes, etc. (Field work Equal to 5 lecture hour

UNIT-1 THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES: • INTRODUCTION • DEFINITION • SCOPE • IMPORTANCE • NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS INTRODUCTION • Environment:As the name suggests,means surroundings • Environment is the sum total of air,water • It is divided into: • Physical(non-living)-abiotic • Living-biotic ENVIRONMENT • ‘ENVIRONMENT’-derived from the French word;Environner,which means to encircle or to surround. • Thus,an environment includes,all the biological and non-biological things surrounding an organism. DEFINITION • 1.Conditions that surround one; surroundings. • 2. The totality of circumstances surrounding an organism or group of organisms, especially: a. The combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the growth, development, and survival of organisms • b The complex of social and cultural conditions affecting the nature of an individual or community. DEFINITION • “An environment is sum total of water,air and land,inter-relationships among themselves and also

with the human beings,other living organisms and property”. • …….(Environment Protection Act,1986) CONCLUSION • Hence,an environment is made up of the biotic and abiotic factors that act on an organism, population, or ecological(study of relationship of living organisms with each other and their environment) community and influence, its survival and development. • Biotic factors include the organisms themselves, their food, and their interactions. • Abiotic factors include such items as sunlight, soil, air, water, climate, and pollution. • Organisms respond to changes in their environment by evolutionary adaptations in form and behavior • An environment includes all the physical and biological surroundings and their interactions. • ABIOTIC COMPONENTS • Physical surroundings(abiotic) surroundings,includes: • 1.Forces of nature(wind,gravity) • 2.Conditions(temperature,time factor,gravity) • Non-living material(soil,water) BIOTIC COMPONENTS • Living environment(biotic) surroundings includes: • Biological surroundings • Organisms,their food,their actions, their interactions

TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT •Natural Environment – Environment that comes into existence without interference of man is Natural Environment.

which has been modified by human activities.Life sciences:botany.computer sciences-serves as effective tool in modelingand Management of environment • 4.Education.Economics. called man-made Environment Product of Human Brain Scientific Technology Disturb Environment Environmental Studies—A Multidisciplinary Subject • Effective study of environment requires knowledge inputs from many disciplines/subjects.development of cleaner technologies-helps in protection of environment) • 6.hydraulics.geology. • 1.geography-helps in understanding the physical and chemical structure of the abiotic components and energy transfer and flow.Environmental laws-implemented by govt-provides the tools for effective management and protection of environment . •Man-Made Environment – Environment.civil engineering.zoology.genetics.biotechnology-help in studying biotic components and their interactions.microbiology.ocenography.mass-communicationhelps in understanding socio-economic aspects of environment.waste treatment.Operate through self-regulating mechanism. • 3.statistics..chemical engineering-forms the basis for various technologies(pollution control. • • 5Environmental engineering.sociology.chemistry. • 2.Physics.Mathematics.atmospheric sciences.

chemical engineering pollution control. chemistry .their conservation and management • The environmentalists all over the globe are engaged in development of strategies which enable us to make use of our natural resources to the fullest extent. statistics. masscommunication En vironmental lawsImplemented by govt provides The tools f or protection of environment helps in understanding socio-economic aspe cts of environment.while still maintaining them for continued use in future . sociology. computer sciences effective tool in modeling and Management of environment Education. Economics. atmospheric sciences.geology. civil engineering hydraulics. geography physical and chemical structure of the abiotic components Environmental studies Mathematics. de velopment of cleaner technologies-helps in protection of environment) Physics. oceanography. Environmental Studies—A Multidisciplinary Subject SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1.ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND CONTROL • Environmental pollution has become a global problem. zoology micro-biology. biotechnology En vironmental engineering.NATURAL RESOURCES. waste treatment. genetics.• Conclusion:environmental studies is a multidisciplinary subject where different aspects are dealt with holistic approach help in studying biotic components and their interactions Life sciences: botany. • Environmental studies helps in understanding the causes of pollution and gives measures for its control 2.

deterioration (decline) of habitat. contamination (pollution) of sea.HUMAN POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT • The problems and effect (result) of disposal (throwing away) of wastes.ECOLOGY AND BIO-DIVERSITY • The problems of varied nature all in some way are correlated with ecology(Ecology is the study of relationship between organisms with each other and their environment ).The ecological knowledge has proved helpful in solving various problems faced by living organisms 4. SPECIALIZED BRANCHES OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES • ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE • ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING • ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES • HELPS IN SOLVING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • HELPS IN SOLVING LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM • OTHER AREAS HELPS IN SOLVING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • a)Global warming • b)Depletion of Ozone layer • c)Dwindling Forests • d)Reducing energy resources • e) Depletion in global bio-diversity a)Global warming .political and other similar policies of the world are now basedon ecological aspects 5. can be taken up only with the help of trained environmentalists.SOCIAL ISSUES IN RELATION TO DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT • Various socio-economic.3.

theree is a layer called as ozone layer and is called as ozonosphere.which absorbs the harmful UVradiations.reduction in atmospheric CO2.automibles made more efficient) b) Depletion (reduction)of Ozone layer • Ozone layer-Betweeen 20 and 26 km above sea level and situated in stratosphere.• a)Global warming • It is the increase in average global temperature due to in crease in amount of GHG’S in earth’s temperature(by controlling population growth. alternatives and CO2 or dry powder .water mist technologies etc can be used in fire fighting equipments such as HFC’s(hydro-fluro carbons )which contain chlorine in less quantities c) Dwindling(decline) Forests d)Reducing energy resources e) Depletion in global bio-diversity HELPS IN SOLVING LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS a)Solid waste management b)Impacts of mining c)Impacts of hydro-electric projects OTHER AREAS • a)Town Planning • b)Public health • c)Location of industries • d)Providing clean drinking water .Hence.main chemicals responsible are:CFC’s(chloro-fluro carbons).methane.halons.Halons(used in fire exinguishers).afforestation(planting more trees).This layer acts as as ozone shield.The decline in ozone layer thickness is called as ozone hole.

”If you plan for one year plan rice.in 1991.if you plan for 10 yrs.educate people” • Today everyone talks about environment but only a few have clear ideas about it.Govt of India.if you plan for 100 yrs.Indian culture has endorsed. • Earth Summit(The united Nations Conference on Environment and Development) was held in Rio de Janerio in 1992 • World Summit on’Sustainable Development’ was held in 2002 at Johannesberg • Both the summits highlighted and discussed the major problems of global environment • Supreme court of India.about what need to be done • D.instructed the various states to make all curricula environment oriented.plant trees.1992.the fact that life owes its existence and obtain its sustenance from environment • Environmental awareness at mass level has always been the prime agenda of Ministry of Environment and Forest.Thoreeau says”What’s the use of beautiful house if you don’t have decent planet to put it on?” • Even if we begin today the restroration would take 4050 yrs .The decision was given in response to Public Interest Litigation Filed by MC Mehta v/s Union of India (1988) • here is a chinese proverb.• e)Hygenic living surroundings NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS • Since.time immemorial.

natural as well as artificial •Consider environment education a continuous life process •To examine Environmental issues •To develop critical thinking and problem •To discover rot causes of environmental degradation .Environmental Education •It is a process of recognizing value and classifying concepts in order to develop skill an attitude necessary to understand the interrelatedness of man his culture and surrounding. Objective •Awareness •Skill for identifying Environmental problem •Knowledge •Evaluation ability •Participation •Attitude Guideline Principle •Consider Environment in its totality.

INDIAN EFFORTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION • CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION • Within 5 yrs of Stockholm Conference (held convened by UN in 1972.1981 Setting up of Independent Ministry of Environment and forest Independent Ministry of Environment and forest was established at Central Govt level.1980.Air(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.first International meet on Environment).hence separate department was set up on Nov 1.on environmental issues.1980 • National Committee on environmental planning • The NCEPC was replaced by National committee on Environmental Planning • • • • Environment Protection Enactments After Stockholm Conference.environmenet education) • Tiwari Committee on Environment • In 1980 Govt of India appointed tiwari Committee.Forest(conservation)Act.1985 .India ammended its Constitution(the 42nd Constitutional Ammendment 1976) to include Environment Protection as a Constitutional Obligation • National committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination(NCEPC) • This committee concerened with various issues (survey of ecosystems. to make recommendations. Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974.India has also embarked on several legislative measures for the protection of environment and for maintaing ecological balance. • The committee recommended for the establishment of a separate department of Environment .

regulation of discharge of pollutants etc • It may be pointed out that of late various agencies CPCB’s (central pollution control board) have become more stringent and have recommended strong actions against those who violate the act.• Environment Protection Act. • Seventh and Eighth Plan • The seventh Plan lays down well defined strategy for environment protection. • It was passed for the protection of Environment ..This strategy is the result of realisation that environemnt and natural resources represents the most fundamental building blocks for national developments and social being • Eighth Plan further Strengthened the Environmental Policies .1986 • In 1986 the Govt of India passed a comprehensive Environment Protection Act as and aftermath of Bhopal Tragedy of 1984.

which living organism can take from the nature for the sustenance of their life.Inexhaustible Resources-Resources are present in unlimited quantity in nature and they are not likely to be exhausted by human activities. 2. Exhaustible Resources-These resources have limited supply on the earth and are therefore. Or Any component of the natural environment that can be utilized by man to promote his welfare is considered as natural resources. a) Renewable Resources-These resources have the capacity to reappear or replenish themselves by quick recycling. . reproduction and replacement within a reasonable time. liable to be exhausted if use indiscriminately. CLASSIFICATION OF NR 1.UNIT-2 NATURAL RESOURCES The natural resources are the materials.

petroleum etc. 2 Consumptive use-Like fodder for cattle. they may even totally exhausted. 3 Land bank. not only their quantity become affected. paper pulp. b) Non-renewable resources-The resources.Maintenance of soil nutrient and structure. gum.: Coal. the same cannot be replenished MAJOR NATURAL RESOURCES Forest resources Water resources Mineral resources Food resources Energy resources Land resources FOREST RESOURCES A forest is a biotic community. shrubs or an wood vegetation etc. food item. -Approximately one third of the earth total land area is covered by forest. Once we exhausted these resources. -They are storehouse of biodiversity and provide important environmental services to mankind USES OF FOREST 1 Productive use-Forest provide large number of commercial goods which include timber. which is predominantly composed of tree. non-edible oils. which cannot be regenerated e. rubber. firewood. medicine etc used by local people for it subsistence. which are collected and sold in the market as a source of income. fibers etc.g.b)If consumption of these resources continue to exceed their rate of renewal. .

expansion of industrial areas and overgrazing has together lead to over exploitation of our forests leading to their rapid degradation. mineral etc. Causes of Deforestation Shifting cultivation Explosion of human population Demand of wood for industries Contraction of roads Development projects Overgrazing Weather Growing food need Major Consequences of Deforestation It threatens the existence of many wild life species due to destruction of natural habitat. -Biodiversity is lost . -If this rate continues.4 Ecological uses: a) Production of oxygen b) Reducing global warming c) Wildlife habitat d) Soil conservation e) Pollution moderators Large demand for raw material like wood. the remaining tropical forests may disappear with in country. The current rate of deforestation is estimated to be more than 10 million ha per year. Excessive use of fuel wood. DEFORESTATION Destruction of forests is formidable threat to the quality of life. country’s economy and future development.

-Hydrological cycle gets affected. droughts and landslides become more prevalent in such areas. -Forest should be protected from fire. Afforest ration programme . -Mining operation: This operation for extracting minerals and fossils fuels like coal often involves vast forest. However. Effects For building big dams. -Grazing of cattle's in forest should be discouraged. thereby influencing rainfall. Mining and its associated activities require removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle and overlying rock masses. -Floods. we going to loose these species. Also for road construction-making approach to trees causes damages to forest. which have economic and medicinal values. -forests are repositories of invaluable gift of nature in form of biodiversity and by destroying them. -Problem of soil erosion and loss of soil fertility increases -It also contributes to global warming by realizing stored carbon into the atmosphere as CO2 Major activities in Forest Timber extraction: Logging for valuable timber such as teak. these dams are responsible for the destruction of vast area of forest. -Dames-Big dams and river valley projects have multipurpose uses. large-scale devastation of forests takes place. -Loss of storehouse of species. -Use of timber and fuel wood by minimizing the wastage. which breaks the natural ecological balance of the region.

-About 71% of earth’s surface is covered by water. there is a dire need of extensive planting of trees through afforest ration programme -This is the important programme due to which we can reduce the effect of deforestation. Forest conservation & management Based on two basic principles: -Substantial supply of tree products and services to people and industry -Maintenance of long-term ecological balance through protection. electricity production etc. Measure to conserve forests: -a tree removed from forest for any purpose must be replaced by new trees. restoration and conservation of forest cover. -Distribution of water resources is quite uneven depending upon several geographical factors. industrial use.In order to save the diminishing forest cover. -Water cycle plays an important role in maintaining different form of water in nature. -A special programme of tree plantation called “van mahotsava” is held every year in our country Water resources Water is indispensable natural resources on this earth on which all life depends. Forms of fresh water: It mainly occurs in two forms: Ground water and surface water . -It is needed for daily use by organism.

Surface Water: It is available in the form of streams. . washing and water disposable of industries -Water shapes earth’s surface and regulate our climate. Ground subsidence 2. The ground water is contained in aquifers. lakes. Aquifers are of two types: 1. transportation. public water supply and industrial supply. -Water use by humans is of two types: Water withdrawal: taking water from ground water or surface water resources Water consumption: The water. 2. Unconfined aquifers: These are covered by permeable earth material and are recharged by seeping down of water from rainfall and snowmelt.86% of the total fresh water resources. Aquifer is a highly permeable layer of sediment or rock contains water. Effects of overuse of ground water It has following ill effects 1. returned for reuse. Lowering water table 2.1. -Human being depend on water for almost every developmental activities. It is about 35-40 times that of surface water supplies. which is taken up but not. It is mainly used for irrigation of crops. Ground water: It constitutes about 9. -Water is used for drinking. rivers. Confined aquifers: these are representing between two impermeable layer of rock and are recharged only in those areas where the aquifer meets the land surface. ponds etc. Water Uses Due to its unique properties water is multiple uses for all living organism. oceans.

overgrazing. Over-exploitation With increasing human population & rapid development. mining etc. -Rivers and streams have long been used for discharging the waters and indirectly responsible for pollution of the rivers. Floods In some countries rainfall does not occur throughout the year. which otherwise a natural disaster. Conflicts over water Indispensability of water and its unequal distribution had often lead to inter-state or international disputes. water may fall short in other part of world. these drought-hit areas are having a high population growth which lead to poor land use and makes the situation worse. rather it is concentrated into a few months (June-sep). .Drought When annual rainfall is below normal and less than evaporation. drought condition is created. Prolonged downpour can also cause the overflowing of lacks and rivers resulting into floods. rapid industrialization. -Heavy rainfalls often cause floods in the low-lying coastal areas. -Overuse of ground water for drinking and domestic purpose has resulted in rapid depletion of ground water. -Africa and west Asia is likely to be worst affected by water scarcity but with increasing population. -Anthropogenic causes like deforestation. -Deforestation. thereby increasing the vulnerability of large part of country to drought. the world water withdrawal demands have increased. mining. -Ironically.

orissa and A. Conservation and management of water Increase in irrigation efficiency in agriculture fields by reducing water wastage. cause water logging and siltation and may result in earthquakes. many states like Rajas than. Madhypradesh. In India. . It creates problems. like big dams submerge forest. hungry and dark land ravaged with floods and drought every year. -Harvesting of rainwater by adapting practices like storing of rainwater and ground water. Without them India would have been a thirsty.P are in the grip of sever water shortage. Gujarat. displace local people.-According to the latest report some 80 nations including India and 40% of the world population are already in the theories of the “water stress”. -Protection of water sheds and afforest ration to improve water economy Dams-Benefits and problems: The dams like Heera kund and Damodar have played a significant role in India’s social and economic progress during the past five-year. -Recycling of used water in industries so as to reduce water wastage. Reduction in domestic water wastage. sharing of kaveri river water between Karnataka and Tamil nadu are some examples of such conflicts. It is reported that River valley projects in countries like India and China displace large number of people because of high population densities of these countries. -Dispute over sharing Yamunna river water between Haryana and Delhi.

rice. does not degrade the envt and is economically viable and socially acceptable. who consume 80% of total. Reason-India has half as much as land as USA but it has 3times population to feed. -Although India is self-sufficient in food production. milk. water. potato. but 300 million Indian is still undernourished. it is only because of modern pattern of agriculture that are unsustainable and which pollute our environment with excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. Europe. . The main food sources include wheat. -Meat & milk consumed more by developed nation of North America. World food problem -During last 50-year world grain production has increased almost 3times but at the same time population growth has increased at such rate in LCD that it outstripped food production. -Every year 40 million people die of undernourishment and malnutrition. oats. Japan. animal genetic resources. India scenario-Third largest production of crops. fish and seafood. The FAO of united nation defines unsustainable agriculture as that which conserve land.Food Resources The main sources of human food are plant and animals.

B)Nitrate pollution-Nitrogenous fertilizer applied in the field often leach deep into the soil and ultimately contaminate the ground water.AGRICULTURE Traditional agriculture: Usually involve small plots.Deforestration 2. pesticides and irrigation water. Impacts: . hightech equipment and lots of energy subsidies in form of fertilizers. Impact of this agriculture: 1. Food production has increased-Green revaluation. Due to excessive fertilizers.K causes imbalances. C) Eutrophication: Excessive use of N. It become cause of serious health hazard affects the infant to maximum extended-France. It near to natural conditions and result low production.Soil erosion 3. England etc. naturally available water. In case of attack by some pathogen.Impacts related to high yielding varietiesEncourage monoculture. Pesticide related problem .P fertilizers in the field lead to another problem relate to water bodies like lakes. simple tools. organic fertilizer and mix of crops. lack ecosystem get degraded. there is total devastation of crop by the disease due to uniform conditions Fertilizer related problem A)Micro nutrient imbalance-Excessive use of these chemical fertilizer which include N.P.Depletion of nutrients Modern Agriculture Use of hybrid seeds of selected and single crop variety.

Death of non-target organism 3. mercury to kill the pests. Most of the crops cannot tolerate high salinity. Called BM and getting pesticide in bio-magnified form is very harmful. Water Logging Over irrigation of croplands by farmers for good growth of their crops lead to water logging. Inadequate Drainage Accumulation of Excess water Reduce soil Fertility Salinity Problem At present one-third of total cultivable land area of world effected by salts. Salinity causes stunted plant growth and lower crop yield.Biological magnification: Many of pesticides are nonbiodegradable and keep om accumulating in food chain. Remedy: Common method for getting rid of salts is to flush them by applying more good quality water to such soils. Impacts: 1. . It protect our crops from huge losses. Main causes of Stalinization of soil is excessive irrigation.Creating resistance in pests and producing new pests. 2.Pesticides include chemical like sulphur.

HR Mineral Resources Minerals are exhaustible.Prospecting: Searching for the minerals . cement etc. settlement. magnesia and copper are important raw material for industrial use. Zinc. Jewelry e.g. aluminum. Defense equipments Transportation means Communication-Telephone wires. Iron. This process is known as mining. Agriculture as fertilizer. clay. diamond The USA. salt.Network of perforated drainage pipes for flushing out salts slowly. Mining and its stages Minerals and their role need to be extracted from the earth interior so that they can use. This tried by CSSRI at sampla. south Africa and Australia are having the major world revenue. Four stages: 1. Due to rapid expansion of industries. Japan has virtually no metal reserves and depends on other countries for its resources. Mineral with special properties that human values for their aesthetic and ornamental values such as diamonds Uses & Exploitation Development of industrial plat and machinery Generation of energy eg coal Construction. Gold. non-renewable resources found in the earth crust. Canada. housing. Important non-metal resources include coal. the consumption of minerals has increased tremendously. fungicides. Medical system-Ayurvedic system.

3.Decrease consumption: To maintain the extended supply of minerals for a longer time.2. 2. 1 Devegetation and defacing of landscape 2 Subsidence of land Ground water contamination Air pollution Occupational health hazards The limited stock of minerals once exhausted cannot be replenished. 4. 4.Exploration: Assessing the size.Development: Work for preparing access to the deposit so that minerals can be extracted from it. therefore.Exploitation: Extracting the minerals from the mines. 3. Mining poses several long-term occupational hazards to the miners Environmental Damages Mining operation-Main sources of envt degradation. location and economic value of the deposits. alloys. Conservation of Minerals Recycling and reuse: used the resources again and again but also help in saving unspoiled land from disruption of mining and reducing the amount of solid waste.Use of waste: The manufacturing industries use the waste products of one manufacturing process as the raw materials for another industry. Energy Resources . consumption of minerals need immediate action.Substitution: The scare minerals can be substituted with more abundant minerals like use glass fibers. shape.

