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Larry Caretto Mechanical Engineering 375

Outline

Review last lecture Equivalent circuit analyses

Review basic concept Application to series circuits with conduction and convection Application to composite materials Application to other geometries

Heat Transfer

February 14, 2007

2

Rectangular & k (TL T0 ) Q &= = q A L Cylindrical shell & Q 2k (T2 T1 ) = L ln (r2 r1 )

Figure 2-21 from engel, Various Heat and Mass Transfer phenomena in solids can generate heat & gen Define e as the heat I 2 L generated per I 2 I 2R &gen = = A = 2 unit volume e LA V A per unit time

4

Spherical shell k is an average thermal conductivity (or a constant & = 4k (T2 T1 ) Q value) if k is constant 1 / r1 1 / r2 T0, TL = temperatures at x = 0,L; T1, T2 = temperatures at inner (r1) and outer(r2) radii

3

Temperature and heat flux equations

TemperatureDifference Ratio

1.8

1.6

T = T0

&genx2 e

2k

&genxL e

2k

(T T )x 0 L

L

1.4

H=0

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

H=

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x/L 0.6 0.7

0.2

5

k (TL T0 )

0.8 0.9 1

&gen Le

In steady heat transfer the temperature and heat flux at any coordinate point do not change with time Both temperature and heat transfer can change with spatial locations, but not with time Steady energy balance (first law of thermodynamics) means that heat in plus heat generated equals heat out

7

Figure 3-2 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

The heat transfer is constant in this 1D rectangle for both constant & variable k

& dT Q & = k =q A dx

Thermal Resistance

Heat flow analogous to current Temperature difference analogous to potential difference Both follow Ohms law with appropriate resistance term

Thermal Resistance II

Conduction & = k A(T1 T2 ) Q & = T1 T2 Q L Rcond Convection

& = hA T T Q s f

Rcond =

L kA

1 hA

&= Q

Ts T f Rconv

Rconv =

1

Radiation

Rrad =

9

)= Ah

1 rad

10

Energy conservation requires that conduction heat through wall equals the heat leaving the wall by convection and radiation

Figure 1-18 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

Figure 1-18 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

11

12

1 1 1 = + Rtotal Rconv Rrad

T =

Combined Modes

Conduction Convection or convection plus radiation

Tsurr Rtotal

= As hconv + As hrad

& = h(T1 T1 ) q

Convection or convection plus radiation

Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

Figure 3-5 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

&= q

htotal =

13

k (T1 T2 ) L

L

& = h(T2 T 2 ) q

14

Combined Modes II

A is area normal to heat flow L

Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

A is area normal to heat flow L

Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

&= q

&= Q

T1 T 2 1 1 L + + Ah1 kA Ah2

&= q

& Q T T = 1 2 A 1 +L+ 1 h1 k h2

15

If you know h1, h2, L, k, T1, and T2, but you do not know T1 and T2, can you find the heat flux? Once you found the heat flux from the information give, can you find T1 and T2?

& Q T T = 1 2 1 L 1 A + + h1 k h2

T1 = T1

& q h1

T2 = T 2 +

& q h2

16

Problem

A house has a 4 in thick brick wall with k = 0.6 Btu/hrftoF. The interior temperature is 70oF and the exterior temperature is 0oF. The inside and outside convection plus radiation coefficients are 3 Btu/hrft2oF and 4 Btu/hrft2oF, respectively. Find the heat flux through the wall. Given: Wall with L = 4 in = 4/12 ft and k =0.6 Btu/hrftoF has convection on two sides. T1 = 70oF, T2 = 0oF, h1 = 3 Btu/hrft2oF and h2 = 4 Btu/hrft2oF. & &=Q Find: q 17 A

A is area normal to heat flow

Solution

L

Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

&= q

&= q

18

Solution II

A is area normal to heat flow L

Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

Solution III

A is area normal to heat flow L

Figure 3-6 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

T T & = 1 1 q 1 h1

& q T1 = T1 = 70o F h1

How can we check results below found from analysis of overall problem and convection processes?

&= q

61.5 Btu hr ft 2

T1 = 49.5o F

T2 = 15.4o F

T T & = 2 2 q 1 h2

& q T2 = T 2 + =0o F h1

hr ft = 15.4o F 4 Btu 19 hr ft 2 o F

2

&= q

61.5 Btu hr ft 2

Composite Materials

Composite Materials II

Figure 3-9 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

21 22

Figure 250 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

A1 = 2r1L

& Q 2k (T1 T2 ) r = L r2 ln r 1

R= r 1 ln 2 2kL r1

For constant k

&= Q

Rconv,2 =

A2 = 2r2 L

1 1 = h2 A2 h2 2r2 L

& = Q r

T1 T2 T T = 1 2 R r 1 ln 2 23 r 2kL 1

&= Q

T1 T2 r 1 1 1 ln 2 + + h 2r L h1 2r1L 2kL r 1 2 2

24

&= Q

Problem

A hot-water pipe (k = 35 Btu/hrftoF) in a house, made of inch schedule 40 pipe (OD = 1.050 in; ID = 0.824 in) is 40 ft long and contains water at 120oF. The air around the pipe is at 60oF. The heat transfer coefficients inside and outside the pipe are, respectively, 200 and 3 Btu/hrft2oF. Determine the heat loss & Q 2(T1 T2 ) from the pipe. =

