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# Steady Heat Transfer

## Steady Heat Transfer with Conduction and Convection

Larry Caretto Mechanical Engineering 375

Outline
Review last lecture Equivalent circuit analyses
Review basic concept Application to series circuits with conduction and convection Application to composite materials Application to other geometries

Heat Transfer
February 14, 2007

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## & gen = 0 Review Steady, 1-D, e

Rectangular & k (TL T0 ) Q &= = q A L Cylindrical shell & Q 2k (T2 T1 ) = L ln (r2 r1 )

## Review Heat Generation

Figure 2-21 from engel, Various Heat and Mass Transfer phenomena in solids can generate heat & gen Define e as the heat I 2 L generated per I 2 I 2R &gen = = A = 2 unit volume e LA V A per unit time
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Spherical shell k is an average thermal conductivity (or a constant & = 4k (T2 T1 ) Q value) if k is constant 1 / r1 1 / r2 T0, TL = temperatures at x = 0,L; T1, T2 = temperatures at inner (r1) and outer(r2) radii
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## Review Heat Generation II

Temperature and heat flux equations
TemperatureDifference Ratio

1.8

1.6

T = T0

&genx2 e

2k

&genxL e

2k

(T T )x 0 L
L

1.4

H=0
1.2

## & (2x L) k (T0 TL ) e & = gen + q 2 L

0.8

0.6

0.4

H=
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x/L 0.6 0.7

0.2

5

k (TL T0 )
0.8 0.9 1

&gen Le

## Steady Heat Transfer Definition

In steady heat transfer the temperature and heat flux at any coordinate point do not change with time Both temperature and heat transfer can change with spatial locations, but not with time Steady energy balance (first law of thermodynamics) means that heat in plus heat generated equals heat out
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## Rectangular Steady Conduction

Figure 3-2 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

The heat transfer is constant in this 1D rectangle for both constant & variable k

& dT Q & = k =q A dx

## Figure 2-63 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

Thermal Resistance
Heat flow analogous to current Temperature difference analogous to potential difference Both follow Ohms law with appropriate resistance term

Thermal Resistance II
Conduction & = k A(T1 T2 ) Q & = T1 T2 Q L Rcond Convection
& = hA T T Q s f

Rcond =

L kA
1 hA

&= Q

Ts T f Rconv

Rconv =
1

Radiation
Rrad =
9

)= Ah

1 rad
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## Where Does the Heat Go?

Energy conservation requires that conduction heat through wall equals the heat leaving the wall by convection and radiation

## Where Does the Heat Go? II

Figure 1-18 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

## & =Q & +Q & Q 1 2 3

Figure 1-18 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer
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## Parallel Resistances (T = Tsurr)

1 1 1 = + Rtotal Rconv Rrad
T =

Combined Modes
Conduction Convection or convection plus radiation

Tsurr Rtotal

= As hconv + As hrad

& = h(T1 T1 ) q
Convection or convection plus radiation
Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

## Define total heat transfer coefficient, htotal

Figure 3-5 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

&= q

htotal =

13

k (T1 T2 ) L
L

& = h(T2 T 2 ) q
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## & values are the same All q

Combined Modes II
A is area normal to heat flow L
Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

## Combined Modes III

A is area normal to heat flow L
Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

## Series Resistance Formula

&= q

&= Q

T1 T 2 1 1 L + + Ah1 kA Ah2

&= q

& Q T T = 1 2 A 1 +L+ 1 h1 k h2
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If you know h1, h2, L, k, T1, and T2, but you do not know T1 and T2, can you find the heat flux? Once you found the heat flux from the information give, can you find T1 and T2?

& Q T T = 1 2 1 L 1 A + + h1 k h2

T1 = T1

& q h1

T2 = T 2 +

& q h2

16

Problem
A house has a 4 in thick brick wall with k = 0.6 Btu/hrftoF. The interior temperature is 70oF and the exterior temperature is 0oF. The inside and outside convection plus radiation coefficients are 3 Btu/hrft2oF and 4 Btu/hrft2oF, respectively. Find the heat flux through the wall. Given: Wall with L = 4 in = 4/12 ft and k =0.6 Btu/hrftoF has convection on two sides. T1 = 70oF, T2 = 0oF, h1 = 3 Btu/hrft2oF and h2 = 4 Btu/hrft2oF. & &=Q Find: q 17 A
A is area normal to heat flow

Solution
L
Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

&= q

&= q

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## February 14, 2007

Solution II
A is area normal to heat flow L
Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

Solution III
A is area normal to heat flow L
Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

T T & = 1 1 q 1 h1

& q T1 = T1 = 70o F h1

## 61.5 Btu hr ft 2 = 49.5o F 3 Btu hr ft 2 o F 61.5 Btu

How can we check results below found from analysis of overall problem and convection processes?

&= q

61.5 Btu hr ft 2

T1 = 49.5o F

T2 = 15.4o F

## Analyze conduction step for consistency.

T T & = 2 2 q 1 h2

& q T2 = T 2 + =0o F h1

hr ft = 15.4o F 4 Btu 19 hr ft 2 o F
2

&= q

61.5 Btu hr ft 2

## 0.6 Btu 49.5o F 15.4o F & k (T T ) hr ft o F Q 1 2 = = = 4 A L ft 20 12

Composite Materials

Composite Materials II

## How would you analyze this problem?

Figure 3-9 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer
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## Review Cylindrical Shell