Coal.Solid-Wood. Energy consumption of a nation is usually considered as an index of its development Renewable energy resources: regenerated by natural process and can be used as again & again in an endless manner. while other require a process of transformation. 2) Hydropower (hydroelectric energy):This is produced from the kinetic energy of water falling from a height.Approx one-fourth of world electricity is produced by hydropower. waste from household and some type of industrial waste from biogas. Non-renewable energy resources: Include fossil-fuel and nuclear energy. Renewable Resources Solar energy: Sun is an inexhaustible and pollution free source of energy. Charcoal 2. It is called photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Burning of fossil fuels. It is used for human welfare. petroleum and gas. It includes plant and trees. some of which are immediately useful to do work. agriculture waste.Energy is found on our planet in a variety of forms. Biomass energy is form of stored solar energy. Global warming and air pollution. B) Indirect solar energy: Bio mass energy is most important one. sugarcane waste and other farm by product to make energy. Biomass-Release energy is of three types 1. Photovoltaic cells convert direct solar energy into electricity.Gas-is produced from plant material and animal waste. .Liquid-Like methanol and ethanol 3. Hilly and high land areas are suitable for this purpose. A) Direct solar energy: It can be used for direct heating or sun’s heat is converted into electricity.

Water leakages in pipes and toilets if any. While using washing machine.3) Geo-thermal energy: The energy harnessed from the hot rocks present inside the earth is geo-thermal energy. High temperature. Rainwater harvesting should be installed in the house for future use. Conservation of energy: Solar cooker may be used for cooking food on sunny days to cut down LPG consumption. high pressure steam fields exist below the earth surface. Watering of plants in kitchen garden and lawns should be doe only in the evening when evaporation losses are minimum. Conservation of water: Continuous running of water taps should be avoided while brushing. Role of Individual in conservation of natural resources: Conservation of resources means the management of human use of the resources so that it may give maximum benefit to present generation. Make a habit of switching off lights. while marinating its potential to meet the requirement of the future generations. shaving etc. should be repaired promptly. . Wastage of water can be avoided by installing water saving toilets. fill the machine with water only to the level required for your clothes. fans and other appliances when not in use.

disease etc can be brought under control only with the help of MCDs. . Avoid over irrigatin of agricultural fields to prevent water logging and salination. Build your house with provision for sunspace to keep the house well lit and save electricity. Crop residues should should be incorporated in the soil by ploughing instead of burning it in the field. on the other hand. Conservation of soil: Don’t throw vegetable peeling and kitchen waste and make compost from the same to use it in kitchen garden or flower pots. Avoid storng flow of water to irrigate lawn and plants. The rich countries will have to reduce utilization of natural resources and much of the portions of resources will have to be diverted to the poor countries. unhygienic conditions. are still struggling hard with their large population and poverty problems.One can save petrol or diesel by using public transportation and by sharing a car pool if you have to go to the same place regularly. The rich and more developed countries are contributing more to pollution and threating the sustainability of life supporting systems of the earth. Equitable use of resources for sustainable life styles There is a great variation in the utilization of natural resources among different countries. The poor and less developed countries. The problems of LCDs like pollution. The rich have grown richer and poor have stayed poor and gone even poorer.

fresh water.UNIT-3 ECOSYSTEM Ecosystems (short for ecological systems) are functional units that result from the interactions of abiotic. ecology deals with how individuals are affected by and how they effect their environment. biotic. All ecosystems are "open" systems in the sense that energy and matter are transferred in and out. bacteria and animals. In other words. Organism refers to any form of life. and air. oceans. ECOLOGY Ecology refers to the study of organisms in various habitats like land. it is the study of the interrelations between living organisms and their environment. Like all systems they are a combination of interacting. we can consider ecology as the study of organism and their environment. For practical purposes. Ecology can proceeds at three levels: 1) At the level of organism. it includes all plants. . and cultural (anthropogenic) components. and has increased in biological complexity over time. The Earth as a single ecosystem constantly converts solar energy into myriad organic products. interrelated parts that form a unitary whole.

therefore they are also called producers 1. and with the natural resources affected by them. Stated another way. nitrites. and sulfides. rain. an ecosystem is a community plus its abiotic factors. sunlight) and incorporate it into organic compounds. 3) At the level of community.2) At the level of population. e.g. Population refers to the group of individual organisms of the same spices living within an area. etc.g.capture energy (e. soil. ecology deals with the presence and absence of particular species and with trends and fluctuation in their numbers. Chemoautotrophs are bacteria that obtain energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds such as ammonia. The organisms in an ecosystem are either autotrophs or heterotrophs: B. they synthesize carbohydrates and are found in cave communities and ocean depths . Major parts of biotic components: Biotic components of an ecosystem A. Autotrophic organisms .. temperatures. ecology deals with the composition and structure of communities. A community refers to the assemblage of population living in a prescribed area or physical habitat that has characteristics in addition to its individual and population component. An ecosystem is a community of organisms interacting within a particular physical environment.

Secondary consumers eat the herbivores c..the decomposing products of organisms. Photoautotrophs possess chlorophyll and carry on photosynthesis 3. secondary and tertiary consumers: a.feed upon a variety of organisms.. in aquatic ecosystems. including plants and animals (e. Carnivores are animals that eat other animals (e.) 2. caterpillars. producers are mostly plants. Decomposition returns nutrients back to the soil.2. earthworms) that feed on detritus .) 3. zooplankton. dominant producers are algae D. Sequences of carnivores that feed in a chain can be labeled primary. Tertiary consumers feed on secondary carnivores 4. human) 5. Detritivores .need a source of preformed nutrients and consume tissues of other organisms 1.g. Autotrophs are at the beginning or bottom of a food chain 4. Herbivores are animals that feed directly on green plants (e. Some also recognize decomposers but there is little distinction between them and detritivores .g. etc.animals (e. lion.g. hawks. Omnivores . etc. In terrestrial ecosystems. Primary consumers are herbivores b.g. Heterotrophic organisms ...

. In other words. Most producers are green plants that can manufacture their food through the process of photosynthesis. which produce their own food (high energy organic compounds) by fixing light energy in the presence of simple inorganic abiotic substance. Carnivores can also consume other carnivore.g. mainly green plants that synthesis their own organic compound (food) from inorganic substance. are organism that can manufacture organic compound they use as a source of energy and nutrients. They are the organisms. In other words. b) Carnivore: Organism that feed on herbivores is called carnivores. Hetrotrops get their energy and nutrients by feeding directly or indirectly on producers.-gazing cattle. We can distinguish two main types of consumer a) Herbivore: An organism that feed primarily upon the plant life. The food of the consumers consists of organic compounds produced by other living organisms. mostly animals which generally ingest and swallow their food. e. They are the self-nourishing and the first group in the food chain.1) Producer: Producer or autotrops. 2) Consumer: Consumer are heterotrophic organism. The secondary consumer or carnivores is an animal that devours the Flesh of herbivore or other animals. a consumer which drives nutrition by eating plants is called primary consumer or herbivores.

Important structural features are: species composition and stratification. water.3) Decomposer: An organism that obtains energy from the chemical breakdown of dead organisms or animal or plant waste. The organic matter that is consumed by the detritivores is eventually converted back into inorganic nutrients in the soil. Decomposer play a vital role in the ecosystem. Plants and animals supply organic matter to the soil system through shed tissues and death. On the other hand. Examples are earthworms and many bacteria and fungi. Some ecosystem (eg. are known as detritivores or decomposers. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF AN ECOSYSTEM: Structure and function are the two major concepts used to describe the role of individual element (plants. animals. Biotic and abiotic components are physically organized to provide a characteristic structure of the ecosystem. discontinuous herb layer consisting of fewer . minerals) play in creating an ecosystem. or detritus. tropical rain forest) show tall plant canopy and a bewildering number of biological species. returning the constitutes of organic matter to the environment in inorganic form so that the plant can again assimilate them. Elements will have both structural and functional components. the desert ecosystems show a low. STRUCTURE: Structure refers to the spatial relations of an ecosystem’s element. Consumer organisms that feed on this organic matter.

all layers (i. Therefore. Ecosystem possesses a natural tendency to persist. nitrogen and phosphorus. trees and shrubs will form multilayered tiers of structure. which results from light diffusion through the canopy. carbon. Other organisms will develop niches based on the existence of the particular wildlife forming a third layer of structure dependent on the first two. are all cycled through an ecosystem. will convert (cycle) compounds into forms that are usable by . the overall amount of energy held in the system. such as water. For example in a forest. This type of layering is called light stratification. Compounds. Organisms. Wildlife will develop niches at different levels within this forest structure forming a secondary degree of structure. living organism) are dependent on one another for the providing the structure of the niche they inhabit.e. by the mere nature of their existence. This is made possible by variety of functions (activities undertaken to persistence) performed by the structural components. and how that energy is able to move within the system. FUNCTION: Function refers to the processes that move and cycle energy through and among all elements (living and non-living) within the structure of an ecosystem. which is dependent on the first. the richness of species.species and extensive bare patches of soil. There is a direct relationship between the structural complexity that forms in an ecosystem and the diversity of species.

etc. and that of decomposition. These functions are carried out in the ecosystem through delicately balanced and controlled process.) or the energy may be lost as heat. lead to release of nutrients contained in the organic matter. and roots absorb nutrients from the soil. Note that all . the carbon-carbon bonds are broken and the carbon is combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. and. serve as the food for carnivores.other organisms. in turn. For example. This process releases the energy. The diagram below shows how both energy and inorganic nutrients flow through the ecosystem. It is this energy which helps to drive biotic systems. The sun's energy allows plants to convert inorganic chemicals into organic compounds. For instance. We need to define some terminology first. When respiration occurs. Energy "flows" through the ecosystem in the form of carbon-carbon bonds. ENERGY FLOW IN THE ECOSYSTEM: Many of the most important relationships between living organisms and the environment are controlled ultimately by the amount of available incoming energy received at the Earth's surface from the sun. the process of photosynthesis is involved in the food production. Herbivores perform the function of utilizing part of the plant production. digest food. Decomposers carry out the function of breaking down comlex organic materials into simpler inorganic product. excrete wastes. The dark arrows represent the movement of this energy. think. green leaves function as sites of food production. which can be used by the producers. which is either used by the organism (to move its muscles.

5. The ultimate source of energy (for most ecosystems) is the sun 2. The ability of water to absorb and release great quantities of heat keeps climate within livable range B. and that the ultimate fate of all energy in ecosystems is to be lost as heat. Sunlight drives the water cycle 2. Energy and nutrients are passed from organism to organism through the food chain as one organism eats another. rivers and living communities to become clouds 3.the gaseous layer near earth . Decomposers remove the last energy from the remains of organisms. Water condenses and precipitation cycles through freshwater habitats as it returns to the ocean 4.energy comes from the sun. The ultimate fate of energy in ecosystems is for it to be lost as heat. Energy does not recycle!! To summarize: In the flow of energy and inorganic nutrients through the ecosystem. energy is not. Water evaporates from oceans. Hydrosphere . Inorganic nutrients are cycled. The earth A. Atmosphere . I. 4. 3.the zone of water that covers three-quarters of the earth 1. a few generalizations can be made: 1.

Biosphere . While being food for animals higher in the food chain. such as from over fishing or hunting. Lithosphere . and in the upper atmosphere becomes protective ozone (O3) C. If one animal’s source of food disappears. Soil contains decayed organic material (humus) that recycles nutrients to plants D. Carbon dioxide is a prime input for photosynthesis 4. Major gases in the atmosphere are nitrogen. many other animals in the food . The atmosphere is concentrated in the lowest 10 kilometers but extends thinly out to 1. Weathering of rocks supplies minerals to plants and eventually forms soil 2.1. The food chain shows how some animals eat other animals to survive. these animals may eat other animals or plants to survive.000 km 2. Oxygen is involved in cellular respiration. oxygen and carbon dioxide 3.the thin layer where life is possible between the outer atmosphere and the lithosphere Energy flow and nutrient cycling FOOD CHAIN All living things depend on each other to live.a rocky substratum that extends about 100 kilometers deep 1. The food chain is a complex balance of life.

Each link in this chain is food for the next link. Each level of consumption in a food chain is called a trophic level The table gives one example of a food chain and the trophic levels represented in it. Some animals eat plants and some animals eat other animals. For example. only a fraction of the energy (that it gets from the plant food) becomes new body mass. only a portion of the energy from the animal food is stored in its tissues. A food chain always starts with plant life and ends with an animal. organisms along a food chain pass on much less energy (in the form of body mass) than they receive. the giraffes (that eat trees & shrubs). Autotrop Herbivores Carnivores (Secondary. Decompos . energy is passed from one link to another. When a herbivore eats. a simple food chain links the trees & shrubs. the rest of the energy is lost as waste or used up (by the herbivore as it moves). when a carnivore eats another animal. Grass → Grasshopper Toad Snake → Hawk Bacteria → → → of decay In general. Such a path of food consumption is called a food chain. Animals that eat other animals are called carnivores. and the lions (that eat the giraffes). Do you know why there are more herbivores than carnivores? In a food chain. Likewise. In other words.chain are impacted and may die. Animals that eat only plants are called herbivores. Food chain shows how each living thing gets its food.

Energy flow in an ecosystem is a consequence of two fundamental laws of thermodynamics: a. Carbon.energy can neither be created nor destroyed. nitrogen. Primary productivity is the total amount of energy an ecosystem's producers capture within plant material over a length of time a. Plants can make use of inorganic nutrients while animals must take in organic nutrients 4. Soil. Ecosystems 1. phosphorus and sulfur make up over 98 percent of body weight of life 3. oxygen. and other factors affect gross primary productivity b. etc. Ecosystems are dependent upon solar energy flow and finite pools of nutrients 2. about 55% c. . (Producer Consumers) → consumers) → s) → ers A.hs (Primary tertiary. climate. 55% of gross primary productivity is available to heterotrophs. this is net primary productivity 5. it can only be changed from one form of energy to another. First law of thermodynamics . Plants must use organic molecules to fuel their own cellular respiration. hydrogen.

Therefore.b. usually as low grade heat 6. Secondary productivity . Only a small portion of food taken in by heterotrophs becomes available to the next consumer d. A detritus food web begins with detritus.when energy is transformed from one form to another. which photo synthesizers use to produce organic food b. Second law of thermodynamics . there is always some loss of energy from the system. followed by decomposers (including bacteria and fungi) 4. The complex feeding relationships that exist in nature are called food webs 2. stems and seeds eaten by herbivores and omnivores 3. Primary source of energy for ecosystems is sunlight. All energy content of organic matter is eventually lost to environment as low grade heat c. Detritus food chains are connected to a grazing food chain when consumers of a grazing food chain feed on the decomposers of the detrital food chain . Food webs 1.the portion of energy converted into increased body weight B. ecosystems are unable to function unless they receive a constant input of energy a. A grazing food web begins with leaves.

all the primary consumers c. Trophic levels 1. The base of the pyramid represents the producer trophic level. In some ecosystems. A pyramid of numbers is based on the number of organisms in each trophic level . those organisms in an ecosystem that are the same number of food chain steps from the energy input into the system: a.a feeding level of one or more populations in a food web.primary producers b. An ecological pyramid shows the trophic structure of an ecosystem as a graph representing biomass. organism number. First trophic level . and from there the consumer trophic level is stacked. with the apex representing the highest consumer trophic level 3. Ecological pyramids 1.5. Third trophic level . Second trophic level .all the secondary consumers E. less than 1% of energy may move through the grazing food web while over 99% moves through the detritus food web C. or energy content of each trophic level in a food web 2. Trophic level . A food chain represents passage of energy through populations in a community 2.

1. Energy pyramid concept helps explain the phenomenon of biological magnification . Since . This rapid loss of energy is also the reason there are few large carnivores 7.the tendency for toxic substances to increase in concentration at progressively higher levels of the food chain.000 kg (or kcal in an energy pyramid) of plant material converts to 100 kg of herbivore tissue. In general. which can support 1 kg of second level carnivores b. This rapid loss of energy is the reason food chains have from three to four links. rarely five c. A pyramid of energy is based on the total amount of energy in each trophic level and is always pyramidal 6. However when washed off croplands into streams and lakes it became concentrated in fish that were ultimately eaten by birds such as bald eagles. DDT was once a widely used insecticide. The DDT caused fragile eggs such that populations of large predator birds rapidly declined.4. A pyramid of biomass is based on the weight (biomass) of organisms at each trophic level at one time a. For example. Thus. about 10 percent of energy at a particular trophic level is incorporated into the next trophic level a. which converts to 10 kg of first carnivores. Usually a large mass of plants supports a medium mass of herbivores and a small mass of carnivores 5.

Such succession transforms a disturbed or damaged part of a community. Ecological succession" is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. over some time interval. But biological communities are always changing. Succession fills in the opening. IV. Global biogeochemical cycles . Some succession (secondary succession) is an ecosystem's response to an injury. or they may even vanish from the ecosystem altogether.DDT was banned in the US in 1968 bird populations have made dramatic comebacks. the way we heal a cut. is the process of life colonizing dead or sterile areas such as volcanic lava flows and new sand dunes. Some succession (primary succession). This observed change over time in what is living in a particular ecosystem is "ecological succession". Within any community some species may become less abundant over some time interval. other species within the community may become more abundant. Similarly. on the other hand. or new species may even invade into the community from adjacent ecosystems. Example: a tree falls and creates an opening in the canopy of leaves. and transforms them into living communities. or rock left behind by retreating glaciers. Many lakes and wetlands gradually become filled in and over thousands of years become dry land. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION Succession is the process of community change and development that happens most obviously when a natural community is disturbed or when new land become available to life.

but water also evaporates from bodies of freshwater. oxygen. Rainfall that permeates the earth forms a water table at the surface of the groundwater 4. Biogeochemical cycles . Oceans are the greatest source of evaporated water. The cycling of nutrients in within ecosystems is second in importance only to the transformation of energy via photosynthesis C.A. which makes up only about 3 percent of the world's supply of water. In the (hydrologic) cycle. Despite an inexhaustible influx of energy from the sun. is called a renewable resource . An aquifer is an underground storage of freshwater in porous rock. Freshwater.global loops of nutrient recycling. the continuation of life depends on the recycling of essential chemical elements. freshwater evaporates and condenses on the earth a. Hydrologic (water) cycle 1. They involve both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems D. water and phosphorous B. trapped by impervious rock strata 5. and from land and plants (transpiration) 2. Evaporation of water from the oceans leaves behind salts 3. nitrogen. primarily carbon.

The reservoir for the carbon cycle is largely composed of organic matter. calcium carbonate in shells.6. which is a source of carbon for aquatic producers. The carbon cycle involves: a. Freshwater can become unavailable when consumption exceeds supply and/or is polluted so it is not usable E. Photosynthesis removes CO2 from the atmosphere. when aquatic organisms respire. The amount of bicarbonate in the water is in equilibrium with the amount of CO2 in the air 6. primarily algae 4. CO2 from the air combines with water to produce bicarbonate (HCO3). Very long term cycling via land and sea through crustal folding and solutions of limestone and dolomites . The exchange pool for the carbon cycle is the atmosphere 2. and limestone. as well as fossil fuels 7. Carbon cycle 1. the CO2 they release combines with water to form HCO3 5. Similarly. Longer cycles involving reduced organic deposits (fossil fuels) c. respiration and combustion add CO2 to the atmosphere 3. respiration and decay b. Short term cycling of carbon through living organisms via photosynthesis.

Aquatic Ecosystems FOREST ECOSYSTEM Forest are formed by community of plants which is mostly structurally defined by its trees .H2o. Grassland used for grazing by cattle.P present in air.The low rainfall prevents the growth of grass cover during monsoon. Each forest type forms a habitat for a specific community of animals that are adapted to live in it. Forest types in India: •Coniferous forests-grow in Himalayan mountain region. Components: Abiotic:element supplied by Co2.N.TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM 1. Two component: Abiotic:The climate and soil vary from forest to forest.are highly dependent on grassland.where the climate is cool to cold during winter and hot in summer.ex-deodar. shrubs and ground cover. . Biotic:The producer. These biomes occur in the region .beer •Broadleaved forests-have large leaves of various shape. Terrestrial Ecosystem 2.where temperature are low.sheep.consumer and decomposer GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM Grassland cover areas where rainfall is usually low and/or soil depth and quality is poor.

