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AndreaGoldsmith

StanfordUniversity
IEEECommunication
TheoryWorkshop
Maui,HI
May14,2012
FutureWirelessNetworks
UbiquitousCommunicationAmongPeopleandDevices
NextgenerationCellular
WirelessInternetAccess
WirelessMultimedia
SensorNetworks
SmartHomes/Spaces
AutomatedHighways
SmartGrid
BodyAreaNetworks
Allthisandmore
FutureCellPhones
Muchbetterperformanceandreliabilitythantoday
Gbpsrates,lowlatency,99%coverageindoorsandout
Everythingwirelessinonedevice
Burdenforthisperformanceisonthebackbonenetwork
BS
BS
Phone
System
BS
San Francisco
Paris
N
th
-Gen
Cellular
N
th
-Gen
Cellular
Internet
LTEbackboneistheInternet
Careful what you wish for

Growthinmobiledata,massivespectrumdeficitandstagnantrevenues
requiretechnicalandpoliticalbreakthroughsforongoingsuccessofcellular
Source:UnstrungPyramidResearch2010
Source:FCC
Canweincreasecellularsystemcapacityto
compensatefora300MHzspectrumdeficit?
Withoutincreasingcost?
orpowerconsumption?
WhatwouldShannonsay?
AreweattheShannon
limitofthePhysicalLayer?
Timevaryingchannelswithmemory/feedback.
WedontknowtheShannon
capacityofmostwirelesschannels
Channelswithinterferenceorrelays.
Uplinkanddownlinkchannelswith
frequencyreuse,i.e.cellularsystems.
Channelswithdelay/energy/$$$constraints.
RethinkingCellsinCellular
Traditionalcellulardesigninterferencelimited
MIMO/multiuserdetectioncanremoveinterference
CooperatingBSsformaMIMOarray:whatisacell?
Relayschangecellshapeandboundaries
DistributedantennasmoveBStowardscellboundary
Smallcellscreateacellwithinacell
Mobilecooperationviarelaying,virtualMIMO,analognetworkcoding.
Small
Cell
Relay
DAS
Coop
MIMO
Howshouldcellular
systemsbedesigned?
Willgainsinpracticebe
bigorincremental;in
capacityorcoverage?
Aresmallcellsthesolutionto
increasecellularsystemcapacity?
Yes,withreuseoneandadaptive
techniques(Alouini/Goldsmith1999)
A=.25D
2
t
AreaSpectralEfficiency
S/Iincreaseswithreusedistance(increaseslinkcapacity).
Tradeoffbetweenreusedistanceandlinkspectralefficiency(bps/Hz).
AreaSpectralEfficiency:A
e
=ER
i
/(.25D
2
t)bps/Hz/Km
2
.
TheFutureCellularNetwork:Hierarchical
Architecture
MACRO:solving
initialcoverage
issue,existing
network
FEMTO:solving
enterprise&
home
coverage/capacity
issue
PICO:solving
street,enterprise
&home
coverage/capacity
issue
FuturesystemsrequireSelfOrganization(SON)(andWiFiOffload)
10xLowerCOST/Mbps
10xCAPACITY
Improvement
Near100%
COVERAGE
(more
withWiFi
Offload)
Macrocell Picocell Femtocell
Todaysarchitecture
3MMacrocellsserving5billionusers
Anticipated
SON Premise and Architecture
Node
Installation
Initial
Measurements
Self
Optimization
Self
Healing
Self
Configuration
Measurement
SON

Server
SoN
Server
Macrocell BS
Mobile Gateway
Or Cloud
Small cell BS
X2
X2
X2
X2
IP Network
Algorithmic Challenge: Complexity
Optimal channel allocation was NP hard in
2
nd
-generation (voice) IS-54 systems