L 1 1 r2 1 + ln + h1r1 k r1 h2r2

26

T1 T2 r 1 1 1 + + ln 2 h1 2r1L 2kL r h 2 1 2 r2 L

& Q 2(T1 T2 ) = L 1 1 r2 1 + + ln h1r1 k r1 h2r2

Figure 3-25 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

25

Solution

Given: T2 = T1 = 120oF, r1 = ID/2 = 0.412 in, r2 = OD/2 = 0.525 in, k =35 Btu/hrftoF, L = 40 ft, h1= 200 Btu/hrft2oF, h2= 3 Btu/hrft2oF 60oF,

Solution II

Given: T2 = 60oF, T1 = 1 1 12 in hr ft 2 o F = 120oF, r1 = ID/2 = 0.412 in, 200 Btu 0.412 in ft h1r1 r2 = OD/2 = 0.525 in, k =35 Btu/hrftoF, L = 40 ft, 1 r2 hr fto F 0.525 in = ln ln h1= 200 Btu/hrft2oF, 35 Btu 0.412 in k r1 2 o h2= 3 Btu/hrft F 2o hr ft F in 1 1 12 1 , 940 Btu & = = Find: Q hr h2r2 3 Btu 0.525 in ft

&= Q

2(T1 T2 )L 2 120oF 60oF (40 ft ) = o 1 1 r2 1 + ln + (0.146 + 0.007 + 7.619) hr ft F h1r1 k r1 h2r2 Btu 28

1 1 = h2 A4 h2 2r4 L

29

1 r2 1 r3 ln ln 1 1 = k1L r1 k2 L r2 h1 A1 h1 2r1L

1 r4 ln k3 L r3

30

Another Problem

Insulation with k = 0.2 Btu/hrftoF is to be added to the pipe in the previous example problem. Determine the heat transfer if the insulation is one inch thick.

&= Q T1 T 2 r2 r3 1 1 1 1 + ln + 2k L ln r + h1 2r1L 2k1L r 1 2 h2 2r3 L 2

&= Q

31

&= Q

Another Problem II

Unchanged resistances from previous example 1 1 r2 0.153 hr fto F

h1r1 + ln = k1 r1 Btu

=

&= Q

1 r3 hr fto F 1.525 in 5.332 hr fto F ln ln = = k2 Btu r2 0.2 Btu 0.525 in hr ft 2 o F 1 1 12 in 2.623 hr fto F = = h2r3 Btu 3 Btu 1.525 in ft

33

1860 Btu hr

Inner convection and pipe conduction negligible Outer convection resistance less with insulation

34

Btu

2500

Why does initial amount of insulation increase heat transfer?

Tradeoff of two resistances Added insulation adds conduction resistance Added insulation also increases outer radius which decreases the outer convection resistance 1/(houterAouter) = 1/(houter2routerL)

36

2000

1500

1000

500

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Thickness (in)

35

12

&= Q 2L(T1 T 2 ) 1 ro 1 Rother + ln + ko ri h2 ro

ro = outer radius ko = thermal conductivity of outer layer

10

Resistance 6 (hrftF/Btu)

4

3

38

37

& ro = ko/h2 for maximum Q In the example problem h2 = 3 Btu/hrft2oF, and ko = 0.2 Btu/hrftoF so & ro = 0.0667 ft = 0.8 in for maximum Q Pipe radius was 0.525 in; ro = 0.8 in gives an insulation thickness of 0.275 in Note that ro = ko/h2 does not depend on ri and is usually larger than ri & There is no radius for minimum Q

39

A1 = 4r12 L

&= Q

Rsph

Rconv,2 =

A2 = 4r22 L

Figure 3-25 from engel, Heat and Mass Transfer

Rsph

1 1 r1 r2 = 4k

40

A1 = 4r12 L

Simplified analysis

for multidimensional geometries with each surface at a uniform temperature Use shape factor, S, whose equation is found from tables like engel Table 3-7 & = kS(T T ) Basic equation: Q 1 2 S must have dimensions of length

Equations for S depend on parameters in the different geometries

42

Rsph

&= Q

A2 = 4r22 L

41

3.5 3.0 2.5

S/L

z/D

43 44

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