Aquatic Ecosystem These ecosystems constitute the marine environments of the seas and the fresh water systems in lake.Desert and semi-arid area are located in western India. rivers. ponds and wetlands. Biotic:producer-like lichens.They are occupied about 17% of the land. Component: Abiotic: rainfall is very low and temperature found to be high. The . It provides human beings with a wealth of natural resources. Some plants and animals such as snails and other animals can withstand the rapid flow of hill streams. decomposer. River or stream ecosystem: Stream and river are flowing water ecosystems in which all the living forms are specially adapted to different rates of flow. Feature is scarcity of water and high temperature. DESERT ECOSYSTEM The desert biomes are characterized by extremely low rainfall(less than 25cm).cynodon. Pond and lake ecosystem: These are the example of a selfsufficient and self-regulating ecosystem.Biotic:Producer-likeSpecies of Imparata. Conumer. The vegetation in the water consist of floating weeds and rooted vegetation on the periphery which grow on the muddy floor under water and emerge out of the surface of water. Having highly specialized insects and reptiles. Ocean and marine ecosystem: Oceans cover more than two thirds of the earth’s surface. cacti etc Consumer.used by camel and some goat etc.decomposer. The ocean represents a large and stable ecosystem.

The term biodiversity refers to the totality of genes. UNIT. biodiversity of the fret patch. This includes the different:  types of animals. birds. bacteria and other species . CONCEPT OF BIODIVERSITY Biological diversity refers as the variety of life on Earth. plants. insects. spices.4 Biodiversity INTRODUCTION The occurrence of different kind’s organisms reflects the biological diversity or in short. fish.marine environment is characterized by its high concentration of salts and mineral ions. and ecosystem of a region.

arid zones. A species can have varieties and each variety has it own genes or genetic make up. All these have their own fauna and flora . deserts. how wood pigeons help to sow seeds  types of places species live together. Such diversity can be measured on the basis of species in a region. how one giant skink differs from another  ways species live together. 2) Species biodiversity: It means variety of species within a region. Diversity of genes in a species increases its ability to adapt disease. When a variety of a species is destroyed. for example. for example. for example.  Biological diversity includes three hierarchical levels: Biodiversity is often talked about as having three different levels 1) Genetic biodiversity: It means the variation of genes with in a species. genetic diversity gets diminished. for example. dune lands or geothermal areas  Ways in which species interact with their environment. characteristics within a species. wetlands. More species diversity means more biological wealth. 3) Ecosystem biodiversity: Ecosystem biodiversity refers to variety of ecosystem in a particular region or zone as for example various ecosystems include forests. pollution and other changes in environment. etc. some wetland plants like to be flooded.

 Adopt new public policies and accounting methods that promote conservation and equitable use of biodiversity.  Increase funding for biodiversity conservation. Bio diversity at local level:  Creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation: . Bio diversity at national level:  Creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation:  Integrate biodiversity conservation into international economic policy. and accountable ways to raise funds and spend them effectively. and develop innovative.  Reduce demand for biological resources.  Make the development assistance process a force for biodiversity conservation.  Establishing a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation:  Reform existing public policies that invite the waste or misuse of biodiversity.(biodiversity) Bio diversity at global levels: The Global Biodiversity Strategy calls for:  Catalyzing action through international cooperation and national planning.  Strengthen the international legal framework for conservation to complement the Convention on Biological Diversity. decentralized.

 Conserving species. Strengthening protected areas:  Identify national and international priorities for strengthening protected areas and enhancing their role in biodiversity conservation. and genetic diversity:  Strengthen capacity to conserve species. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources that cause biodiversity loss.  Support biodiversity conservation initiatives in the private sector. and genetic diversity in natural habitats (in-situ).  Ensure the sustainability of protected areas and their contribution to biodiversity conservation.  Strengthen the capacity of off-site conservation facilities (ex-situ) to conserve .  Incorporate biodiversity conservation into the management of biological resources.  Expand and encourage the sustainable use of products and services from the wild for local benefits.  Ensure that those who possess local knowledge of genetic resources benefit appropriately when it is used. populations. and develop new resource management partnerships between government and local communities. populations.  Managing biodiversity throughout the human environment:  Create the institutional conditions for bioregional conservation and development.

 Promote basic and applied research on biodiversity conservation.  Expanding human capacity to conserve biodiversity:  Increase appreciation and awareness of biodiversity's values and importance.  Develop human capacity for biodiversity conservation USES OF BIODIVERSITY Human derives many direct and indirect benefits from the living world. The fundamental social.  Help institutions disseminate the information needed to conserve biodiversity and mobilize its benefits. educate the public. ethical. and contribute to sustainable development. cultural. and economic values of these resources have been . Biodiversity is 1) The source of food and improved verities 2) Pharmaceutical drugs and medicines 3) Asthetic and cultural benefits 4) Ecosystem services VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY Biological resources provide the basis for life on earth. including that of humans.biodiversity.

fodder. Even partial valuation in monetary terms of the benefits of conserving biological resources can provide at least a lower limit to the full range of benefits and demonstrate the conservation can yield a profit in terms that are meaningful to national accounts.  assessing the value of products that are commercially harvested. along with the intangible values of keeping options open for the future ("option value") and simply knowing that certain species exist ("existence value"). Three main approaches have been used for determining the value of biological resources:  assessing the value of nature's products -. such as timber. regulation of climate. and game meat--that are consumed directly. But in order to compete for the attention of government and commercial decision-makers in today's world. art. Pressure on biodiversity . ivory. and production of soil ("non-consumptive use value").such as firewood. and literature from the earliest days of recorded history. and medicinal plants ("productive use value"). and  assessing indirect values of ecosystem functions. without passing through a market ("consumptive use value"). fish. policies regarding biological diversity first need to demonstrate in economic terms the contribution biological resources make to the country's social and economic development. game meat sold in a market. such as watershed protection. photosynthesis.recognized in religion.

THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY: Biodiversity refers to the diversity of species and habitats. The threat to biodiversity occurs when these dynamics are disturbed beyond the point of recovery. but also dynamism. due to human actions. conceptualizing biodiversity solely in terms of the numbers of species and sites within a specified area. including the economic pressures from those who derive income directly from the state's natural resources. regional and local. There are two main ways in which this can occur.The pressures on biodiversity include:  population growth. species and ecosystems are threatened with destruction to an extent rarely seen in earth history. often gives a rather static impression of biodiversity. or in terms of the scale of populations at risk of extinction. However. The essence of nature is not only diversity. First. It amounts to more than an account of how many species exist in a particular area and which of them are on the Red List of 'at risk' plants and animals. Probably only during the handful of mass extinction events have so many species been threatened. In the modern era. there may be a change in management practices in an area where there has been . in so short a time. settlement patterns and the accompanying consumption levels  economic factors. as measured at a number of scales: global. but also the failure of markets to value all biodiversity considerations  Lack of awareness and knowledge about biodiversity.

In many cases. or most controversially the introduction of genetically modified organisms into conventional agriculture--can push the ecosystem beyond its threshold and tip it into degradation. such as whales and many African large mammals .no change in the actual land use. the use of new pesticides or mechanized harvesting. in some cases the changed management practice--increased numbers of leisure visitors or larger amounts of killed game. we have transformed. and that can continue in cases where human involvement does not exceed the capacity of the area to cope. intensive agro-industry in the European countryside. What are these human actions? There are many ways to conceive of these . nomadic hunting in Africa or provision for leisure activities in the North American National Parks. As the human population passes the six billion mark. we can attribute the loss of species and ecosystems to the accelerating transformation of the earth by a growing human population.let's consider two. existing ecosystems will have already changed over time in response to past human involvement. This could be rubber tapping in the Brazilian rainforest. All these anthropocentric engagements with nature to some extent involve exploitation of existing ecosystems. 'Management' here means the whole range of human involvement in an area. However. degraded or destroyed roughly half of the word's forests Second. we can examine six specific types of human actions that threaten species and ecosystems .the "sinister sextet Over-hunting has been a significant cause of the extinction of hundreds of species and the endangerment of many more. First.

Malawi and Tanganyika . . species and biotic community-is important and needed to be conserved. As deforestation proceeds in tropical forests. While not commonly a cause of extinction.are famous for their great diversity of endemic species. and threatened by contamination. occurring in small isolated pools in the US southwest. Several species of desert pupfish. of cichlid fishes Pollution from chemical contaminants certainly poses a further threat to species and ecosystems. termed "species flocks". Invasion of non-native species is an important and oftenoverlooked cause of extinctions. We may appreciate the fact that the most effective and efficient mechanisms for conserving biodiversity is to prevent the further destruction or degradation of habitats by us. The distribution of species (biogeography) is largely determined by climate. this promises to become THE cause of mass extinctions caused by human activity.Habitat loss/degradation/fragmentation is an important cause of known extinctions. as is the distribution of ecosystems and plant vegetation zones (biomes) CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY Most people are beginning to recognize the diversity at all levels-gene pool. The African Great Lakes Victoria. are examples Climate change: A changing global climate threatens species and ecosystems. it likely can be for species whose range is extremely small.

which exceed the tolerable magnitude with in or beyond limits.There are two basic strategies of biodiversity conservation: 1) in-situ (on site) approach 2) ex-situ (off site) approach 1) The in-situ strategies emphasis protection of total ecosystems. droughts and flood. make adjustment difficult and results in catastrophic losses of property. Flood-It simply means inundation of extensive land area with water for several days’ inn continuation. The in-situ approach includes protection of a group of typical ecosystems through a network of protected areas. These become more disaster because of their high speed. . People conceive flood as the outcome of accumulation of huge volume of water coming out of the rivers through over trapping of river banks during peak discharge period. pollen.is the most powerful destructive dangerous and deadly atmospheric storm on the earth. seedling. Tropical cyclones. zoos. volcanic eruptions. and gene. conservation stands. tissue culture and DNA banks. Disaster management The environmental disaster may be defined as “the extreme events either natural or man included. income and lives”. 2) The ex-situ strategies include botanical gardens. 2. The environmental events that causes disaster for human society include cyclone. The environmental disaster always viewed in terms of human beings. 1. seed. earthquakes.

Education: Disaster education plays a significant role in disaster reduction It arouse awareness about the hazards of disasters. 4. Drought are more deadly natural environmental hazards because these are directly related to one of the basic requirement of life i. Relief measure: It should be provided immediately to the disaster victims 2. 4.Disaster Research: it includes the study of the contributing factors and mechanisms of natural disasters and identification of Terrain risk areas on the basis of remote sensing. The drought control measure include afforestation to increase the content of air moisture. Drought-The term 'drought' refers to the condition of dryness for prolonged period.Disaster Predictions: The predictions of natural hazards may be made on the basis of past history of the area prone to a particular hazard.Earthquake-An earthquake is a motion of ground surface. water. . 3.ranging from a faint tremor to a wild motion capable of shaking buildings apart and causing gaping fissures to open in the ground. introduction of dry farming tecquines.3. help the people to improve the standard of constructions to escape the disasters.e. Disaster Management Measure The natural disaster management involves the following steps: 1.

which are included in the world’s most bio-rich areas.000 species of animals which is about 7% and 6. Names India’s world ranking No of species in India Mammals 8th 350 Birds 8th 1200 Reptiles 5th 453 Amphibia 15th 182 Fungi 23. India stands among the top 10 or 15 countries for its great variety of plants and animals. About 62% -amphibians & 50% -lizards are endemic to India.000 Algae 2500 It is estimated that 18% of Indian plants are endemic to the country and found nowhere else in the world. Western ghats are the site of maximum endemism.INDIA AS A MEGA-DIVERSITY NATION: Among the biologically rich-nation.5% respectively of global flora and fauna. Endemism-species which are restricted only to a particular area known as endemic. . Our globally accepted national ‘hot-spots’ are in the forests of the North-east and the western ghats.Govt of India(2000) records 47. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are extremely rich in species like 2200-flowering plant &120-species of ferns.000 species of pants & 81. The Ministry of Environment and Forests. HOT-SPOT OF BIODIVERSITY Areas which exhibits high species richness as well as high species endemism are termed as hot spots of biodiversity.

Measures-Tiger Conservation Project(TCB)has made provisions to tactfully deal with any imminent danger. Man-wildlife conflict:In Sambalpur. Causes: Loss of habitat:over harvesting of fish. -Animals move out of forest in search of food.especially by trawling is leading to serious depletion of fish stocks.ex-taxa.in retaliation the villagers killed 98 elephants and badly injured 30 elephants.elephants etc.have been drastically reduced. Species which are not endangered or vulnerable at present but are at a risk are categorized as rare species.passenger peg ion. due to shrinking forest cover. ENDANGERED AND ENDEMIC SPECIES OF INDIA A species is said to be extinct when it is not seen in the wild for 50 yr at a stretch ex-dodo.Lakshadweep Island are rich in species as tropical evergreen forests. A species is said to be endangered when its number has been reduced to a critical level or whose habitat. To protected endangered species India has created the Wildlife protection Act.Orissa 195 humans were killed in last 5 yr by elephants. Poaching of wildlife:specific threats to certain animals are related to large economic benefits. . A species is said to be in vulnerable category if its population is facing continuous decline due to overexploitation or habitat destruction. Illegal trade of wildlife products by killing prohibited endangered animals. Causes -Dwindling habitats of tigers. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Extinction or elimination of a species is a natural processes of evolution.The gulf areas of Gujarat and TamilNadu.

-Biosphere reserves -conserve some representative ecosystem as a whole for long term ex-Nanda devi(U.Mainly done for the conservation of crops and all local varieties and variability of crop species.ex-Kaziranga(Assam) 2.tiger.zoos. Ex situ conservation(outside habitat):This is done by establishment of gene banks.P).Gulf of Mannar (TamilNadu) -National park-dedicated for the conservation of wildlife along with its envt.platycerium etc CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY Two approaches of biodiversity conservation: 1. tortoise. cheetah. CHAPTER-5 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Pollution refers to substances which are released into the environment because of anthropogenic activities that can either deliberately and accidentally or occur naturally which have an adverse effects on human and on environment. The following important gene /seed bank facilities: -National bureau of plant genetic resources -National facility for plant tissue culture repository.In situ conservation(within habitat): This is achieved by protection of wild flora and fauna in nature itself.snow leopard.botanical gardens etc. TYPES OF POLLUTION: Air pollution Noise pollution .spotted owl etc Some important endemic floura include orchids.sanctuaries etc.ex-national parks.seed banks.Some important endangered and extinct species are:red panda .

Secondary pollutant-acid rain & ozone Root Causes Increase in number of vehicles Increase in industrial activity increase in power generation Domestic pollution Secondary air pollutant Effect Contributing to various diseases Reduce plant growth Detritions of material-discolored irreplaceable monuments.1981. Air Pollutant can bePrimary pollutant-Co2.Water pollution Thermal pollution Soil pollution Nuclear hazard Marine pollution AIR POLLUTION The Air (Prevention and control of pollution)Act.So2. Air pollution means the presence in the atmosphere of any air pollutant.gaseous substance present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human being or other living creatures or plants or property or environment. define “Air Pollutant” means any solid.CFC etc.No2. Effect on climate-ozone depletion CONTROL MEASURE Preventive Measures . historic buildings etc.carbon monoxide.liquid.

Source of Water pollution Direct sources -effluent outfalls from factories.Selection of suitable fuel Modification in Industrial processes &equipment to reduce emission Selection of suitable industrial site Substitution of raw material Control measures Control of particulate matter Control of gaseous pollutant Control of automobiles exhaust WATER POLLUTION When the quality or composition of water changes directly or indirectly as a result of man’s activities such that it becomes unfit for any purpose. Effects poisonous drinking water& food animals (due to these organisms having bio accumulated toxins from the environment over their life spans). that emit fluids of varying quality directly into urban water supplies. refineries. it is said to be polluted.  Indirect sources -contaminants that enter the water supply from soils/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rainwater. Unbalanced aquatic ecosystems Deforestation from acid rain. Eutrophication-The excessive growth of algae & aquatic plant due to added nutrient  NOISE POLLUTION . waste treatment plants etc.

unpleasant sound. Effect Physical health-hearing loss Mental health-psychological effect lead to tension. Soil pollution chiefly occurs through chemicals and human refuse.organic material.Climate and time are also important for the development of soils.physiological lead to deafness Sources of Noise •Industry •Road Traffic •Trains •Aircraft •Construction Work •Loud Speaker Control of noise pollution •Devising noise control devices •Creating noise free zones •Legal means SOIL POLLUTION Soil is the thin covering over the land consisting of mixture of minerals.Not all sound is noise.living organism.air and water that together support the growth of plant life. Causes: Waste dumping on soil Industrial waste Pesticide used to kill pests Organic and Inorganic compounds Excessive fertilizers . Sound of 60db is normal conversation and 140db is the level when sound become irritating & unbearable.Noise is unwanted. Sound is measured in a unit called decibel.anxiety and stress.

Biogas should be used Solid waste to be collected before proper disposal Recovery of useful products from waste MARINE POLLUTION Marin pollution can be defined as the introduction of substances to the marine environment directly or indirectly by man resulting in adverse effects.pesticides. Recovery of useful products from waste. •Obstruction of marine activities and •lowering the quality of sea water. . Causes Petroleum and oils washed off from the roads normally enter the sewage system .liquefied natural gas. Reduce soil productivity N & P fertilizers run-off the soil and causes eutrophication. Ships carry many toxic substances such as oils.Effect of soil pollution Sewage & industrial effluents which pollute the soil effect human health. Control of Soil pollution Effluents to be treated before discharge.in huge quantities. Effects: •Hazards to human health. storm water overflows carry these materials into rivers & eventually into seas.industrial chemicals etc.

 THERMAL POLLUTION The discharge of warm water into a river is usually called a thermal pollution. Control of Marine pollution Toxic pollutants should not be discharged.need for the introduction of sewage treatment plants. Thermal pollution can lead to: Decrease in the dissolved oxygen level in the water while also increasing the biological demand of aquatic organisms for oxygen. . Off shore oil exploration and extraction also pollute the sea water to a large extent.. Dumping of waste in sea should be banned. Oil ballast should not be dumped into sea. Composition of flora and fauna changes.Thermal Pollution can occur when water is used as a coolant near a power or industrial plant and then is returned to the aquatic environment at a higher temperature than it was originally . Sewer overflow should be prevented.Fish migration due to thermal zones.So. Increase temperature are barrier for O2 penetration Metabolic activities of marine organism increases at high temperature.Inputs of waste through pipes directly discharging waste into the sea. •Discharge of heated water disturbed fishes. Biologically sensitive costal areas should be protected from drilling. Pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture.

•Radioactive substance present in the nature.•Changes the ecological balance of the river. Safety measures against nuclear accident . Sitting of nuclear power plants should be carefully done after studying long term and short term effect. -Cooling tower-take less land area than ponds.lungs and skin problem. Affecting genes and chromosomes. •Sources of Radioactivity:  Natural sources:Include cosmic rays from outer space. Control Measures Proper disposal of wastes from laboratory involving using of radioisotopes should be done.here heat tranfer occur through evaporation.nuclear weapons.power plants utilize only 1/3 of energy provided by the fossils fuels.Test laboratories etc.radium-224. Man-made source:like nuclear power plant.damages transmitted up to several generation. Eye cataract and cancer of bone. Effect of Radiations Ionisation radiations can affect living organism by causing harmful changes in the body cells and also changes at genetic level. Causes: •Industry. NUCLEAR HAZARDS •Nuclear energy can be both beneficial and harmful depending on the way in which it is used.It spontaneously emit alpha.here the heat get dissipated from the pond into the atmosphere.beta particles and gamma rays by disintegration of their atomic nuclei.uranium-238 present in the earth’s crust. •Increase 10-16*c temperature higher. Control Measure: -Cooling pond-to construct a large shallow pond.

Composting-degradation of organic wastes by microorganisms in the presence of O2 and provide a number of attractive features. Recycling Provide knowledge of it Disaster Management .medical. • •Sources of Urban and Industrial wastes: Waste from home(Domestic) Waste from shops like bottles. industrial. Management of Solid waste Reduction in the use of raw material Reuse of waste materials  Recycling of material Control of generation Disposal of solid wastes: Sanitary landfills-all collected material is directly placed in a dump but it should be away from human habitation.mineral processing.and sewage sludge.packaging material.Thermal power plants etc Effects of solid waste: Unhygienic conditions create foul smell Breeds various type of insect & infectious organism. Incineration-process of burning a large amount of material at high temperature.concrete etc Industrial waste like acids and metals.Solid waste can be classified as municipal.SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT •Any substance that is discarded is designated as waste. chemical.mining. Biomedical waste include pathological waste Construction waste like debris.agriculture.

The place on the ground surface recording the seismic waves for the first time is called epicenter. Cyclones The most powerful. The environmental events that cause disaster for human society include cyclones. volcanic eruption .agriculture crops.dangerous and deadly atmospheric storms on the earth.make adjustment difficult and result in catastrophic losses of property.high tidal.destructive. Management-long term measures like planting more trees on coastal belts.loss of human lives.proper drainage  Earthquake It occur due to sudden movement of earth’s crust which has several tectonic plates of solid rock which slowly move along their boundaries.typhoons in Western pacific. earthquakes.The environmental disaster may be defined as “the extreme events either natural or man included which exceed the tolerable magnitude with or beyond certain limits.Create destruction of building. The magnitude or intensity of energy released by an earthquake is measured by Richter scale . low atmospheric pressures causes unusual rise in sea level.domestic and wild animals.(Temperature above 26*c) Also called hurricanes in Atlantic. Recurring phenomena in the tropical coastal region.income and lives.drought and floods. Tropical Cyclones in the warm oceans are formed because of heat and moisture.willy willy in Australia.