Figure 250 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

## Cylindrical Shell with Convection

A1 = 2r1L

& Q 2k (T1 T2 ) r = L r2 ln r 1
R= r 1 ln 2 2kL r1

For constant k

&= Q

## T1 T 2 Rconv,1 + Rcond + Rconv, 2 Rconv,1 = 1 1 = h1 A1 h1 2r1L

Rconv,2 =
A2 = 2r2 L

1 1 = h2 A2 h2 2r2 L

& = Q r

T1 T2 T T = 1 2 R r 1 ln 2 23 r 2kL 1

&= Q

## Figure 3-25 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

T1 T2 r 1 1 1 ln 2 + + h 2r L h1 2r1L 2kL r 1 2 2
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## Cylinder plus Convection Result

&= Q

Problem
A hot-water pipe (k = 35 Btu/hrftoF) in a house, made of inch schedule 40 pipe (OD = 1.050 in; ID = 0.824 in) is 40 ft long and contains water at 120oF. The air around the pipe is at 60oF. The heat transfer coefficients inside and outside the pipe are, respectively, 200 and 3 Btu/hrft2oF. Determine the heat loss & Q 2(T1 T2 ) from the pipe. =
L 1 1 r2 1 + ln + h1r1 k r1 h2r2
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T1 T2 r 1 1 1 + + ln 2 h1 2r1L 2kL r h 2 1 2 r2 L

## We can rearrange this equation as shown below

& Q 2(T1 T2 ) = L 1 1 r2 1 + + ln h1r1 k r1 h2r2
Figure 3-25 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer
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Solution
Given: T2 = T1 = 120oF, r1 = ID/2 = 0.412 in, r2 = OD/2 = 0.525 in, k =35 Btu/hrftoF, L = 40 ft, h1= 200 Btu/hrft2oF, h2= 3 Btu/hrft2oF 60oF,

Solution II
Given: T2 = 60oF, T1 = 1 1 12 in hr ft 2 o F = 120oF, r1 = ID/2 = 0.412 in, 200 Btu 0.412 in ft h1r1 r2 = OD/2 = 0.525 in, k =35 Btu/hrftoF, L = 40 ft, 1 r2 hr fto F 0.525 in = ln ln h1= 200 Btu/hrft2oF, 35 Btu 0.412 in k r1 2 o h2= 3 Btu/hrft F 2o hr ft F in 1 1 12 1 , 940 Btu & = = Find: Q hr h2r2 3 Btu 0.525 in ft
&= Q
2(T1 T2 )L 2 120oF 60oF (40 ft ) = o 1 1 r2 1 + ln + (0.146 + 0.007 + 7.619) hr ft F h1r1 k r1 h2r2 Btu 28

## Figure 3-26 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

1 1 = h2 A4 h2 2r4 L

## Figure 3-26 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

29

1 r2 1 r3 ln ln 1 1 = k1L r1 k2 L r2 h1 A1 h1 2r1L

1 r4 ln k3 L r3

30

## Figure 3-26 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

Another Problem
Insulation with k = 0.2 Btu/hrftoF is to be added to the pipe in the previous example problem. Determine the heat transfer if the insulation is one inch thick.
&= Q T1 T 2 r2 r3 1 1 1 1 + ln + 2k L ln r + h1 2r1L 2k1L r 1 2 h2 2r3 L 2

&= Q

31

&= Q

## Know all terms from previous example except 32 these two

Another Problem II
Unchanged resistances from previous example 1 1 r2 0.153 hr fto F
h1r1 + ln = k1 r1 Btu
=
&= Q

## New and modified resistances

1 r3 hr fto F 1.525 in 5.332 hr fto F ln ln = = k2 Btu r2 0.2 Btu 0.525 in hr ft 2 o F 1 1 12 in 2.623 hr fto F = = h2r3 Btu 3 Btu 1.525 in ft
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1860 Btu hr

## Insulation and outer convection resistances are largest

Inner convection and pipe conduction negligible Outer convection resistance less with insulation
34

Btu

2500

## &? Insulation Increases Q

Why does initial amount of insulation increase heat transfer?
Tradeoff of two resistances Added insulation adds conduction resistance Added insulation also increases outer radius which decreases the outer convection resistance 1/(houterAouter) = 1/(houter2routerL)
36

2000

1500

## Heat loss (Btu/hr)

1000

500

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Thickness (in)
35

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## & Radius for Maximum Q

&= Q 2L(T1 T 2 ) 1 ro 1 Rother + ln + ko ri h2 ro
ro = outer radius ko = thermal conductivity of outer layer

10

Resistance 6 (hrftF/Btu)
4

3

38

37

## & Radius for Maximum Q

& ro = ko/h2 for maximum Q In the example problem h2 = 3 Btu/hrft2oF, and ko = 0.2 Btu/hrftoF so & ro = 0.0667 ft = 0.8 in for maximum Q Pipe radius was 0.525 in; ro = 0.8 in gives an insulation thickness of 0.275 in Note that ro = ko/h2 does not depend on ri and is usually larger than ri & There is no radius for minimum Q
39

A1 = 4r12 L

&= Q

## T1 T 2 Rconv,1 + Rsph + Rconv, 2 Rconv,1 = 1 1 = h1 A1 h1 4r12 1 1 = 2 h2 A2 h2 4r2

Rsph

Rconv,2 =

A2 = 4r22 L
Figure 3-25 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

Rsph

1 1 r1 r2 = 4k

40

A1 = 4r12 L

## Conduction Shape Factors

Simplified analysis
for multidimensional geometries with each surface at a uniform temperature Use shape factor, S, whose equation is found from tables like engel Table 3-7 & = kS(T T ) Basic equation: Q 1 2 S must have dimensions of length
Equations for S depend on parameters in the different geometries
42

Rsph

&= Q
A2 = 4r22 L

41

3.5 3.0 2.5

S/L

z/D
43 44