Now we have MIMO, multiple frequency
bands, hierarchical networks,

But convex optimization has advanced a lot
in the last 20 years

Innovationneededtotamethecomplexity
GreenCellularNetworks
Minimizeenergyatboththemobileandbasestationvia
NewInfrastuctures:cellsize,BSplacement,DAS,Picos,relays
NewProtocols:CellZooming,CoopMIMO,RRM,Scheduling,
Sleeping,Relaying
LowPower(Green)Radios:RadioArchitectures,Modulation,
coding,MIMO
Pico/Femto
Relay
DAS
Coop
MIMO
Howshouldcellular
systemsberedesigned
forminimumenergy?
Researchindicatesthat
significantsavingsispossible
GerhardFettweistalk
AntennaPlacementinDAS
OptimizedistributedBSantennalocation
Primal/dualoptimizationframework
Convex;standardsolutionsapply
For4+ports,onemovestothecenter
Upto23dBpowergainindownlink
GainhigherwhenCSITnotavailable

3Ports
6Ports
Codingforminimumtotalpower
IsShannoncapacitystillagoodmetricforsystemdesign?
B
1
B
2
B
3
B
4
X
5
X
6
X
7
X
8
ExtendsearlyworkofElGamalet.al.84andThompson80
Computational
Nodes
Onchip
interconnects
Fundamentalareatimeperformancetradeoffs
Forencoding/decodinggoodcodes,

Stayawayfromcapacity!
Closetocapacity
Largechiparea
Moretime
Morepower
Areaoccupiedbywires
Encoding/decodingclockcycles
B
1
B
2
B
3
B
4
X
5
X
6
X
7
X
8
ReducedDimension
CommunicationSystemDesign
Compressedsensingideashavefoundwidespread
applicationinsignalprocessingandotherareas.

BasicpremiseofCS:exploitsparsitytoapproximatea
highdimensionalsystem/signalinafewdimensions.

Weask:howcansparsitybeexploitedtoreducethe
complexityofcommunicationsystemdesign
Sparsity:whereartthou?
Sparse state space: e.g reduced-dimension network
control
Sparse users: e.g. reduced-dimension multiuser detection
To exploit sparsity, we need to find
communication systems where it exists
Sparse samples: e.g. sub-Nyquist sampling
Sparse signals: e.g. white-space detection
CompressedSensing

Basicpremiseisthatsignalswithsomesparse
structurecanbesampledbelowtheirNyquistrate


Signalcanbeperfectlyreconstructedfromthese
samplesbyexploitingsignalsparsity

Thissignificantlyreducestheburdenonthefrontend
A/Dconverter,aswellastheDSPandstorage

Enablerforwhitespace,SDandlowenergyradios?
Onlyforincomingsignalssparseintime,freq.,space,etc.
RobCalderbanks
Talk
SoftwareDefined(SD)Radio:
WidebandantennasandA/DsspanBWofdesiredsignals
DSPprogrammedtoprocessdesiredsignal:nospecializedHW
Cellular
Apps
Processor
BT
Media
Processor
GPS
WLAN
Wimax
DVB-H
FM/XM
A/D
A/D
DSP
A/D
A/D
Today,thisisnotcost,size,orpowerefficient

Compressed sensing reduces A/ D and DSP burden


SparseSamples

Foragivensamplingmechanism(i.e.anewchannel)
Whatistheoptimalinputsignal?
Whatisthetradeoffbetweencapacityandsamplingrate?
Whatknownsamplingmethodsleadtohighestcapacity?

Whatistheoptimalsamplingmechanism?
Amongallpossible(knownandunknown)samplingschemes
Sampling
Mechanism
(rate f
s
)
New Channel
CapacityunderSubNyquistSampling
Theorem1:

Theorem2:

BankofModulator+Filter~SingleBranch~FilterBank

Theorem3:

Optimalamongalltimepreservingnonuniformsampling
techniquesofratef
s
(ISIT12;Arxiv)
zzzzz
zzzzz
) (t s
] [n y

q(t)
p(t)
) (
1
t s
) (t s
i
) (t s
m
) (
s
mT n t =
) (
s
mT n t =
) (
s
mT n t =
] [
1
n y
] [n y
i
] [n y
m
equals
zzzz
zzzz
zz
SelectsthembrancheswithmhighestSNR
Example(Bankof2branches)