1960 in Chile9. To ensure S. Man-made activities-underground nuclear testing.Largest earthquake occurred on May 22. Intra-generational Equity:emphasizes that the development processes should seek to minimize the wealth gap within and between nations (Principle of equity).“Design with nature”. CHAPTER-6 SOCIAL ISSUES AND ENVIRONMENT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT S.deep well disposal of liquid waste.Eco-friendly.any activity that is expected to bring about economic growth must also consider its environmental impact so that it is more consistent with long term growth and development KEY ASPECTS OF S. Measures for S.  .5magnitude affecting 90.Culturally suitable .D Using Appropriate technology.D Inter-generational Equity:try to minimize any adverse impact on resources and environment for future generation.D.D is defined as development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.000 people.000 square miles and killing 60.

Promoting environmental education and awareness 3. Strategies for conserving it: .consumption should not exceed regeneration and changes not to occur beyond the tolerance capacity of the system.The technology should use less of resources and should produce minimum waste. So.Reduce. 1. URBAN PROBLEM RELATED TO ENERGY Urban center use enormous quantities of energy Residential and commercial lighting Transportation means Industrial plants using large energy proportion Need energy for cooling(A.It has to be equitably and fairly distributed so that all get a share of the water. Carrying capacity:The maximum no of living thing that can be supported indefinitely by a given ecosystem or area without deterioration.we should save it and begin to have a more sustainable lifestyle.recycle approach 2.It has two component: =Supporting capacity:the capacity to regenerate =Assimilative capacity:the capacity to tolerate different stresses. WATER CONSERVATION Water conservation is linked closely with overall human-well being.reuse. So.Resource utilization as per the carrying capacity.C) Energy to operate lifts in buildings  Waste generation which has to be disposed off used energy based techniques.

Decreasing run-off losses:can be reduced by allowing most of the water to infiltrate into the soil. Reducing irrigation losses-like supplies water to plants to its roots through a system of tubes. RAIN WATER HARVESTING Rain water harvesting is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing rain water. OBJECTIVES To To To To To To reduce run-off loss avoid flooding of roads meet the increasing demands of water raise the water table by recharging ground water reduce ground water contamination supplement ground water supplies during lean season . Increasing block pricing:has to pay proportionally higher bill with higher use of water. •Water-storage structure-Like farm ponds.This can be achieved by the following system: •Contour cultivation-prepare ridges across the slope trap rainwater and allow more time for infiltration.lagoons etc.repairing any leakages from the pipes.dug-outs etc •Chemical conditioners:like gypsum to improve soil permeability and reduce run-off. Storing water in the soil.irrigation in early morning or late evening to reduce evaporation. The stored water has to be kept pollution free and clean so that it can be used for drinking purposes. keeping the water uncontaminated is of great importance.This is done by constructing special water harvesting structure like dug wells.Thus. Preventing wastage of water:Like closing taps when not in use. Re-use of water-treating waste water can be used for fertiirrigation.

METHODS By storing in tanks or reservoirs above or below ground By constructing pits,dug-wells or check-dams By recharging the groundwater Techniques One way is groundwater dams have advantages of minimum evaporation loss,reduce chance of contamination. Second way is using rooftop rainwater harvesting to collect it so that it percolates into the ground to recharge well instead of flowing over the ground into river. This is low cost methods with little maintenance expenses. It helps: in recharging the aquifers, Improves groundwater quality , Improve soil moisture and Reduce soil erosion by minimizing run-off water. Water shed Management

The land area that drains into a stream;the watershed for a major river may encompass a number of smaller watersheds that ultimately combine at o common delivery point. A water shed effect us as it directly involved in sustained food production,water supply for irrigation, power generation,transportation,vegetation growth,drought,floods. Water shed degradation found due to uncontrolled, unplanned and unscientific land use activities. Overgrazing, deforestation, mining, industrialization, soil erosion, ignorance of local people are responsible for degradation several of water sheds.

Objectives Rational utilization of land and water resources for optimum production causing minimum damage to natural resources is called watershed management. To manage watershed for beneficial development activities. To minimize risk of floods, drought etc. To develop rural areas in the region with the clear plan for improving the economy.  Measures Soil conservation measures-by constructing long trenches just to hold the rain water. Water harvesting-proper storage of water for using in dry seasons. Afforest ration-help to prevent soil erosion and retention of moisture. Measures to reduce soil erosion and run-off losses-like strip cropping, contour cropping Scientific mining and quarrying-not to lose hills stability. Public participation. RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION OF PEOPLE Problem and Concerns Various types of projects result in the displacement of native people who undergo tremendous economic and psychological distress like Displacement problems due to dams-Hirakund dam, Terhi dam

Displacement due to Mining-Jharia coal fields,Jharkhand Displacement due to creation of national parks-Wayanad wildlife sanctuary in kerala REHABILITATION POLICY Land for land” is the better policy than cash settlements of displaced people . People displaced should get an appropriate share in fruit of development. Rehabilitation by creating new settlement within their own environment. Removal of poverty should also be an objective of this policy. Should give the assurance of employment. Training facilities ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS Environmental ethics deals with issue related to the rights of individuals that are fundamental to life and well being,but also deals with the right of other living creature that inhabit our earth. Resource consumption pattern and the need for their equitable utilization. Equity-Disparity in the northern and southern countries Urban-rural equity issues The need for gender equity Preserving resources for future generation. The right of animals The ethical basis of environmental education and awareness. So,it provides us the guidelines for putting our beliefs into action and helps us to decide what to do when faced with crucial situation.

famines & death of humans as well as livestock. Contribution Ch4 20% CFCs 14% No2 6% Co2 60% .upset the hydrological cycle.Our teaching on “having fewer wants” ensure to put “limits to growth” and guide us to have an eco-centric lifestyle. Globally. Anthropogenic activities are upsetting the balance between the various components of environment Result in floods and droughts in different regions. changes in agriculture productivity.various disease spread up due to climate change. GLOBAL WARMING The increase amount of green house gases in the atmosphere are affecting the global climate and this phenomenon is called global change.The amount of heat trapped in the atmosphere and the length of time they stay here. CLIMATE CHANGE Climate-Average weather of an area. 1998 was the warmest year and the 1990’s the warmest decade on record.

Effect on human health. these chemical react with water and other chemicals in the air & form sulphuric acid.snow.sleet and so forth that is more acidic than normal(generally polluted due to human produced air pollutants)also known as acid precipitation Effects It dissolves and washed away nutrients in the soil which are needed by plants. Rain.Impact Effect on weather and climate Rise in sea level-due to melting of glaciers and ice sheet. Effect on range of species distribution-species occur within a specific range of temperature. .other harmful pollutant. ACID RAIN Rain polluted by sulphur and nitrogen based acids from combustion process When fossil fuels burned. Measures Use energy more efficiently Plant more trees Remove Co2 Concentration.chemical are produced. Effect on Food production-due to increased incidence of plant diseases and pests.

Control Emission of So2 & No2 from industries and power plant should be reduced. In plants. In humans.Molina Effect of Ozone Depletion Depletion of Ozone layer. The various pollutant like CFCs. It flow as ground water to reach river.but CFCs are the most damaging agents of ozone layer.plastics and other polymer material will result in economic loss . By adversely affecting one species.Causes deterioration of building especially made up of marble.lakes causes the water in them acidic. OZONE LAYER DEPLETION Ozone layer in the stratosphere forms a shield for earth against harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) from outer space. Liming of lakes and soil should be done to correct the adverse affect of acid rains.increase skin cancer. Ozone is a colourless gas. UV-B arising from sun would reach the earth if there are ozone holes. decline in the functioning of immune system. Degradation of paints.the process of photosynthesis get effected.the entire food chain disturbed. Depletion of Ozone results in the form of holes in its shield.5% loss of ozone result in 10% increase in UV-B radiation.Yield of vital crops decreases.damages to eyes of human being.allow more UV-B radiation reaching the earth surface.Ch4. The discoveries related to ozone layer destruction were made by Rowland.No2.ultimately endangering the entire ecosystem.

thus affecting all form of life for generation to come In Nuclear holocaust in 1945.NUCLEAR ACCIDENT& HOLOCAUST Nuclear energy was researched and discovered by a man as a source of alternate energy which would be cheap and clean compared to fossil fuel. Killed thousand of people. Maximum wasteland areas in our country lie in Rajasthan .genetic disorder. M.radioactive fall-out leads to cancer. Loss of vegetation cover leads to loss of soil erosion. WASTELAND RECLAMATION Economically unproductive lands suffering from environmental deterioration are known as wastelands . .P. It causes loss of life.sodic and sandy land area. A. two nuclear bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities of Japan during world war II.P.is one worst disaster.which ultimately create wastelands.destruction of property on a large scale.left many thousand injured and devastated everything for miles around. The use of nuclear energy in war has had devastating effect on man and earth. Wasteland can be classified into three forms: Easily reclaimable-can used for agriculture purpose. Reclaimable with extreme difficulty-Forestry like use indigenous species of trees.4% and most of it comprises saline. In Haryana the wasteland cover about 8. Reclaimable with some difficulty-putting land to multiple uses(agro-forestry).long-term illness. But accident can occur at any stage like In 1986-Nuclear power station at Chernobyl in USSR led to fire and number of explosions in nuclear reactor.

mustard and coconut are salt tolerant crops.soyabean. Improve the availability of good quality of water.overgrazing. .mining and erroneous agriculture practices. Prevent soil erosion. Wasteland reclamation objectives: To improve the physical structure and quality of marginal soils. Afforestration programmes CONSUMERISM AND WASTE PRODUCTS Consumerism refers to the consumption of resources by the people.Causes-deforestation. Two conditions of population & consumerism exist: People over-population-when there are more people than available supplies of resources(LDCs) Consumption over-population-occur in developed countries. Drainage-create system to remove the excess water. Selection of tolerant crops and crop rotation-like wheat. Causes-Increase in population size along with increase in our demands due to change in life-style. Irrigation practices.  WASTELAND RECLAMATION PRACTICES Land development and leaching-by applying excess amount of water to push down the salts.This is due to the pattern of economic development that ensures that people go on consuming even more than actually they need.flooding Conserve biological resources of land foe sustainable use.

EPA has also made provision for environmental audit as a means of checking whether or not company comply with the environmental laws and regulation. loss of forest cover and increasing threat to biodiversity. Inordinate amount of waste generated by consumeroriented societies around the world create serious envtal issues. The decline in the environmental quality was evidenced by increasing pollution. The Air(Prevention and Control of pollution)Act. enlightened media. under this act include: Prohibition and restriction on the handling of hazardous substances in different areas. Prohibition and restriction on location of industries. Emphasis on the implementation of clean technologies by the industries in order to increase the fuel efficiency Action for the presence of excessive concentration of harmful chemicals Needed-public concern and support is crucial for implementing the EPA along with good administrator. -Need for wider general legislation Important function of Central and state govt. USA known for maximum consumerism. It create wasteful use of energy and material far beyond the need for everyday living at a comfortable level.1981 . 1986 The act was passed to protect the environment. The Environment (Protection) Act. Setting up the standard of quality of air. water and soil for various areas and purposes. highly policy maker and trained technocrats So.

control and abatement of air pollution To provide for the establishment of central and state boards with a view to implement the act. control of water pollution and the maintenance or restoration of the wholesomeness of water. Central Pollution Control Board Advices the central govt. 1981 was amended in 1987 and noise was recognized as an air pollution. The main regulatory bodies are the Central and State PCBs. Organize training and awareness programmes . Design to assess pollution levels and punish polluters. The Air act. Objectives of the Act are as follows: To provide the prevention. 1974 The objectives of the act are to provide for the preservation. To confer on the boards the powers to implement the provision of the act and assign to boards functions relating to pollution. Coordinates the activities of State PCBs and provide them technical assistance. Acute in Industrialized & urbanized areas-densely populated-Monitored by pollution control board (PCBs) set up in every state. The board have to check whether or not the industry strictly follows the norms and standards The Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act.The act deals with the preservation of air quality and the control of air pollution with a concern for the detrimental effects of air pollutants on human health and also on biological world. in matter related to prevention and control of water pollution. which conferred the following duties and powers.

Installation and proper functioning of Effluent treatment plants(ETP) in all polluting industries is a must for checking pollution of water and land. compile and publishes technical and statistical data related to pollution. Objectives. treatment and disposal of trade effluents. duties etc.Collect. Provide for the appointment of wildlife advisory board. birds and plants and has following objectives. The amendment to the Wildlife protection act in 2002 is more stringent and prevent the commercial use of resources by local people . wildlife warden. Wildlife (Protection) Act. their powers. Provides for captive breeding Programme for endangered species. It define wild-life related terminology. Lays down the rules and standards in consultation with State boards State Pollution Control Board Have similar functions executed at state level and govern by the direction of CPCB. Provides for legal powers to officers and punishment to offenders. The act provide for the constitution of central zoo authority The act impose a ban on the trade or commerce in animals.1972 The act deals with the declaration and task of setting up of National Parks and Wildlife sanctuaries Act safeguards wild animals. Industry had to obtain consent from the board for effluent is carried out Board suggests efficient methods for utilization .

has to take the prior approval of central govt. But. Drawbacks of forest act -the tribal who lived in the forest were totally dependent on . still losing wildlife etc. The state govt has been empowered under this act to use forests only for forestry purpose. If wants to use in any other way. Drawbacks of wildlife act: The offender of the act is not subject to very harsh penalties The wildlife traders in J& k easily get illegal furs and skins from other states. Provide for the Advisory committee. To control deforestation No person is allowed to make clearing or set fire to a reserved forest. The status of environment shows that there are drawbacks in environmental legislations and problem in their effective implementation. Penalties-punishable for a term which may extend to six month or with a fine of Rs 500 or both. Any illegal non-forest activity within a forest area can be immediately stopped under this act.1980 The act deals with the conservation of forests and related aspects. Issues Involved in Enforcement of Environmental legislation In spite of these act.some construction work in the forest for wildlife or forest management is exempted from non-forestry activity. we find we are not able to achieve the target of forestation. which recommends funding for it to the central govt.A person who breaks any of the conditions of any license or permit granted under this act shall be guilty of the offence against this act-in term of three year imprisonment or with a fine of Rs 25000 Forest (Conservation)Act.

Two main things -Environment Impact Assessment -Citizen actions It need to be aimed at decentralization of power. transparency. community-state partnership.forests retaliate when stopped taking any resources from there and start criminal activities like killing also. -Pollution control laws are not backed by sound policy and guiding principles. Provision for penalties is very insignificant -Restrict the involvement of general public -lack of adequate funds and expertise to pursue their objectives. Several advertising campaigns Role of NGOs-voluntary organization by advising the govt about local issues. Chipko movement. . Publication of environmental-related resources material in the form of pamphlets or booklets published by minister of environment and forest.Narmada bachao andolan organised by Kalpavriksh. Methods Among students through education Among the masses through mass-media Among the planners. Public awareness Awareness should be in proper manner because incomplete knowledge and information and ignorance about many aspects has often lead to misconception. So. accountability & more stringent penalties to offender .decision-makers and leaders. -Poor public support Drawbacks of pollution related act -power and authority at the central level create problem for proper execution at state level.

5 Risks due to chemicals in food 231 7. For a successful Environmental Legislation to be implemented.1.2.1.2 Climate and health 223 7.Centre for science and environment. Environmental Legislation Environmental Legislation is evolved to protect our environment as a whole.2 Nutrition. VARIATION AMONG NATIONS 214 7.process it and pass it on to a law enforcement agency.2 Urbanization 217 7.3.our health and the earth resources.3. UNIT 7: Human Population and the Environment 7.3.4 HUMAN RIGHTS 233 7.1 Environmental health 221 7.World widw fund for nature.punished through legal action.4.3.if broken.3 Infectious diseases 224 7.2 POPULATION EXPLOSION – FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAM 215 7.1 Global population growth 214 7.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN HEALTH 220 7.4.3.1 Methods of sterilization 217 7.3.1 Equity 233 7.there has to be an effective agency to collect the relevant data. health and human rights 234 .4 Water-related diseases 227 7.6 Cancer and environment 232 7.1 POPULATION GROWTH.

In the near future. Pastures will be overgrazed by domestic animals and industrial growth will create ever-greater problems due to pollution of soil. water and air. 5:09 PM 213 214 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses 7.7 WOMEN AND CHILD WELFARE 244 7. VARIATION AMONG NATIONS Our global human population.5.5.6 HIV/AIDS 243 7. 6 billion at present.5.5.1 Environmental Values 237 7.4 Social justice 241 7. fossil fuel from oil fields will run dry. Global warming due to industrial gases will lead to a rise in sea levels and flood all low-lying areas.3 Intellectual Property Rights and Community Biodiversity Registers 235 7. Larger ozone holes will develop due to the discharge of industrial chemicals into the atmosphere.5 VALUE EDUCATION 236 7. Seas will not have enough fish.8 Ecological degradation 242 7. The needs of this huge number of human beings cannot be supported by the Earth’s natural resources. will cross the 7 billion mark by 2015.5.5 Human heritage 242 7.5.5. Water .1 POPULATION GROWTH.7.7 Common Property Resources 242 7. which will affect human health.p65 4/9/2004.2 Valuing Nature 240 7.3 Valuing cultures 241 7.6 Equitable use of Resources 242 7. It will be impossible to meet the demands for food from existing agro systems. submerging coastal agriculture as well as towns and cities. without degrading the quality of human life.5.4.8 ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH 247 Chapter7.

The control over regional biological diversity. These effects can be averted by creating a mass environmental awareness movement that will bring about a change in people’s way of life. On the other hand. food shortage has become a permanent feature. Increase in production per capita of agricultural produce at a global level ceased during the 1980’s. Degradation of ecosystems will lead to extinction of thousands of species. the disparity between the rich and the poor in India is also growing. In other regions famines due to drought have become more frequent. Two of every three children in South Africa are underweight. destabilizing natural ecosystems of great value. only 15% of the world’s population in the developed world is earning 79% of income! Thus the disparity in the extent of per capita resources that are used by people who live in a ‘developed’ country as against those who live in a ‘developing’ country is extremely large.‘famines’ due to the depletion of fresh water. In some countries. which is vital for producing new medicinal and industrial products. Similarly. The increasing pressures on resources place great demands on the in-built buffering action of nature that has a certain ability to maintain a . Present development strategies have not been able to successfully address these problems related to hunger and malnutrition. These are only some of the environmental problems related to an increasing human population and more intensive use of resources that we are likely to face in future. will create unrest and eventually make countries go to war. will lead to grave economic conflicts between biotechnologically advanced nations and the biorich countries.

in 13 years.92 billion. population growth was a gradual phenomenon and the Earth’s ability to replenish resources was capable of adjusting to this increase. Present projections show that if our population growth is controlled. 5:09 PM 214 215 Human Population and the Environment 3 to 4 billion. 5 to 6 billion. it will still grow to 7. if no action is taken it will become a staggering 7. of which 93% is in developing countries.p65 4/9/2004.1 Global population growth The world population is growing by more than 90 million per year. This will essentially prevent their further economic ‘development’. the escalation in growth of human numbers has become a major cause of our environmental problems. 4 to 5 billion.27 billion by 2015. Human population growth increased from: 1 to 2 billion. 7.balance in our environment. in 14 years. current development strategies that essentially lead to short-term gains have led to a breakdown of our Earth’s ability to replenish the resources on which we depend. However. The extent of this depletion is further increased by affluent societies that consume per capita more energy and resources. Chapter7. This is of great relevance for developing a new ethic for a more equitable distribution of resources. in 33 years. It is not the census figures alone that need to be stressed. in 123 years. that less fortunate people. However. In the past. but an appreciation of the impact on natural resources of the rapid escalation in the rate of increase of human population in the recent past. In the recent past. 2 to 3 billion. in 11 years. .1.

Poverty alleviation programs failed. By the 1990s the growth rate was decreasing in most countries such as China and India. there are variations in the rate of decline in different countries. It was appreciated that the global growth rate was depleting the Earth’s resources and was a direct impediment to human development. By the 1970s most countries in the developing world had realized that if they had to develop their economics and improve the lives of their citizens they would have to curtail population growth. and an inability to handle solid waste. In the urban sector it led to inadequate housing and an increasing level of air pollution from traffic. Though population growth shows a general global decline. It also varies in different parts of certain countries and is linked with community and/ or religious thinking.In the first half of the 1900s human numbers were growing rapidly in most developing countries such as India and China. economic. as whatever was done was never enough as more and more people had to be supported on Earth’s limited resources. In contrast. The decline in the 90s was greatest in India. water pollution from sewage. However. Several environmental ill-effects were linked with the increasing population of the developing world. in the developed world population growth had slowed down. In rural areas population growth led to increased fragmentation of farm land and unemployment. There are cultural. political and demographic reasons that explain the differences in the rate of population control in different countries. Lack of Government initiatives . In some African countries the growth was also significant. fertility continues to remain high in sub Saharan African countries.

5:09 PM 215 216 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses The best decision for the method used by a couple depends on a choice that they make for themselves. and the use of condoms for men. intrauterine devices for women. Chapter7. This must be done actively by .p65 4/9/2004. This must be based on good advice from doctors or trained social workers who can suggest the full range of methods available for them to choose from. India seriously took up an effective Family Planning Program which was renamed the Family Welfare Program. India and China have been using permanent sterilization more effectively than many other countries in the developing world. Informing the public about the various contraceptive measures that are available is of primary importance. It however has taken several decades to become effective. Female sterilization is the most popular method of contraception used in developing countries at present.55%. or 57% of women in the reproductive age group. were using some method of contraception. and lower in developing countries . At the global level by the year 2000. This is followed by the use of oral contraceptive pills and. 7. However the use of contraceptive measures is higher in developed countries – 68%.for Family Welfare Program and a limited access to a full range of contraceptive measures are serious impediments to limiting population growth in several countries. Slogans such as ‘ Hum do hamare do’ indicated that each family should not have more than two children. 600 million.2 POPULATION EXPLOSION – FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAM In response to our phenomenal population growth.

As population expands further. Air will become increasingly polluted. It is evident that without controlling human numbers. the educational level. Frequently misinformation and inadequate information are reasons why a family does not go in for limiting its size. MPs. and information levels in mass communication. as well as Education and Extension workers. This is related to Government Policy. It is of great importance for policy makers and elected representatives of the people – Ministers. Free access to Family Welfare information provided through the Health Care System. By 2025. The greatest challenge the world now faces is how to supply its exploding human population with the resources it needs. Air pollution already . is in some cases unfortunately counteracted by cultural attitudes. The decision to limit family size depends on a couple’s background and education. there will be 48 countries that are starved for water. Soil will become unproductive. Water related diseases already kill 12 million people every year in the developing world. The media must keep people informed about the need to limit family size and the ill effects of a growing population on the worlds resources.Government Agencies such as Health and Family Welfare. the effectiveness of Family Welfare Programs. lakes and coastal waters will be increasingly polluted. MLAs at Central and State levels – to understand the great and urgent need to support Family Welfare. In addition economically advanced countries and rich people in poorer countries use up more resources than they need. Rivers. the Earth’s resources will be rapidly exhausted. water shortages will become acute.

The extinction of plant and animal species resulting from shrinking habitats threatens to destroy the Earth’s living web of life. The first ‘green revolution’ in the ‘60s produced a large amount of food but has led to several environmental problems. But forest loss has long-term negative effects on water and air quality and the loss of biodiversity is still not generally seen as a major deterrent to human well-being. and a more energy hungry lifestyle that increasingly uses consumer goods that require large amounts of energy for their Chapter7. Our . and transport. The world’s most populous regions are in coastal areas. packaging. Global climate change is now a threat that can affect the very survival of high population density coastal communities. Once considered an inexhaustible resource.kills 3 million people every year. grasslands and wetlands. a new green revolution is needed. It will be impossible to support further growth in coastal populations on existing fish reserves. over fishing has depleted stocks extremely rapidly. 5:09 PM 216 217 Human Population and the Environment production.p65 4/9/2004. or spread at the cost of critically important forests. kill rivers by building large dams. In the sea. that will not damage land. Many such encroachments in India have been regularised over the last few decades. to provide enough food for our growing population. Human populations will inevitably expand from farm lands into the remaining adjacent forests. both due to an increasing population. fish populations are suffering from excessive fishing. Now. Energy use is growing. These are critical ecosystems and are being rapidly destroyed.

Both are very . The most effective measure is the one most suited to the couple once they have been offered all the various options that are available.growing population also adds to the enormous amount of waste. Urban centers are already unable to provide adequate housing.1 Methods of sterilization India’s Family Welfare Program has been fairly successful but much still needs to be achieved to stabilize our population. Male sterilization or vasectomy. growing energy needs.2. The UN has shown that by 2025 there will be 21 "megacities" most of which will be situated in developing countries. Tubectomy in females is done by tying the tubes that carry the ovum to the uterus. With all these linkages between population growth and the environment. The Family Welfare Program advocates a variety of measures to control population. Family Welfare Programs have become critical to human existence. or better opportunities for income generation. services such as water and drainage systems. elevates poverty and creates an effective balance between conservation and development will determine the worlds future. 7. protecting the natural environment. change their consumer oriented attitudes. The Urban Challenge Population increases will continue in urban centers in the near future. reduce habits that create excessive waste. Permanent methods or sterilisation are done by a minor surgery. Planning for the future How Governments and people from every community meet challenges such as limiting population size. is done by tying the tubes that carry the sperm.

There are several methods of temporary birth control. As a town grows into a city it not only spreads outwards into the surrounding agricultural land or natural areas such as forests. 7. By 2000 this had grown to 40% and by 2030 well informed estimates state that this will grow to 56%. Condoms are used by males to prevent sperms from fertilizing the ovum during intercourse.2.2 Urbanization: In 1975 only 27% of the people in the developing world lived in urban areas. Oral contraceptive tablets (pills) and injectable drugs are available that prevent sperms from fertilizing the ovum. Intrauterine devices (Copper Ts) are small objects which can be placed by a doctor in the uterus so that the ovum cannot be implanted. There are also traditional but less reliable methods of contraception such as abstinence of the sexual act during the fertile period of the women’s cycle and withdrawal during the sexual act. are painless and patients have no post operative problems. The developed world is already highly urbanized with 75% of its population living in the urban sector.p65 4/9/2004. They do not disturb any functions in the woman’s life or work. Vasectomy does not cause any loss in the male’s sexual ability but only arrests the discharge of sperm. grasslands and wetlands but also grows skywards with high rise . done under local anesthesia. even if fertilized.simple procedures. Chapter7. 5:09 PM 217 218 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Urban population growth is both due to migration of people to towns and cities from the rural sector in search of better job options as well as population growth within the city.

He or she must see that the city’s natural green spaces. for upgrading slum areas. This includes a variety of “Dos and Don’ts” that should become an integral part of our personal lives. improper garbage disposal and air and water pollution are frequent side effects of urban expansions. This destroys the quality of life in the urban area. improving water supply and drainage systems. All these aspects are closely linked to the population growth in the urban sector. Unplanned and haphazard growth of urban complexes has serious environmental impacts. better living conditions can only become a reality if every citizen plays an active role in managing the environment. hill slopes are afforested and used as open spaces and architectural and heritage sites are protected. While all these issues appear to be under the preview of local Municipal Corporations. providing adequate sanitation. Increasing solid waste.buildings. Apart from undertaking actions that support the environment every urban individual has the ability to influence a city’s management. In many cities growth outstrips the planner’s ability to respond to this in time for a variety of . parks and gardens are maintained. developing effective waste water treatment plants and an efficient public transport system. The town also loses its open spaces and green cover unless these are consciously preserved. roadside tree cover is maintained. Failure to do this leads to increasing urban problems which eventually destroys a city’s ability to maintain a healthy and happy lifestyle for its dwellers. river and water fronts are managed appropriately. Good urban planning is essential for rational landuse planning.

5:09 PM 218 219 Human Population and the Environment of supporting infrastructure in rural areas. Loss of agricultural land to urbanisation and industry. a shift of population is inevitable. India’s urban areas will grow by a projected 297 million residents.0 20. Poor opportunities in the rural sector thus stimulates migration to cities. As our development strategies have focused attention mostly on rapid industrial development and relatively few development options are offered for the agricultural rural sector. The high population density in these areas leads to serious environmental issues. .6 Kolkata 13. Today.7 Delhi 13.9 Small urban centers too will grow rapidly during the next decades and several rural areas will require reclassification as urban centers. more than 290 million people live in towns and cities in India.3 16.reasons. This is the ‘Pull’ factor.p65 4/9/2004. and a lack CASE STUDY Urban Environments Nearly half the world's population now lives in urban areas.5 22. Chapter7. which grew to 40 by 2001. In India people move to cities from rural areas in the hope of getting a better income. Mega cities Population Projection in India (in millions) (in millions) in 2001 for 2015 Mumbai 16. There were 23 metros in India in 1991. all push people from the agricultural and natural wilderness ecosystems into the urban sector. the inability of governments to sustainably develop the rural sector.

even though the stated policy has been to support rural development. In general the growing human population in the rural sector will only opt to live where they are if they are given an equally satisfying lifestyle. waste management. But it is estimated that the world has only 1. they draw on resources from more and more distant areas. The pull factor of the urban centers is not only due to better job opportunities.7 hectares of land per individual to manage these needs sustainably. health care and relatively higher living standards. It is not appropriate to use the development methods used for other rural communities for tribal people who are dependent on collecting natural resources from the forests. education and health care has all been urban centric. At present the average ecological footprint of an individual at the global level is said to be 2. improvements in the supply of clean water. The "Ecological footprint" corresponds to the land area necessary to supply natural resources and disposal of waste of a community. sanitation.As population in urban centers grows. The wilderness – rural-urban linkage The environmental stresses caused by urban .. but also better education. Thus in reality. During the last few decades in India.3 hectares of land per capita. development has lagged behind in the rural sector that is rapidly expanding in numbers. development has been most neglected. For people living in wilderness areas in our forests and mountain regions. This is thus an unsustainable use of land. A different pattern of development that is based on the sustainable extraction of resources from their own surroundings would satisfy their development aspirations.

and Delhi. The impact that urban dwellers have on the environment is not obvious to them as it happens at distant places which supports the urban ecosystem with resources from agricultural and even more remote wilderness ecosystems. being added to the list from India). and one third goes to industry and the rest is used for household use and drinking water. By 2015 these will increase to 554. Cities over 1 million in size: In 2000 there were 388 cities with more than 1 million inhabitants. The urban sector affects the land at the fringes of the urban area and the areas from which the urban center pulls in agricultural and natural resources. 2015 – there will be 21 megacities. 1950 – there was only 1 – New York. 5:09 PM 219 220 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Urban poverty and the Environment The number of poor people living in urban areas is rapidly increasing. Chapter7. Urban centers occupy 2% of the worlds' land but use 75% of the industrial wood. 2001 – there were 15 (with Mumbai. 1975 – there were 5. Megacities – Over 10 million inhabitants.p65 4/9/2004. of which 75% are in developing countries. These people live in hutments in urban slums and suffer . A third of the poor people in the world live in urban centers. About 60% of the world's water is used by urban areas of which half irrigates food crops for urban dwellers. Kolkata.individuals covers an 'ecological footprint' that goes far beyond what one expects.

However. The urban poor can only depend on cash to buy the goods they need. the urban poor have no direct access to natural resources such as relatively clean river water. mostly in slum areas. Illegal slums often develop on Government land. Adequate legal housing for the urban poor remains a serious environmental concern. fuelwood and non wood forest products. on hill slopes. Urban poverty is even more serious than rural poverty. During the 1990s countries that have experienced an economic crisis have found that poor urban dwellers have lost their jobs due to decreasing demands for goods. Both outdoor and indoor air pollution due to high levels of particulate matter and sulphur dioxide from industrial and . One billion urban people in the world live in inadequate housing. the majority of which are temporary structures. low income groups that live in high rise buildings can also have high densities and live in poor unhygienic conditions in certain areas of cities. Living conditions for the urban poor are frequently worse than for rural poor. the dwellings themselves are kept relatively clean. marshes. etc.from water shortages and unsanitary conditions. It is the ‘common’ areas used by the community that lacks the infrastructure to maintain a hygienic environment. while food prices have risen. that are unsuitable for formal urban development. while in the rural sector they can grow a substantial part of their own food. In most cases while a slum invariably has unhygenic surroundings. riverbanks. as unlike the rural sector. along railway tracks. Well paid and consistent jobs are not as easily available in the urban centers at present as in the past few decades. On the riverbanks floods can render these poor people homeless.

vehicle emissions lead to high death rates from respiratory diseases. This can only be altered by stabilizing population growth on a war footing. 7. resulting in an increase in waterborne diseases such as infective diarrhoea and air borne bacterial diseases such as tuberculosis. but on the down side. This can be reduced by using better designed ‘smokeless’ chulas. in ‘chulas’ is a major health issue. especially . Most efforts are targeted at outdoor air pollution. it leads to diseases related to overcrowding and an inadequate quality of drinking water. coal. waste material. unemployment. Indoor air pollution due to the use of fuel wood. terrorism. Crime rates. hoods and chimneys to remove indoor smoke. Modern medicine promised to solve many health problems.3 ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH Environment related issues that affect our health have been one of the most important triggers that have led to creating an increasing awareness of the need for better environmental management. and serious environmental health related issues can be expected to escalate. High-density city traffic leads to an increase in respiratory diseases like asthma. Changes in our environment induced by human activities in nearly every sphere of life have had an influence on the pattern of our health. Agricultural pesticides that enhanced food supplies during the green revolution have affected both the farm worker and all of us who consume the produce. We expect urbanization and industrialization to bring in prosperity. With the growing urban population. a new crisis of unimaginable proportions will develop in the next few years. etc. The assumption that human progress is through economic growth is not necessarily true.

comprises those aspects of human health. Unprecedented rainfall trigger epidemics of malaria and water borne diseases. A better health status of society will bring about a better way of life only if it is coupled with stabilising population. frequently even changing their behaviour in the process. and floods still kill many people every year. and adequate shelter. making it necessary to keep on creating newer antibiotics. Thus development has created several long-term health problems. Public health depends on sufficient amounts of good quality food. Global climate change has serious health implications. Natural disasters such as storms. safe drinking water. as defined by WHO. and preventing those factors in the environment that adversely affect the health of present and future generations. Many countries will have to adapt to .3. chemical. 7. At times the cure is as damaging as the disease process itself. 5:09 PM 220 221 Human Population and the Environment resistant strains. controlling. it has also led to an unprecedented growth in our population which has negative implications on environmental quality. hurricanes. Our environment affects health in a variety of ways. including quality of life. coupled with a lowered infant mortality. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing. Many drugs have been found to have serious side effects. Climate and weather affect human health. biological. and psychosocial factors in the environment. but bacteria found ways to develop Chapter7. While better health care has led to longer life spans.p65 4/9/2004.1 Environmental health. social. that are determined by physical. correcting.associated with infectious diseases through antibiotics.

330 deaths and 1. drought in others. increasing the amount of harmful ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface. floods. Industrial development without pollution control and traffic congestion affect the level of air pollution in many cities. development strategies that can promote health . New strategies must be evolved to reduce vulnerability to climate variability and changes. led to 3. There are increasing storms in some countries. The El Niño winds affect weather worldwide. CASE STUDY Bhopal Gas Tragedy The siting of industry and relatively poor regulatory controls leads to ill health in the urban centers. It created serious drought. The El Niño event of 1997/98 had serious impacts on health and well-being of millions of people in many countries.5 lakh injuries to people living in the area. Development strategies that do not incorporate ecological safeguards often lead to ill health. and a temperature rise throughout the world. On the other hand. and triggered epidemics. Economic inequality and environmental changes are closely connected to each other. we may no longer know what to expect. used in the manufacture of pesticides. Accidents such as the Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984 where Union Carbide's plant accidentally released 30 tones of methyl isocyanate. The depletion of ozone in the stratosphere (middle atmosphere) also has an important impact on global climate and in turn human health.uncertain climatic conditions due to global warming. This results in diseases such as skin cancer. As our climate is changing. Poor countries are unable to meet required emission standards to slow down climate change.

This is a result of inadequate environmental management and is mainly due to inadequate purification of drinking water. This occurs from . 5:09 PM 221 222 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses closely interlinked.invariably also protect the environment. The resurgence of malaria in India is leading to cerebral malaria that affects the brain and has a high mortality. An improvement in health is central to sound environmental management. which forms breeding sites of Anopheles mosquitoes is the most important factor in the spread of malaria. Wastewater and/or sewage entering water sources without being treated leads to continuous gastrointestinal diseases in the community and even sporadic large epidemics. An estimated 2000 million people are affected by these diseases and more than 3 million children die each year from waterborne diseases across the world.p65 4/9/2004. have poor health due to parasitic infections. such as amoebiasis and worms. Examples of the linkages: • Millions of children die every year due to diarrhoea from contaminated water or food. In India. An inadequate environmental management of stagnant water. • Millions of people. mainly children. Large numbers of people in tropical countries die of malaria every year and millions are infected. it is estimated that every fifth child under the age of 5 dies due to diarrhoea. Thus environmental health and human health are SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT HEALTHY PEOPLE Chapter7. However this is rarely given sufficient importance in planning development strategies.

• Tens of thousands of people in the world die due to traffic accidents due to inadequate management of traffic conditions.eating infected food. • Population growth and the way resources are being exploited and wasted. clean air and adequate nutrition which are all related to environmental goods and services do not reach over 1000 million people living in abject poverty. industrial fumes. from crowded homes and public places. threatens . and inability to reach a hospital within an hour causes a large number of deaths. Poor management at the accident site. tobacco smoke and cooking food on improper ‘chulas’. about half the children under the age of four are malnourished and 30% of newborns are significantly underweight. It is estimated that 36% of children in low-income countries and 12% in middle income countries are malnourished. including lung cancer and tuberculosis. • Basic environmental needs such as clean water. or using poor quality water for cooking food. • Several million people live in inadequate shelters or have no roof over their heads especially in urban settings. especially from head injuries. • Hundreds of millions of people suffer serious respiratory diseases. • Millions of people are exposed to hazardous chemicals in their workplace or homes that lead to ill health due to industrial products where controls are not adhered to. In India. This is related to high inequalities in the distribution of wealth and living space. Motor vehicle exhaust fumes. contribute to respiratory diseases.

Chapter7. • Strategies to provide clean pottable water and nutrition to all people is an important part of a healthy living environment. which are closely linked to each other. • Reducing environmental consequences of industrial and other pollutants such as transport emissions can improve the status of health. • Providing clean energy sources that do not affect health is a key to reducing respiratory diseases. herbicides and insecticides which are injurious to the health of farmers and consumers by using alternatives such as Integrated Pest Management and non-toxic biopesticides can improve health of agricultural communities. Better health can only come from a more sustainable management of the environment.p65 4/9/2004. 5:09 PM 222 223 Human Population and the Environment Important strategic concerns • The world must address people’s health care needs and sustainable use of natural resources. • There is a need to change from using conventional energy from thermal power that . • Health is an outcome of the interactions between people and their environment.environmental integrity and directly affects health of nearly every individual. • Changing industrial systems into those that do not use or release toxic chemicals that affect the health of workers and people living in the vicinity of industries can improve health and environment. • Changing patterns of agriculture away from harmful pesticides. as well as food consumers.

The world’s consumption of non-renewable resources is concentrated in the developed countries. An inequitable sharing of natural resources and environmental goods and services. that do not affect human health. • The key factors are to control human population and consume less environmental goods and services which could lead to ‘health for all’.pollutes air and nuclear power that can cause serious nuclear disasters to cleaner and safer sources such as solar. Activities that go on wasting environmental goods and destroying its services by producing large quantities of non degradable wastes.3.2 Climate and health Human civilizations have adapted mankind to live in a wide variety of climates. From the hot . program or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population. Rich countries consume 50 times more per capita than people in less developed countries. which has serious health concerns. 7. is linked to poor health. wind and ocean power. and the distribution of those effects within the population. This means that developed countries also generate proportionately high quantities of waste material. • Poverty is closely related to health and is itself a consequence of improper environmental management. methods and tools by which a policy. Providing clean energy is an important factor that can lead to better health. Unsustainable use of resources by an ever growing population leads to unhealthy lives. leads to health hazards. Definition of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) by WHO: Health impact assessment is a combination of procedures.

Climate plays an important role in vector-borne diseases transmitted by insects such as mosquitoes. hospitals and roads are damaged. Malaria transmission is particularly sensitive to . floods. in deserts. heat stroke). rainfall patterns and wind. Heat waves in India in 1998 were associated with many deaths. can severely affect health of a community. However. crops and other resources are lost. The total number of people affected was estimated at 10 to 15 million! Human physiology can adapt to changes in weather. marked short-term fluctuations in weather lead to serious health issues.tropics to the cold arctic. Heat waves cause heat-related illness and death (e. The cyclone in Orissa in 1999 caused 10. These disease transmitters are sensitive to direct effects of climate such as temperature. 5:09 PM 223 224 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses a short period of time.000 deaths. Poor people are more vulnerable to the health impacts of climate variability than the rich. The elderly and persons with existing heart or respiratory diseases are more vulnerable. Of approximately 80. hurricanes) which occur over Chapter7. Climate affects their distribution and abundance through its effects on host plants and animals. Natural disasters created by extremes of weather (heavy rains. within certain limits. waste management.000 deaths which occur world-wide each year as a result of natural disasters about 95% are in poor countries.p65 4/9/2004.g. Public health infrastructure. Both climate and weather have a powerful impact on human life and health issues. marshlands and in the high mountains. such as sewage disposal systems. In weather-triggered disasters hundreds of people and animals die. homes are destroyed.