JointOptimizationofInputandFilterBank
highest
SNR
2
nd
highest
SNR
low SNR
( )
s
kf f X 2
( ) f X
( )
s
kf f X
( )
s
kf f X +
) (
s
kf f H

) ( f H

) (
s
kf f H +

) (
s
kf f N
) ( f N
) (
s
kf f N +
) (
s
kf f S

) ( f S

) (
s
kf f S +

) 2 (
s
kf f H

) 2 (
s
kf f N ) 2 (
s
kf f S

low
SNR
( ) f Y
1
( ) f Y
2
Capacity monotonic in f
s
Howdoesthistranslatetopracticalmodulationandcodingschemes
IdealMultiuserDetection
WhyNotUbiquitousToday?PowerandA/DPrecision
Signal 1
Demod
Iterative
Multiuser
Detection
Signal 2
Demod
-
=
Signal 1
-
=
Signal 2
A/D
A/D
A/D
A/D
MUDproposedforLTE
(closeslinkat7dBSNR)
ReducedDimensionMUD
ExploitsthatnumberofactiveusersGisrandomand
muchsmallerthantotalusers(alacompressedsensing)
Usingcompressedsensingideas,cancorrelatewith
M~log(G)waveforms
Reducedcomplexity,size,andpowerconsumption
r(t) =
g
1
t ( )
+2g
4
t ( )
+n(t)
h
1
(t)
1
T
b
0
T
b
}
1
T
b
0
T
b
}
1
T
b
0
T
b
}
h
2
(t)
h
M
(t)
Decision
Decision
Decision
L
i
n
e
a
r

T
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n


b
i
=
a
ij
j =1
M

c
j
c
1
c
2
c
M

b
1

b
2

b
N
10%PerformanceDegradation
ReducedDimensionNetworkDesign
Random Network State
Sampling
and
Learning
Approximate
Stochastic Control
and Optimization
Reduced-Dimension
State-Space Representation
Utility estimation
Sparse
Sampling
Projection
FeedbackinCommunications
Memorylesspointtopointchannels:
Capacityunchangedwithperfectfeedback
Feedbackdrasticallyincreaseserrorexponent(Lfoldexponential)
Feedbackreducesenergyconsumption
Why?
Outputfeedback
CSI
Acknowledgements
Somethingelse?
Capacityofchannelswithfeedbacklargelyunknown
Forchannelswithmemoryandperfectfeedback
Underfiniterateand/ornoisyfeedback
Formultiuserchannels
Formultihopnetworks

ARQisubiquitiousinpractice:

CognitiveRadios
Cognitiveradiossupportnewwirelessusersinexisting
crowdedspectrumwithoutdegradinglicensedusers
UtilizeadvancedcommunicationandDSPtechniques
Coupledwithnovelspectrumallocationpolicies

Technologycould
Revolutionizethewayspectrumisallocatedworldwide
Providemorebandwidthfornewapplications/services
Multipleparadigms
Underlay(exploitingunusedspatialdimensions)andOverlay
(exploitingrelayingandinterferencecancellation)promising
PTx
I
P
PRx
CRTx
CRRx
CRRx
PRx
PTx
CRTx
MIMOCognitiveUnderlay
CognitiveOverlay
TheSmartGrid:
FusionofSensing,Control,Communications
carbonmetrics.eu
WirelessandHealth,BiomedicineandNeuroscience
Doctoronachip
Cellphoneinforepository
Monitoring,remote
interventionandservices
Cloud
Thebrainasawirelessnetwork
EKGsignalreception/modeling
Informationflow(directedMI)
Signalencodinganddecoding
Nervenetwork(re)configuration
BodyArea
Networks
UbliMitrastalk
Todd
Colemans
Talk
Summary
Communicationsresearchaliveandwell

Communicationstechnologywillenablenew
applicationsthatwillchangepeopleslivesworldwide

Designinnovationwillbeneededtomeetthe
requirementsofnextgenerationwirelessnetworks

Asystemsviewandinterdisciplinarydesignapproach
holdsthekeytotheseinnovations