Fluctuations in malaria over the years have been linked to changes in rainfall associated with the El Niño cycle. These antibiotics are used to kill off the bacteria that causes . For example the SARS outbreak prevented people from several countries from traveling to other countries for months. due to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) caused through sexual transmission and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) are two such examples. serious epidemics occur in such areas. Loss of effective control over diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis. airline companies and the tourism industry. Why have infectious diseases that were related to our environment that were under control suddenly made a comeback? Diseases such as tuberculosis have been effectively treated with anti-tubercular drugs for decades. malaria transmission is unstable and the human population lacks inherent protective immunity. they affect the environment in which we live by forcing a change in lifestyles and behaviour patterns. Other diseases were not known to science earlier and seem to have suddenly hit our health and our lives during the last few decades. Unusual weather conditions. can greatly increase the mosquito population and trigger an epidemic.weather and climate.3.3 Infectious diseases: Many infectious diseases have re-emerged with a vengeance. Thus. severely affecting national economies. for example a heavy downpour. when weather conditions (rainfall and temperature) favour transmission. In the desert and at highland fringes of malarious areas. AIDS. have led to a return of these diseases decades after being kept under stringent control. While these cannot be directly related to environmental change. 7.

disinfectants.p65 4/9/2004. 5:09 PM 224 225 Human Population and the Environment have thus failed to eradicate infectious diseases. antiseptics. The newer broad-spectrum antibiotics. Those that change in a way so that they are not affected by the routinely used antibiotics begin to spread rapidly. With increasing global warming disease patterns will continue to change. While antibiotic resistance is a well-known phenomenon there are other reasons for the reemergence of diseases. Experts in fact now feel that these diseases will be the greatest killers in future and not diseases such as malignancy or heart disease. However nature’s evolutionary processes are capable of permitting bacteria to mutate by creating new genetically modified strains. This has led to a comeback of diseases such as cholera and an increased incidence of diarrhea and dysentery as well as infectious hepatitis (jaundice). This leads to a reemergence of the disease. Overcrowding due to the formation of slums in the urban setting leads to several health hazards. including easier spread of respiratory diseases. . In the case of tuberculosis this has led to multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Tropical diseases spread by vectors such as the mosquito will undoubtedly spread malaria further away from the equator. This is frequently related to HIV which reduces an individual’s immunity to bacteria such as mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes tuberculosis.the disease. and vaccines once thought of as the complete answer to infectious diseases Chapter7. Inadequate drinking water quality and poor disposal of human waste due to absence of a closed sewage system and poor garbage management are all urban health issues.

over 150 million people will get sick. This could bring back diseases such as the plague. In India the disease has reemerged and is now more difficult to treat. and 36 million will die of TB – if its control is not rapidly strengthened. In 1993. Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately 2 million people each year. yellow fever. When infectious people cough. El Nino which causes periodic warming is likely to affect rodent populations. encephalitis. Whilst globalization has the potential to enhance the lives and living standards of certain population groups. Only people who are sick with pulmonary TB are infectious. approximately 1000 million people will be newly infected. When a healthy person inhales . Warmer wetter climates could cause serious epidemics of diseases such as cholera. Globalisation and infectious disease Globalization is a world-wide process which includes the internationalization of communication. The spread of HIV/AIDS and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is contributing to the increasing morbidity of this disease. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2020. A global epidemic is spreading and becoming more lethal. economic and political adjustments. they emit the tubercle bacilli into the air. sneeze. talk or spit.Global warming will also change the distribution of dengue. trade and economic organization. for poor and marginalized populations in both the non-formal as well as formal economic sectors of developing countries. globalization enhances economic inequalities. It involves parallel changes such as rapid social. etc. the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that tuberculosis had become a global emergency. TB is a contagious disease that is spread through air.

these, he gets infected by the disease. Symptoms include prolonged fever, coughing spells and weight loss. It is estimated that, left untreated, each patient of active tuberculosis will infect on an average between 10 to 15 people every year. But people infected with TB will not necessarily get sick with the disease. The immune system can cause the TB bacilli, which is protected by a thick waxy coat, to remain dormant for years. When an individual’s immune system is weakened, the chances of getting active TB are greater. • Nearly 1% of the world’s population is newly infected with TB each year. • It is estimated that overall, one third of the world’s population is likely to be infected with the tuberculosis bacillus at some point in time. • Five to ten percent of people who are infected with TB (but who are not infected Chapter7.p65 4/9/2004, 5:09 PM 225 226 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses with HIV) become sick or infectious at some time during their life. (WHO, 2002). Factors Contributing to the rise in tuberculosis • TB kills about 2 million people each year (including persons infected with HIV). • More than 8 million people become sick with TB each year, one person in the world every second! • About 2 million TB cases per year occur in sub-Saharan Africa. This number is rising rapidly as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. • Around 3 million TB cases per year occur in South-east Asia. • Over a quarter of a million TB cases per year occur in Eastern Europe. sis is a leading cause of death among people

who are HIV-positive, accounting for about 11% of AIDS deaths worldwide. Poorly managed TB programs are threatening to make TB incurable Until 50 years ago, there were no drugs to cure tuberculosis. Now, strains that are resistant to one or more anti-TB drugs have emerged. Drugresistant tuberculosis is caused by inconsistent or partial treatment, when patients do not take all their drugs regularly for the required period, when doctors or health workers prescribe inadequate treatment regimens or where the drug supply is unreliable. From a public health perspective, poorly supervised or incomplete treatment of TB is worse than no treatment at all. When people fail to complete standard treatment regimens, or are given the wrong treatment regimen, they may remain infectious. The bacilli in their lungs may develop resistance to anti-TB drugs. People they infect will have the same drug-resistant strain. While drug-resistant TB is treatable, it requires extensive chemotherapy that is often very expensive and is also more toxic to patients. Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The cause of malaria, a single celled parasite called plasmodium, was discovered in 1880. Later it was found that the parasite is transmitted from person to person through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito, which requires blood for the growth of her eggs. Today approximately 40% of the world’s population, mostly those living in the world’s poorest countries, risk getting malaria. The disease was once more widespread but it was successfully eliminated from many countries with temperate climates during the mid 20th century.

Today malaria has returned and is found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions CASE STUDY Tuberculosis in India There are 14 million TB patients in India, account for one third of the global cases of TB. Everyday 20,000 Indians contract TB and more than 1,000 die due to this chronic illness. TB attacks working adults in the age group of 15 to 50 years. HIV is accelerating the spread of TB The link between HIV and TB affects a large number of people, each disease speeding the other’s progress. HIV weakens the immune system. Someone who is HIV-positive and infected with TB is many times more likely to become seriously sick with TB rather than someone infected with TB who is HIV-negative. TuberculoChapter7.p65 4/9/2004, 5:09 PM 226 227 Human Population and the Environment of the world and causes more than 300 million acute illnesses and at least one million deaths annually (WHO). There are several types of human malaria. Falciparum malaria is the most dangerous type of infection and is most common in Africa south of the Sahara, where it accounts for extremely high mortality rates. There are also indications of the spread of P. falciparum malaria in India and it has reappeared in areas where it had been eliminated. The malaria parasite enters the human host when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites an individual. Inside the human host, the parasite undergoes a series of changes as part of its complex life-cycle. Its various stages allow plasmodia to evade the immune system, infect the liver and red blood cells, and finally develop into a

saves lives. the burden of malaria on society will be significantly reduced. many insecticides are no longer useful against mosquitoes transmitting the disease. Malaria parasites are developing unacceptable levels of resistance to drugs. headache. Malaria symptoms appear about 9 to 14 days after the mosquito bite. the parasite matures until it reaches the sexual stage where it can again infect a human host when the mosquito takes her next blood meal. Prompt access to treatment with effective up-to-date medicines. 10 or more days later.form that is able to infect a mosquito again when it bites an infected person. or the parasites are resistant to them.3. Malaria produces high fever.4 Water-related diseases . through measures such as Intermittent Preventive Treatment and the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). If countries can apply these and other measures on a wide scale and monitor them carefully. Malaria can kill by infecting and destroying red blood cells (anaemia) and by clogging the capillaries that carry blood to the brain (cerebral malaria) or other vital organs. vomiting and body ache. such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). If drugs are not available for treatment. Good environmental management by clearing pools of stagnant water during the monsoons is effective in reducing the number of mosquitoes. Prevention of malaria in pregnant women. although this varies with different plasmodium species. the infection can progress rapidly to become life-threatening. as well as infant health and survival. Besides this. Inside the mosquito. 7. Mosquito nets treated with insecticide reduce malaria transmission and child deaths. results in improvement in maternal health.

poor hygiene related behaviour patterns. Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Development About 2. Japanese encephalitis. erratic water supply and sanitation services. sanitation and hygiene development Among the main problems are a lack of priority given to this sector.4 billion people globally live under highly unsanitary conditions. health centers. Providing access to sufficient quantities of safe water. etc. hotels. lack of financial resources. Water improperly stored in homes is frequently Chapter7. One of the most important aspects is a lack of environmental education and awareness that these disease processes are related to poor environment management in various sectors. the provision of facilities for a sanitary disposal of excreta. .Water Supply.p65 4/9/2004. hospitals. 5:09 PM 227 228 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses contaminated by inadequate management at the household level. and inadequate sanitation in public places such as schools. irrigation development and flood control is related to increased incidence of malaria. lymphatic filariasis and other conditions. In many parts of the world the adverse health impacts of dam construction. and introducing sound hygiene related behaviour can reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by these risk factors. This can be easily reduced through education and awareness of how waterborne diseases are transmitted. schistosomiasis. Poor hygiene and behaviour pattern increase the exposure to risk of incidence and spread of infectious diseases. Health and Water Resources Development An important aspect related to water-related diseases (in particular: water-related vectorborne diseases) is attributable to the way water resources are developed and managed.

This is being termed the ‘Blue Revolution’ and needs Governments. Diarrhoea. polio. There are 4 major types of water related diseases: 1. Locally good watershed management is a key to solving local rural problems. National. Water borne diseases: These are caused by dirty water contaminated by human and animal wastes. are caused due to improper drinking water. Some of these diseases. cause serious epidemics. The demand and supply balance is a vital part of developing sustainable use of water. The linkages between managing water resources and health issues are have not been prioritised as a major source of environmental problems that require policy change. or by chemical wastes from industry and agriculture. dysentery. regional and local levels. exposure to agricultural pesticides and their residues. Water borne diseases Arid areas with rapidly expanding populations are already facing a crisis over water. Pesticides entering drinking water in rural . such as cholera and typhoid. Conservation of water and better management is an urgent need. especially from urban sewage. State. NGOs and people to work together towards a better water policy at International. Present patterns of development are water hungry and water wasters. Excessive levels of nitrates cause blood disorders when they pollute water sources. administrative capacity building and an increased financial support. and hepatitis A and E. They do not address pollution and overuse. meningitis.Other health issues indirectly associated with water resources development include nutritional status.

2. Filariasis leads to fever and chronic swelling over the legs. In India. there is a high incidence of diseases such as tuberculosis. neurological diseases and infertility. Improving sanitation and providing treated drinking water reduces the incidence of these diseases. guinea worm affects the feet. In addition. Malaria that was effectively controlled in India. 5:09 PM 228 229 Human Population and the Environment using fish to control mosquito larval populations. which . Change in climate is leading to the formation of new breeding sites. Chapter7. leprosy.areas cause cancer. are ways to reduce these diseases without using toxic insecticides that have ill effects on human health. Eliminating mosquito breeding sites when pooling of water occurs in the monsoon. Dengue fever carries a high mortality. lead to several diseases. has now come back as the mosquitoes have become resistant to insecticides. etc. Other vector born diseases in India include dengue fever and filariasis. 3. especially of children. Water related vector diseases: Insects such as mosquitoes that breed in stagnant water spread diseases such as malaria and filariasis. Water scarcity diseases: In areas where water and sanitation is poor. tetanus. Round worms live in the small intestine. Water based diseases: Aquatic organisms that live a part of their life cycle in water and another part as a parasite in man. anti-malarial drugs are now unable to kill the parasites as they have become resistant to drugs.p65 4/9/2004. 4.

results in problems such as colour changes on the skin. Bangladesh. Mexico. Chile. cancers of the bladder. It may also lead to diabetes. hard patches on the palms and soles. metal refining. In China (in the Province of Taiwan) exposure to arsenic leads to gangrene. high blood pressure and reproductive disorders. known as ‘black foot disease’. Arsenic contamination of water is also due to industrial processes such as those involved in mining. Excessive concentrations are known to occur in some areas. It has attracted much attention since its recognition in the 1990s of its wide occurrence in wellwater in Bangladesh. kidney and lung. Thailand and the United States. Natural arsenic contamination occurs in Argentina.occur when hands are not adequately washed. Water with high concentrations of arsenic if used over 5 to 20 years. WHO has worked with other UN organizations to produce a state-of-the-art review on arsenic in drinking water. The health effects are generally delayed and the most effective preventive measure is supplying drinking water which is free of arsenic. and timber treatment. It occurs less frequently in most other countries. and diseases of the blood vessels of the legs and feet. . Arsenic in drinking water: Arsenic in drinkingwater is a serious hazard to human health. skin cancer. China. The main source of arsenic in drinking water is arsenic-rich rocks through which the water has filtered. India. Malnutrition may aggravate the effects of arsenic on blood vessels. Drinking water that is rich in arsenic leads to arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis. It may also occur because of mining or industrial activity in some areas.

Long term solutions for prevention of arsenicosis is based on providing safe drinking-water: • Deeper wells are often less likely to be contaminated. • Testing of water for levels of arsenic and informing users. • Monitoring by health workers - people need to be checked for early signs of arsenicosis - usually by observing skin problems in areas where arsenic in known to occur. • Health education regarding harmful effects of arsenicosis and how to avoid them. CASE STUDIES Arsenic poisoning – Bangladesh More than half the population of Bangladesh is threatened by high levels of arsenic found in drinking water. This could eventually lead to an epidemic of cancers and other fatal diseases. Rezaul Morol, a young Bangladeshi man, nearly died from arsenic poisoning caused by drinking arsenic-laden well-water for several years. The doctor advised Rezaul to stop drinking contaminated water and eat more protein-rich food such as fish. Since then Rezaul feels a lot better and is happy that his skin is healing. Chapter7.p65 4/9/2004, 5:09 PM 229 230 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Diarrhoea Though several types of diarrhoea which give rise to loose motions and dehydration occur all over the world, this is especially frequently observed in developing countries. It causes 4% of all deaths. In another 5% it leads to loss of health. It is caused by gastrointestinal infections which kill around 2.2 million people globally each year. Most of these are children in developing countries. The use of contaminated water is an

important cause of this group of conditions. Cholera and dysentery cause severe, sometimes life threatening and epidemic forms of these diseases. Effects on health: Diarrhoea is the frequent passage of loose or liquid stools. It is a symptom of various gastrointestinal infections. Depending on the type of infection, the diarrhoea may be watery (for example in cholera caused by vibrio cholera) or passed with blood and mucous (in dysentery caused by an amoeba, E Histolitica). Depending on the type of infection, it may last a few days, or several weeks. Severe diarrhoea can become life threatening due to loss of excessive fluid and electrolytes such as Sodium and Potassium in watery diarrhoea. This is particularly fatal in infants and young children. It is also dangerous in malnourished individuals and people with poor immunity. The impact of repeated diarrhoea on nutritional status is linked in a vicious cycle in children. Chemical or non-infectious intestinal conditions can also result in diarrhoea. Causes of diarrhoea: Diarrhoea is caused by several bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms. They are mostly spread by contaminated water. It is more common when there is a shortage of clean water for drinking, cooking and cleaning. Basic hygiene is important in its prevention. Water contaminated with human feces surrounding a rural water source, or from municipal sewage, septic tanks and latrines in urban centers, are important factors in the spread of these diseases. Feces of domestic animals also contain microorganisms that can cause diarrhoea through water. Diarrhoea is spread from one individual to another due to poor personal hygiene. Food is a

major cause of diarrhoea when it is prepared or stored in unhygienic conditions. Water can contaminate food such as vegetables during irrigation. Fish and seafood from polluted water is a cause of severe diarrhoea. The infectious agents that cause diarrhoea are present in our environment. In developed countries where good sanitation is available, most people get enough safe drinking water. Good personal and domestic hygiene prevents this disease which is predominantly seen in the developing world. About 1 billion people do not have access to clean water sources and 2.4 billion have no basic sanitation (WHO website). In Southeast Asia, diarrhoea is responsible for 8.5% of all deaths. In 1998, diarrhoea was estimated to have killed 2.2 million people, most of whom were under 5 years of age (WHO, 2000). Interventions: Key measures to reduce the number of cases of diarrhoea include: • Access to safe drinking water. • Improved sanitation. • Good personal and food hygiene. • Health education about how these infections spread. Chapter7.p65 4/9/2004, 5:09 PM 230 231 Human Population and the Environment Key measures to treat diarrhoea include: • Giving more fluids than usual, (oral rehydration) with salt and sugar, to prevent dehydration. • Continue feeding. • Consulting a health worker if there are signs of dehydration or other problems. In rural India, during the last decade public education through posters and other types of communication strategies has decreased infant mortality due to diarrhoea in several States. Posters

PCBs and dioxins. salt and sugar solution to reduce death from dehydration has gone a long way in reducing both a serious condition requiring hospitalisation and intravenous fluids.5 Risks due to chemicals in food Food contaminated by chemicals is a major worldwide public health concern. coli) was first described in 1982. ice and raw or underprocessed seafood are important causes for cholera transmission. Subsequently. For example. 7.depicting a child with diarrhoea being given water. Food additives and contaminants used during food manufacture and processing adversely affects health. While cholera is often waterborne. Diseases spread by food: Some foodborne diseases though well recognized. Infection with a specific type of Escherichia coli (E. . has increased within the last 25 years. Investigations of SE outbreaks indicate that its emergence is largely related to consumption of poultry or eggs. Toxic metals. Contamination may occur through environmental pollution of the air. water and soil. animal drugs and other agrochemicals have serious consequences on human health. In the Western hemisphere and in Europe. or the intentional use of various chemicals.3. Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) has become a predominant strain. While cholera has devastated much of Asia and Africa for years. its reintroduction for the first time in almost a century on the South American continent in 1991 is an example of a well recognised infectious disease re-emerging in a region after decades. outbreaks of salmonellosis which have been reported for decades. have recently become more common. as well as mortality. In Latin America. many foods also transmit infection. such as pesticides.

Switzerland. In 1996. because Lm can grow at low temperatures. lettuce. United States. The infection is sometimes fatal. 5:09 PM 231 232 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Foodborne trematodes (worms) are increasing in South-east Asia and Latin America. Chapter7.it has emerged rapidly as a major cause of bloody diarrhoea and acute renal failure. particularly in children. unpasteurized fruit juice. Outbreaks of listeriosis have been reported from many countries. Outbreaks have also implicated alfalfa sprouts. Foodborne . in various European countries. infections with Lm causes abortion and stillbirth. France and the United States. and in southern Africa. Listeria monocytogenes (Lm): The role of food in the transmission of this condition has been recognized recently. This is related to a combination of intensive aquaculture production in unsanitary conditions. Outbreaks of infection. an outbreak of Escherichia coli in Japan affected over 6. In pregnant women. have been reported in Australia.300 school children and resulted in 2 deaths. Japan. including Australia. The disease is most often associated with consumption of foods such as soft cheese and processed meat products that are kept refrigerated for a long time. and consumption of raw or lightly processed fresh water fish and fishery products. In infants and persons with a poor immune system it may lead to septicemia (blood poisoning) and meningitis. game meat (meat of wild animals) and cheese curd.p65 4/9/2004. generally associated with beef. Canada. Two recent outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes in France in 2000 and in the USA in 1999 were caused by contaminated pork tongue and hot dogs respectively.

Among men. rectal and stomach cancer are among the five most common cancers in the world for both men and women. The agent affects the brain and spinal cord of cattle which produces sponge-like changes visible under a microscope. transmittable. In India. For women. Lung. The cause of the disease was traced to an agent in sheep. It was first discovered in the United Kingdom in 1985. which contaminated recycled bovine carcasses used to make meat and bone meal additives for cattle feed. A case of BSE has been reported in a cattle herd in Japan. lung and stomach cancer are the most common cancers worldwide.trematodes can cause acute liver disease. the most common cancers are breast and cervical cancer. 119 people developed vCJD. 7. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).000 diseased animals in the UK alone. is a fatal. colon. and may lead to liver cancer. By January 2002. exposure to the BSE agent (probably in contaminated bovine-based food products) has been strongly linked to the appearance in 1996 of a new transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of humans called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). Recycling of the BSE agent developed into a common source epidemic of more than 180.3. most from the UK but five cases have been reported from France.6 Cancer and environment Cancer is caused by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells that may affect almost any tissue of the body. neurodegenerative disease of cattle. It is estimated that 40 million people are affected worldwide. In human populations. oral and . About 19 countries have reported BSE cases and the disease is no longer confined to the European Community.

chemotherapy (drugs) or radiotherapy (X-rays). Cancer causes 6 million deaths every year – or 12% of deaths worldwide. Thus prevention of at least one-third of all cancers is possible. Early detection and effective treatment is possible for a further one-third of cases. evidence-based interventions for early detection of cervical and breast cancer. The chance of cure increases if cancer is detected early. • Advocacy for a rational approach to effective treatments for potentially curable tumours. • Building international networks and partnerships for cancer control. 5:09 PM 232 233 Human Population and the Environment • Support for low-cost approaches to respond to global needs for pain relief and palliative care. Cancer control is based on the prevention and control of cancer by: • Promotion and strengthening of comprehensive national cancer control programs. Most of the common cancers are curable by a combination of surgery. • Development of guidelines on disease and program management. providing healthy food and avoiding exposure to cancer-causing agents (carcinogens).p65 4/9/2004.pharangeal cancers form the most common type of cancer which are related to tobacco chewing. Prevention of cancer: Tobacco smoking is the . Chapter7. More than 10 million people are diagnosed with cancer in the world every year. Cancer is preventable by stopping smoking. • Promotion of organized. It is estimated that there will be 15 million new cases every year by 2020. The causes of several cancers are known.

Dietary modification is an important approach to cancer control. It causes 80 to 90% of all lung cancer deaths. colon. Excessive solar ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of all types of cancer of the skin. especially in developing countries include deaths from cancer of the oral cavity. uterus and kidney. Aniline dyes have been linked to bladder cancer. use of sunscreens and protective clothing are effective preventive measures. Preventive measures include bans on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. Human papilloma virus infection causes cancer of the cervix. Asbestos is known to cause lung cancer. oesophagus and stomach which are related to tobacco chewing. larynx. In some countries the parasitic infection schistosomiasis increases the risk of bladder cancer. Avoiding excessive exposure to the sun. breast. and educational programs which are undertaken to reduce tobacco consumption. Another 30% of all cancer deaths. Excess consumption of red and preserved meat may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Liver fluke increases the risk of cancer of the bile ducts. Infectious agents are linked with 22% of cancer deaths in developing countries and 6% in industrialized countries. Overweight individuals and obesity are known to be associated with cancer of the oesophagus. Preventive measures include vaccination and prevention of infection. rectum. increased tax on tobacco products. Benzene can lead to leukaemia (blood . Viral hepatitis B and C cause cancer of the liver. Fruit and vegetables may have a protective effect against many cancers.single largest preventable cause of cancer in the world. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori increases the risk of stomach cancer.

Rights to land. while some live unsustainable lifestyles with consumption patterns that the resource base cannot support. we as citizens of a community must appreciate that a widening gap between the rich and the poor. between men and women. Last but not the least. many others live well below the . or between the present and future generations must be minimised if social justice is to be achieved.4 HUMAN RIGHTS Several environmental issues are closely linked to human rights. food. 7. resources and energy must be distributed in a community. resettlement issues around development projects such as dams and mines.cancer).1 Equity One of the primary concerns in environmental issues is how wealth. housing are all a part of our environment that we all share. The prevention of certain occupational and environmental exposure to several chemicals is an important element in preventing cancer. These include the equitable distribution of environmental resources. the utilisation of resources and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). 7. We can think of the global community. The access to a better lifestyle for men as against women is inherent in many cultures. conflicts between people and wildlife especially around PAs.4. While economic disparities remain a fact of life. we in the present generation cannot greedily use up all our resources leaving future generations increasingly impoverished. water. national concerns and those related to a family or at the individual level. regional community issues. However. Today the difference between the economically developed world and the developing countries is unacceptably high. and access to health to prevent environment related diseases.

This requires an ethic in which an equitable distribution becomes a part of everyone’s thinking. fuelwood. there are enormous economic inequaliChapter7. Even in a developing country such as ours.p65 4/9/2004. Both the better off sectors of society and the less fortunate need to develop their own strategies of sustainable living and communities at each level must bring about more equitable patterns of wealth. When landuse patterns change from natural ecosystems to more intensively used farmland and pastureland the rights of these indigenous people are usually sacrificed. The people who live in the countries of the North and the rich from the countries in the South will have to take steps to reduce their resource use and the waste they generate. Take the case of subsidies given to the pulp and paper industry for bamboo which makes it several times cheaper for the industry than for a rural individual who uses it to build his home. This infringes on the human right to collect resources they have traditionally used free of cost.poverty line. People who live in wilderness communities are referred to as ecosystem people. or hunt for food in forests and grasslands. The right to the use of natural resources that the environment holds is an essential component of human rights. fish in aquatic ecosystems. These . and nonwood products. 5:09 PM 233 234 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses ties. Another issue is the rights of small traditional fishermen who have to contend against mechanised trawlers that impoverish their catch and overharvest fish in the marine environment. They collect food. It is related to disparities in the amount of resources available to different sectors of society.

Malnutrition makes people more vulnerable to disease and premature death. This needs a deep appreciation of local environmental concerns as well as a sensitivity to the rights of local people. develop. Poverty. hunger. The right to life is a Fundamental Right in our constitution. It is linked to the way we grow.4. There are serious conflicts between the rights of rural communities for even basic resources such as water. Poverty is a major cause as well as a consequence of ill-health. Reversing actions that have already been taken decades ago is a complex problem that has no simple solutions. and industrial development which requires large amounts of water for sustaining its productivity. this in effect has an impact on our fundamental constitutional right. Proper nutrition and health are fundamental human rights. In many cases a just tradeoff is at best achieved through careful and sensitively managed negotiations. Nutrition affects and defines the health status of all people. Movements to protect the rights of indigenous peoples are growing worldwide. malnutrition and poorly managed environments .people’s right to a livelihood conflicts with the powerful economic interests of large-scale organised fisheries. resist infection and reach our aspirations as individuals. nutrition and health which must be seen from a humanrights perspective. As a deteriorating environment shortens life spans. communities and societies. rich and poor.2 Nutrition. work. play. 7. The right to land or common property resources of tribal people is infringed upon by large development projects such as dams. health and human rights There are links between environment. mining and Protected Areas.

together affect health and weaken the socioeconomic development of a country. adolescents.3 Intellectual Property Rights and Community Biodiversity Registers Traditional people. and older persons are affected by this problem. In our globalized 21st century. This storehouse of knowledge leads to many new ‘discoveries’ for modern pharmaceutical products. We must ensure that our environmental values and our vision are linked to human rights and create laws to support those that need a better environment. especially tribals living in forests. have used local plants and animals for generations. are successfully addressed. This leaves the original tribal user with nothing while the industry could earn billions of rupees.4. equity must begin at the bottom. The revenue generated from such ‘finds’ goes to the pharmaceutical industry that has done the research and patented the product. we must also realize that resources allocated to preventing and eliminating disease will be effective only if the underlying causes such as malnutrition and environmental concerns. Nearly 30% of humanity. especially those in developing countries – infants. Chapter7. hand in hand with a healthy environment. better health and a better lifestyle. children. Putting first things first. improved nutrition. and sustainable lifestyles. as well as their consequences. A human rights approach is needed to appreciate and support millions of people left behind in the 20th century’s health revolution. adults.p65 4/9/2004. To protect the rights of indigenous people who have used these products. a possible . 7. 5:09 PM 234 235 Human Population and the Environment Health and sustainable human development are equity issues.

animal and mineral based medicines. This however has still not been generally accepted. up to 80% of the population uses it for primary health care. It may be linked to spiritual therapies. The consequences could be a serious delay in diagnosis and effective treatment of a treatable condition. Traditional medicine has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world and its use is rapidly spreading in industrialized countries. as patients who use these alternative medicinal practices may rely on an ineffective measure. In industrialized countries. there are diseases which it cannot treat effectively. manual techniques and exercises. This is a risk. frequently of local or regional origin. adaptations of traditional medicine are termed “Complementary“ or “Alternative” Medicine (CAM). Traditional Medicine: Traditional medicine refers to health practices. Traditional medicine is often handed down through the generations or may be known to a special caste or tribal group. There is a need . While there are advantages to traditional medicine as it is cheap and locally available. while in Africa. approaches.tool is to create a Community Biodiversity Register of local products and their uses so that its exploitation by the pharmaceutical industry would have to pay a royalty to the local community. Mechanisms have to be worked out so that the local traditional users rights are protected. These may be used singly or in combination to treat. diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. knowledge and beliefs that incorporate plant. some of our primary health care needs are taken care of entirely by traditional medicine. In India.

p65 4/9/2004. Twenty-five percent of modern medicines are made from plants first used traditionally. to our destruction of our environment. this can lead to the extinction of endangered plant species and the destruction of natural habitats of several species. . Since we still put a high value only on economic growth. This mindset must change before concepts such as sustainable development can be acted upon. There are tried and tested scientific methods and products that have their origins in different traChapter7. Yoga is known to reduce asthma attacks. Traditional Medicine has been found to be effective against several infectious diseases. The problems that are created by technology and economic growth are a result of our improper thinking on what ‘development’ means. the requirements for protection provided under international standards for patent law and by most national conventional patent laws are inadequate to protect traditional knowledge and biodiversity. If extraction from the wild is not controlled. Another related issue is that at present. In addition to patient safety issues. we have no concern for aspects such as sustainability or equitable use of resources. there is the risk that a growing herbal market and its great commercial benefit poses a threat to biodiversity through the over harvesting of the raw material for herbal medicines and other natural health care products.to carefully research the claims of traditional practices to ensure that they are effective. 5:09 PM 235 236 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses ditional medicinal methods. This has been observed in the case of several Himalayan plants.

consumerism has thrived. CASE STUDY A US company was granted a patent for discovering extracts of arhar (pigeon pea or Cajanus cajan) in the treatment of diabetes. Consumerism is one aspect of this process favoured by the rich. These are the values that will bring about a better humanity. The use of pigeon pea extracts in India is well known. Why and how can we use less resources and energy? Why do we need to keep our surroundings clean? Why should we use less fertilisers and pesticides in farms? Why is it important for us to save water and keep our water sources clean? Or separate our garbage into degradable and non-degradable types before disposal? All these issues are linked to the quality of human life and go beyond simple economic growth. productive and happy lives in harmony with nature. CSIR has challenged this patent as it infringes on India’s traditional knowledge. although challenging the patent . obesity and blockage of arteries. Values in environment education must bring in several new concepts. They deal with a love and respect for nature. It is only recently that the world has come to realise that there are other more important environmental values that are essential to bring about a better way of life. As consumption of resources has till recently been an index of development.Unsustainable development is a part of economic growth of the powerful while it makes the poor poorer. one in which we can live healthy. What are values? Values deal with ones own principles and standards from which we judge what is right and wrong behaviour. hypoglycemia.

Eastern traditional value. as India’s scientific documentation of its traditional knowledge is quite poor. social justice. valuing nature and cultures. This is a more spiritual. Environmental values are inherent in feelings that bring about a sensitivity for preserving nature as a whole.5. of respecting and valuing . Over one-third of the population in developing countries lack access to essential allopathic medicines. 5:09 PM 236 237 Human Population and the Environment 7. managing common property resources and appreciating the cause of ecological degradation. equitable use of resources. The Western. There are several writings and sayings in Indian thought that support the concept of the oneness of all creation. human heritage. environmental values cannot be taught. a forest for its timber and non-wood forest products. Education both through formal and non-formal processes must thus address understanding environmental values. modern approach values the resources of Nature for their utilitarian importance alone.is difficult. However true environmental values go beyond valuing a river for its water.1 Environmental Values: Every human being has a great variety of feelings for different aspects of his or her surroundings. or the sea for its fish.p65 4/9/2004. Essentially. They are inculcated through a complex process of appreciating our environmental assets and experiencing the problems caused due Chapter7. 7.5 VALUE EDUCATION Value education in the context of our environment is expected to bring about a new sustainable way of life. The provision of safe and effective TM/ CAM therapies could become a tool to increase access to health care.

For value education in relation to the environment. Today this constitutes a major concern. modern society and educational processes have invariably suppressed these innate sentiments. cutting a few trees was not a significant criminal act. Thus the value system has been altered with time. people tend to bond closely to Nature. The sentiment that attempts to reverse these trends is enshrined in our environmental values. In today’s context. Once exposed to the wonders of the wilderness. which strongly emphasises this value. brave and much desirable activity to kill a tiger. Similarly with the large tracts of forest that existed in the past. However. it is now looked down upon as a crime against biodiversty conservation. Concepts of what constitutes right and wrong behaviour changes with time. It was once considered ‘sport’ to shoot animals. We need a . They begin to appreciate its complexity and fragility and this awakens a new desire to want to protect our natural heritage. It was considered a royal. Values are not constant. This feeling for Nature is a part of our Constitution. with wildlife reduced to a tiny fraction of what there was in the past. Our environmental values must translate to pro conservation actions in all our day to day activities. Most of our actions have adverse environmental impacts unless we consciously avoid them. Wanting to unravel its mysteries is a part of human nature.all the different components of Nature. Values lead to a process of decision making which leads to action. Humans have an inborn desire to explore Nature. this process is learned through an understanding and appreciation of Nature’s oneness and the importance of its conservation.

throwing away a little household degradable garbage could not have been considered wrong. Environmental problems created by development are due neither to the need for economic development. our value system must change to one that makes people everywhere support a sustainable form of development so that we do not have to bear the cost of environmental degradation. Our current value system extols economic and technical progress as being what we need in our developing country. 5:09 PM 237 238 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses While we do need economic development. Appreciating the negative effects of our actions on the environment must become a part of our day to day thinking. Environmental values based on the Constitution of India Article 48A: “The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife in the country. rivers and wildlife.strong new environmental value system in which felling trees is considered unwise behaviour. it is indeed extremely damaging to the environment and our value system must prevent this through a strong environmental value education system. and to have compassion for all living creatures.” Article 51A (g) The constitution expects that each citizen of the country must “protect and improve the natural environment.p65 4/9/2004.” Chapter7. But with enormous numbers of people throwing away large quantities of non-degradable waste. including forests. With the small human numbers in the past. nor to the technology that produces . lakes.

What professions require making value judgements that greatly influence our environment? Evidentally nearly every profession can and does . They want an explanation for things happening around them that can help them make decisions and through this process develop values. Each action by an individual must be linked to its environmental consequences in his/her mind so that a value is created that leads to strengthening pro-environmental behaviour and preventing anti-environmental actions. this occurs only when a critical number of people become environmentally conscious so that they constitute a proenvironment lobby force that makes governments and other people accept good environmental behaviour as an important part of development. it deals with concepts of what is appropriate behaviour in relation to our surroundings and to other species on Earth. Thus pro environmental actions begin to move from the domain of individuals to that of a community. At the community level. How we live our lives in fact shapes our environment. Looked at in this way.pollution. This cannot happen unless new educational processes are created that provide a meaning to what is taught at school and college level. Providing appropriate ‘meanings’ for such questions related to our own environment brings in a set of values that most people in society begin to accept as a norm. This is what environmental values are about. It is this innate curiosity that leads to a personalized set of values in later life. but rather to a lack of awareness of the consequences of unlimited and unrestrained anti-environmental behaviour. Every small child while growing up asks questions like ‘What does this mean?’.

most importantly. foresters. teachers at school and .influence our environment.p65 4/9/2004. forest planners. water. landuse planners. metal and glass articles. industrialists and. media. but some do so more than others. I will work towards this with other like minded individuals. 5:09 PM 238 239 Human Population and the Environment agricultural experts. agriculturalists. I will visit our wondrous wild places with clean air. I will always care for Mother Earth. I will consciously avoid committing acts that damage our environment and will publicly assert my dislikes for acts against the environment. I will use energy carefully and close off electrical appliances when not in use. Policy makers. I will not waste energy by using a fuel based vehicle when I can walk or cycle. Chapter7. soil. I will not permit others to cause harm to the wilderness and our wild species without protest. paper. irrigation planners. and become party to their conservation. I will not permit any individual or Government action spoil our environment or damage wilderness without protest. health care workers. plastic. mining experts. I will not carelessly throw away items that are made of our precious natural resources. I will try not to damage her knowingly or unknowingly. Strategies for sustainable living I will work towards the protection of our environment and the preservation of our wild species. medical personnel. architects. reusing and recycling whatever I use such as water. and all their plants and animals. administrators. I will use resources carefully by reducing.

and the tranquility of the Himalayan mountains are things that each of us values even if we do not experience it ourselves. These include Nature’s mechanisms in cleaning up air by removing carbon dioxide and adding oxygen by plant life. This is called its ‘existance value’. are all closely related to pro environmental outcomes. We value its being there on Earth for us. maintaining climate regimes. Urban gardens and open space are also valuable and thus must be of prime concern to urban . Environmental values have linkages to varied environmental concerns. recycling water through the water cycle of nature. the intelligence of our cousins the primates. While we value resources that we use as food. This is the oneness of Nature. While every species is of importance in the web of life. water and other products. etc. The lush splendor of an evergreen forest. there are some which man has come to admire for their beauty alone. This is also a part of our environment that we must value for its own sake.college level. there are also environmental services that we must appreciate. the graceful flight of a flock of cranes. are parts of nature that we cannot help but admire. There is incredible beauty in some man-modified landscapes. ethical values that are equally important aspects of our environment that we do not appreciate consciously. The tiger’s magnificence. But there are other aesthetic. the coloured patterns of farmland or the greens of a tea or coffee plantation in the hills. the great power of the ocean’s waves. the whale and elephant’s giant size. The list of wondrous aspects of Nature’s intricate connections is indeed awe-inspiring. We must equally look at our environment beyond the wild sphere.

although it is difficult to put a price tag on these values.planners. corruption in environmental management. Nevertheless. The characteristic architecture. cultures. they will disappear and our heritage will be lost. Several great philosophers have thoughts that have been based on. poverty. The positive feelings that support environment include a value for Nature. and equity. artworks and crafts of ancient cultures is an invaluable environmental asset. to conserving whole traditional landscapes in rural areas and streetscapes in urban settings. As environmentally conscious individuals we need to develop a sense of values that are linked with a better and more sustainable way of life for all people. These green spaces act as not only the lungs of a city. Environmental values must also stress on the importance of preserving ancient structures. sculpture. in pro environmental . and perhaps where we should go. pollution. where we are now. It tells us where we have come from. loss of species. but also provide much needed psychological support. Architectural heritage goes beyond preserving old buildings. These include our attitude towards degradation of the environment. heritage. We also need to become more sensitive to aspects that have negative impacts on the environment. or embedded. Unless we learn to value these landscapes. There are several positive as well as negative aspects of behavior that are linked to our environment. these centers of peace and tranquility give urban dwellers an opportunity to balance their highly man-modified environments with the splash of green of a garden space. The mental peace and relaxation provided by such areas needs to be valued. the rights of future generations and animal rights.

But for now we only know for sure that the Earth’s life forms are unique. The tiny creatures that live complex lives and the towering trees are all a part of this phenomenon we call ‘life’. We may be alone in space or may be accompanied by other.behavior. feeling and exploring its beauty and experiencing its infinite variety.8 million known living forms. Today. We must appreciate that we belong to a global community that includes another 1. The one-ness of our lives with the rest of nature and a feeling that we are only a miniscule part of nature’s complex web of life becomes apparent. 7. man does not even know if other complex forms of life exist outside our own solar system in distant space.2 Valuing Nature: The most fundamental environmental sentiment is to value Nature herself. Nothing makes us more conscious of this wonderous aspect of our earth’s diversity than a walk through the wilderness. Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore are among the many internationally well-known scholars whose thought have included values that are related to environmental consciousness. 5:09 PM 239 240 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses way of life on earth for all people and all living creatures. completely different. when we begin to appreciate the wonders of nature’s diversity. Appreciating Her magnificence and treasuring life itself leads to positive feelings that are a manifestation of pro environmental consciousness. living forms.p65 4/9/2004. We thus have a great responsibility to protect life in all its glorious forms and must therefore respect the wilderness with all its living .5. We need to appreciate these values to bring about a better Chapter7.

We believe that our modern technologybased lifestyles are the sole way for society to progress. However this cannot be done to the detriment of the millions of tribal or indigenous people who live in wilderness ecosystems. There are thus conflicting values that need to be balanced carefully. where man’s own hand has not created changes that have led to perturbing natural habitats. This has great long-term implications not only for humans but for the whole of Nature. we must protect the rights of local people. while on the other. that are in fact closer to nature and frequently more sustainable. Yet this is only a single dimension of life that is based on economic growth. While currently the environmental movement focuses on issues that are concerned with the management of the natural environment for the ‘benefit’ of man. On the one hand we need to protect natural ecosystems. we must also learn to value and respect diverse human cultures.creatures. For example some environmentalists emphasise the need to preserve wilderness for its aesthetic Deep ecology In the 1970s a new thinking on environmental . Yet apart from valuing the diversity of life itself. Many of the tribal cultures of our country are vanishing because those with more dominant and economically advanced ways of life do not respect their lifestyles. We need to develop a sense of values that lead us to protect what is left of the wilderness by creating effective National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. Deep Ecology promotes an approach that is expected to bring about a more appropriate ecological balance on Earth and is akin to a spiritual approach to Nature.

Another new approach is that of ‘Gaia’. Deep Ecologists on the other hand stress that wilderness preservation is a means to achieve the conservation and protection of biological diversity. this will be extremely difficult to achieve. Other environmentalists stress that the goal is for protecting the useful ecological functions of the wilderness. It teaches that the wellbeing and flourishing of human and non-human life on Earth have value in themselves and that these values are independent of the usefulness of the non-human world for human purposes. protecting nature and the wilderness for its own sake. 5:09 PM 240 241 Human Population and the Environment and utilitarian functions. Chapter7. its services and goods that we use. Thus it is not enough to protect bits of what is left of the wilderness but to make attempts to restore degraded areas to their former natural ecological state. the hypothesis that the Earth is itself like one giant form of throbbing life consisting of all .p65 4/9/2004. which is now referred to as ‘Deep Ecology’. In a country such as India.concerns began to emerge. and has recreational and economic value. It recognises the intrinsic value of all living beings and looks upon mankind as a small segment of a great living community of life forms. It was fostered by the thinking of Arne Naess. Wilderness is being preserved today in PAs because it is scenic and serves the purpose of tourism for nature lovers. a Norwegian professor of Philosophy and a great believer in Gandhian thinking and Buddhism. with its enormous population coupled with poverty on the one hand and the need for economic industrial growth on the other.

3 Valuing cultures Every culture has a right to exist. Tribal people are frequently most closely linked with Nature and we have no right to foist on them our own modern way of life. based until recently on a belief that modern science holds the answer to everything. If this is not respected the poor will eventually rebel. Tribal cultures have over many generations used indigenous medicines which are proving to be effective against diseases.the unquantifiable numbers of individuals of its millions of known and unknown species. Modern civilization is a homogenous culture.5. 7.5. The dilemma is how to provide them with modern health care and education that gives them an opportunity to achieve a better economic status without disrupting their culture and way of life. anarchy and terrorism will spread and the people who are impoverished will eventually form a desperate seething revolution to better their own lot. This will happen only if we value their culture and respect their way of life. and those who live near or below the poverty line.4 Social justice As the divide widens between those people who have access to resources and wealth. The developing world would face a crisis earlier than the developed countries unless the rights of poor people that are fundamental to life are protected. We are now beginning to appreciate that many ancient and even present day sequestrated cultures have a wisdom and knowledge of their own environments that is based on a deep sense of respect for nature. They have produced unique art forms such as painting. 7. . it is the duty of those who are better off to protect the rights of the poor who do not have the means to fight for their rights.

5 Human heritage The earth itself is a heritage left to us by our ancestors for not only our own use but for the generations to come. 5:09 PM 241 242 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses 7. the temples of the 10th to . Heritage preservation is now a growing environmental concern because much of this heritage has been undervalued during the last several decades and is vanishing at an astonishing pace. a traditional rural landscape. The world will be culturally impoverished if we allow these indigenous people to loose their traditional knowledge which includes sustainable use of water. and crafts that are beautiful and can enrich living experiences for everyone. songs. dance and drama -all art forms that are unfortunately being rapidly lost as we introduce a different set of modern values to them through television and other mass media. will give place to yet another plastic box. Much that is beautiful and hand-crafted will disappear if we do not value these diverse aspects of human cultures. Chapter7. The bamboo basket weaver who makes a thing of beauty that is so user friendly and aesthetically appealing. They have their own poetry. While we admire and value the Ajanta and Ellora Caves. These are all part of human heritage. and the value of a historical monument or place of worship. There is much that is beautiful on our Earth .p65 4/9/2004. land and resources with a low impact on biodiversity. The art of the potter will be lost forever to the indestructible plastic pot. the architecture of a traditional village or town. They will soon lose the beauty within their homes that is based on the things they make from Nature.5.sculpture.the undisturbed wilderness.

This includes an appreciation of the fact that economically advanced countries and the rich in even poor nations consume resources at much greater levels than the much larger poorer sectors of humanity in the developing world. or the unique environmentally-friendly Colonial buildings. The poor while polluting the environment have no way to prevent it. The rich damage the environment through a carelessness that proves only that they have no appreciation for environmental safety. Equitable use of resources is now seen as an essential aspect of human well being and must become a shared point of view among all socially and environmentally conscious individuals. As environmentally conscious individuals we need to lobby for the protection of the wilderness and our glorious architectural heritage. we have done little to actively preserve them. leads to great pressures on the environment.15th centuries that led to different and diverse styles of architecture and sculpture. based on a world that is essentially only for the rich. will bring about a disaster of unprecedented proportions. the Moghul styles that led to structures such as the Taj Mahal. 7. This is equally true of the small number of rich people in poor countries whose per capita use of energy and resources. the smaller number of people in developed countries use more resources and energy than those in the developing world.6 Equitable use of resources An unfair distribution of wealth and resources.5. and the generation of waste based on the one time use of disposable products. As we begin to appreciate that we need more sustainable lifestyles we also begin to realize that . In spite of the great number of people in the more populous developing countries.

they will begin to protect them.7 Common Property Resources Our environment has a major component that does not belong to individuals.8 Ecological degradation In many situations valuable ecological assets are turned into serious environmental problems. 7. 5:09 PM 242 243 Human Population and the Environment forces that bring about ecological degradation.5.5. the rich. urbanized. in the recent past managing local forests through village level forest protection committees has shown that if people know that they can benefit from the forests. industrial sector is responsible for greater ecological damage. the air that we all breathe. began to overexploit resources on which they now had no personal stake.p65 4/9/2004. 7. This is because we as a society do not strongly resist Chapter7.this cannot be brought about without a more equitable use of resources. Bringing back such traditional management systems is extremely difficult. This essentially means sharing the power to control forests between the Forest Department and local people. These consist of sectors of society that use a ‘get-rich-quick’ approach to development. While ecological degradation has frequently been blamed on the needs of fuelwood and fodder of growing numbers of rural people. However. When Government took over the control of community forests in British times. are all common property resources. Changes in landuse . There are several commonly owned resources that all of us use as a community. the local people who until then had controlled their use through a set of norms that were based on equitable use. The water that nature recycles. the forests and grasslands which maintain our climate and soil.

As it reduces an individual’s resistance to disease. it causes infected individuals to suffer from a large number of environment related diseases and reduces the ability of infected individuals to go about their normal lives. It affects their income generation and/or their ability to utilise natural resources. especially through sexual contact. or tea and coffee estates. The inability of these patients to have the strength to access natural resources also affects the outcome of the disease process. As more and more people are affected. for example. this disease will also have impacts on our natural resource base. as their overall health and . 7.from natural ecosystems to more intensive utilization such as turning forests into monoculture forestry plantations. These values must form a part of a new conservation ethic. or marginal lands into intensive agricultural patterns such as sugarcane fields or changes into urban or industrial land carry an ecological price. Wetlands. We cannot permit unsustainable development to run onwards at a pace in which our lives will be overtaken by a development strategy that must eventually fail as Earth’s resources are consumed and ecosystems rendered irreparable. A natural forest provides valuable non-wood forest products whose economic returns far outweigh that provided by felling the forest for timber. in many cases produce lower returns. as utilisation patterns change to unsustainable levels. and when destroyed to provide additional farmland. provide usable resources and a variety of services not easily valued in economic terms.6 HIV/AIDS The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) through contact with tissue fluids of infected individuals.

The capacity of these patients to work for their usual sources of income generation is lost. It is evident that it is going to be increasingly difficult to manage environments sustainably. people have a mistaken belief that turtle eggs can cure HIV/ AIDS. In South Africa. it is leading to great suffering and worsening poverty. People affected by the disease inevitably try to get whatever they can from their natural resource base as they are not in any position to think of the long-term future. In sub Saharan Africa where the infection has become highly prevalent. HIV/AIDS seriously affects the patient’s working environment. An increasing proportion of the poor are affected. for example.well being is likely to worsen the course of the disease when their nutritional status suffers. Patients have a right to . In Africa. as natural resources on which the poor debilitated patients depend continue to be degraded. thus leading to the eggs being over harvested. access to clean water and wholesome food. work on agricultural land has to be taken over by already overworked women and their children. Incomes lost due to the stigma of HIV/AIDS must be met by the sufferers by overexploiting their resource base. It creates an incorrect fear in the minds of co-workers. this has led to degradation of the ecosystem and an increase of pressures from other impacts such as overuse of medicinal plants and poaching for wildlife. It must be clearly understood that AIDS is not spread by casual contact during work. affecting land management and productivity. Providing balanced diets and nutritional support for these poverty stricken patients can be partially addressed by better natural resource management such as afforestation. As males die of the disease.

Chapter7. Research in Nepal has shown a linkage between rural poverty. as well as the need to remove the social stigma attached to it. This produces enormous economic stresses on their family. Women also have an added burden of caring for HIV infected husbands. By 2002.97 million infected individuals. in the formal and non-formal educational sectors. Women engaged in prostitution find it difficult . a growing number of women are moving to Indian cities as sex workers. deforestation and a shift of population to urban areas resulting in a rising number of AIDS patients. In India. There is a great need to organise AIDS education on prevention and management of the disease. This needs to be done through the formal educational sector and by using non-formal methods. Education is also important to reduce the stigma and discrimination against these patients. In more recent times. India had an estimated 3. Prior to 1992. Educators and extention information. must address the issues related to the linkages between natural resource management and this disease. 5:09 PM 243 244 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses it is essential that alternative sources of work must be created for them. women who are not socially empowered are at a great disadvantage as they are powerless to demand safe sex from their partners. it was mainly seen in males who migrated to urban centers. As patients are unable to continue their original hard labour related work. HIV/ AIDS has a serious impact on the socioeconomic fabric of society.continue to work as before along with unaffected individuals.p65 4/9/2004. HIV in India is rapidly moving from a primarily urban sector disease to rural communities.

where the number of individuals who have multiple partners. In sexually transmitted AIDS. The diagnosis of common childhood disease conditions Presenting complaint Possible cause or associated condition Cough and/or Pneumonia fast breathing Severe anaemia . Seven out of 10 of childhood deaths in developing countries can be attributed to five main causes.7 WOMAN AND CHILD WELFARE There are several environmental factors that are closely linked to the welfare of women and children. malaria and malnutrition. Behavioural change. However. Blood transfusion from an infected person can also lead to HIV/AIDS in the recipient. the use of condoms during intercourse is a key to preventing the disease. measles. diarrhoea. as well as drug abuse by sharing needles with an infected person. or a combination of them. A large proportion became victims of the disease. three out of every four children suffer from at least one of these conditions. Most of these deaths are in the developing world. more than one in five children die before they are 5 years old. reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS and thus reduces incidence of the disease in society. towards strictly single partners.to make partners take protective measures. 7. the most important measure to prevent AIDS is the proper use of condoms that form a barrier to the spread of the virus during intercourse. In some countries. These are pneumonia. Around the world. close to eleven million children worldwide are estimated to have died from the effects of disease and inadequate nutrition. such as the use of condoms that provide safe sex. Each year.

Chula smoke is the third highest cause of disease and death after dirty water and lack of sanitation. “hidden” ARI deaths. Respiratory conditions: Most respiratory diseases are caused by or are worsened by polluted air. over half the diseases and premature deaths could be avoided in India. Pneumonia: Acute respiratory infections (ARI). most frequently pneumonia.P. food and ventilated homes. in fact. Upto 40% of children seen in health centers suffer from respiratory conditions and many deaths attributed to other causes are. killing over two million children annually. sanitation.p65 4/9/2004. 400. falciparum malaria Lethargy or Cerebral malaria unconsciousness Meningitis Severe dehydration Very severe pneumonia Measles rash Pneumonia Diarrhoea Ear infection “Very sick” young infant Pneumonia Meningitis Sepsis Chapter7. 5:09 PM 244 245 Human Population and the Environment CASE STUDY Chula issue The World Health Organisation estimates that 1. Crowded ill-ventilated homes and living in smokey households with open fires can trigger respiratory conditions especially in children.000 children under five and women die each year in India due to indoor smoke. Children .000 to 550. is a major cause of death in children under five.6 billion early deaths occur annually from cooking stove pollution. Hence by providing access to clean water.

Correct management could save over 1 million lives per year globally. It infects over 40 million children and . Two million children die each year in developing countries from diarrhoeal diseases. Treating malnutrition that often accompanies diarrhoea can further reduce mortality. including antibiotics and simple measures such as oral rehydration using clean boiled water with salt and sugar. Correct management of diarrhoea could save the lives of up to 90% of children who currently die by promoting rapid and effective treatment through standardised management. In most cases diarrhoea is preventable and children can be saved by early treatment. Most patients of pneumonia can be treated with oral antibiotics. the second most serious killer of children under five worldwide. In severe cases intravenous fluids must be started.may die very quickly from the infection and thus need treatment urgently. Urgent diagnosis and treatment of diarrhoea is a priority for saving a child’s life. such as measles or malaria. Measles: Measles is a rash that appears with fever and bodyache in children and is caused by a virus. Increased breastfeeding and measles vaccination have also been observed to have reduced the number of cases of diarrhoea. Increasing vigilance to detect other diseases that can occur concurrently with diarrhoea. is an important measure. Gastro intestinal conditions: Contaminated water and food causes widespread ill health especially in children. as well as improved nutrition. Diarrhoea: Diarrhoea is caused by a wide variety of infections. Improved hygiene and management of the home and surroundings is the most important preventative measure.

Measles is prevented by a vaccine. Correct management could save 500. Young children with measles often develop other diseases such as acute respiratory infections. alternative newer drug therapies have been developed for use in areas where resistant parasites are found. diarrhoea and malnutrition that are all linked to poor environmental conditions in their surroundings.000 lives per year.000 children die of malaria globally each year. Approximately 700. most of them in sub-Saharan Africa.kills over 800.000 lives per year. including breastfeeding. It has proved difficult to control because mosquitoes have become resistant to insecticides used against them and because the parasite has developed resistance in some areas to the cheap and effective drugs that used to provide good protection in the past. and vitamin A supplementation. rapid referral of serious cases. Prevention includes wider immunization coverage. However. In India the disease was nearly wiped out a few decades ago but has now re-emerged in many parts of the country. Malaria: This condition is closely linked to pooling and stagnation of water in tropical environments. prompt recognition of conditions that occur in association with measles.p65 4/9/2004. Malaria is a widespread tropical disease Chapter7. Young children are particularly vulnerable because they have not developed the partial immunity that results from .000 children under the age of five. Children who survive an attack of measles are more vulnerable to other dangerous infections for several months. 5:09 PM 245 246 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses which is caused by a parasite transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. and improved nutrition. Effective prevention and treatment could save 700.

it contributes to about half of all childhood deaths. Infection. a degraded environment. such as malnutrition and anaemia. Because fever may be the only sign of malaria. measles and malaria. poor feeding practices and infection. contribute to malnutrition. This is further aggravated by a lack of awareness on how children become malnourished. improving feeding practices. particularly frequent or persistent diarrhoea. are major factors in mortality. Lack of access to food. Malnutrition: Although malnutrition is rarely listed as the direct cause of death. giving food in insufficient quantities. pneumonia. Deaths from malaria can be reduced by several measures. including encouraging parents to seek prompt care. and malnutrition. Poverty-environment-malnutrition: There is a close association between poverty. or a combination of the two. accurate assessment of the condition of the child. Promoting breastfeeding. The nutritional status and feeding practices of every child under two years of age. Counseling of parents on the . and providing micronutrient supplements routinely for children who need them are measures that reduce mortality. prompt treatment with appropriate anti-malarial drugs.surviving repeated infections. it can be difficult to distinguish it from other potentially lifethreatening conditions. Malnourished children are more vulnerable to disease. Poor feeding practices . providing the wrong foods. recognition and treatment of other co-existing conditions. undermines nutritional status. and prevention by using mosquito-proof bednets.inadequate breastfeeding. and those with a low weight for their age must be intensively managed.

can ensure that a child gets enough to eat. Encouraging maximum support to mothers to establish optimal breastfeeding from birth. six months of life. with relatively simple changes to better feeding practices. Talking to mothers individually about home care and their child’s feeding. if possible. Mothers often give their babies other food and fluids before six months because they doubt their breastmilk supply is adequate. in addition to giving complemenChapter7.p65 4/9/2004. equipping health workers with counseling skills. respiratory infections. This increases the risk of diarrhoea. Even small amounts of water-based drinks decreases breastmilk intake and lead to lowered weight gain. A minor increase in breastfeeding could prevent up to 10% of all deaths of children under five: When mothers breastfeed exclusively during at least the first four months and. 5:09 PM 246 247 Human Population and the Environment tary foods. and providing individual counseling and support for breastfeeding mothers are measures that reduce malnutrition. such as helping them to eat rather than leaving them to fend for themselves. A one-on-one counseling with mothers . maintains good nutritional status and helps prevent diarrhoea. Children between 6 months and 2 years of age are at increased risk of malnutrition when there is a transition between breastfeeding and sharing fully in the family diet. to a lesser extent. Continuing to breastfeed up to two years of age. there is a decrease in episodes of diarrhoea and. Changing family habits and the kinds of food offered to children is an important measure.correct foods for each age group and helping them to overcome various feeding problems is an essential health care measure.

Women. Karnataka has computerized 20 million records of land ownership . During this process. The daily collection of water. In urban areas. Thus they are providing an environmental service of great value. metal and other recyclable material from the waste produced by the more affluent groups of society. tenancy and crops from a computerized information kiosk without harassment and bribes. There are strong connections between the status of the environment and the welfare of women and children in India. especially in lower income group families. In urban centers. which is a cause of respiratory diseases. The sorry plight of women includes the fact that the girl child is given less attention and educational facilities as compared to boys in India. Farmers can now get a copy of the records of rights. Bhoomi. a number of women eke out a living by garbage picking. This leads to malnutrition and anemia due to inadequate nutrition. They separate plastics. but earn a pittance from this work. has revolutionized the way farmers access their land records. both in the rural and urban sector.on breastfeeding techniques and its benefits helps reduce incidence of malnutrition. Women are often the last to get enough nutrition as their role in traditional society is to cook the family meal and feed their husband and children. Their work pattern differs and is more prone to health hazards. where lower economic group women live in crowded smoke filled shantys in unhygenic slums. they can get several infections. Thus CASE STUDY Karnataka’s GIS scheme. work longer hours than men. they spend long hours indoors. fuelwood and fodder is an arduous task for rural women.

of 6. Specialised software can analyse data for epidemiological studies. Once this is done. A few examples of the use of computer technology that aid environmental studies include software such as using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The computer age has turned the world around due to the incredible rapidity with which IT spreads knowledge. 5:09 PM 247 248 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses vironmental management planning. they are unable to compete with men in later life.8 ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH The understanding of environmental concerns and issues related to human health has exploded during the last few years due to the sudden growth of Information Technology. accurately and spread the information through the world’s networks of millions of computer systems.7 million farmers in the State. population dynamics and a variety of key environmental concerns. The Internet with its thousands of websites has made it extremely simple to get the appropriate environmental information for any study or enChapter7. GIS is a tool to map landuse patterns and document change by studying digitized toposheets and/or satellite imagery. . an expert can ask a variety of questions which the software can answer by producing maps which helps in landuse planning. 7. This social-environmental divide is a major concern that needs to be corrected throughout the country.p65 4/9/2004. IT can do several tasks extremely rapidly. This not only assists scientists and students but is a powerful tool to help increase public awareness about environmental issues.

This looks at infection rates. Chapter7.p65 4/9/2004. computers will become increasingly efficient. 5:09 PM 248 . As knowledge expands. They will be faster. morbidity or mortality and the etiology (causative factors) of a disease.The relationship between the environment and health has been established due to the growing utilisation of computer technology. have greater memories and even perhaps begin to think for themselves.