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External Publication No.

649 SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE EXPLORER SATELLITES AND THE PIONEER SPACE PROBES

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY


CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PASADENA 3, CALIFORNIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract No. NASw-6

External Publication No. 649 SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE EXPLORER SATELLITES AND THE PIONEER SPACE PROBES

A. R. Hibbs

Copy No__

18

pp. ii-iv, 1-31

JET PROPULSION LABO RATO RY California Institute of Technology Pasadena 3, California

May 15, 1959

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

External Publication No. 649

PREFACE

Portions of the following report were originated under studies conducted for the Department of Army Ordnance Corps under Contract No. DA-04-495-0rd 18. Such studies are now conducted for the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis tration under Contract No. NASw-6.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

External Publication No. 649 CONTENTS Page

I. II. III. IV. V.

Introduction....................... .................... Temperature Measurements........................ . . . Micrometeorite Measurements ............ ..............

1 5 7 10 . 16 17 17 18
31

Measurements of High-Intensity Radiation .............. Conclusions ........... ............................ ..

Table 1. Table 2.

Initial Orbital Characteristics of Explorers I, III, and I V ..................................... Orbital Characteristics of Pioneers III and IV . . .

F i g u r e s ...................................................... References............................................... .. .

FIGURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Lift-off of Explorer I I I ................ .............. Lift-off of Pioneer III................................. Instrumentation of Explorer Satellites .............. Tape Recorder for Cosmic-Ray Data . . . . . . . . . . . .
18

lg 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 26

Payload of Pioneer I I I ........ ........................ Cutaway Drawing of Pioneer III Payload ................ Shell of Explorer III S a t e l l i t e ....................... Measured Cylindrical Shell Temperature vs Time for Explorer I (February 1-12, 1958) ....................... Micrometeorite Microphone and Amplifier ..............

Wire Gauges Mounted on Retainer R i n g ................... Contours of Constant Counting Rate at 80 W Longitude. .

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External Publication No. 649 FIGURES (Cont'd) Page

12. 13. 14. 15.

Counting Rates from the Anton 302 Tube, Pioneers III and I V ............................................... 27 Current from the Anton 213 Tube, Pioneers III and IV . . . 28

Suggested Contour Lines Based on Explorer and Pioneer III Data, with Trajectory of Pioneer I I I ................ 29 Statistics of Counting Rate from 91,000 km to 660,000 k m ............................................... 30

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External Publication No. 649 SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE EXPLORER SATELLITES AND THE PIONEER SPACE PROBES A. R. Hibbs

ABSTRACT During 1958 and the first few months of 1959, the United States contributed to the scientific program of the International Geophysical Year with the launching of instrumented artificial earth satellites and space probes. These flights represent the first portion of a

continuing program of space exploration on the part of the United States. This paper describes the instrumentation of Explorers I,

III, and IV and Pioneers II.I and IV, together with the results obtained from these tests, including the discovery of the two Van Allen radiation belts, the measurement of interplanetary dust density, and the feasibility of temperature control for a body in free space.

I.

INTRODUCTION

During 1958 and 1959, three Explorer satellites and three Pioneer space probes have been successfully launched as part of the space exploration program of the United States. The launchings took place at the Air Force Missile Testing Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The launching vehicle for the

Explorers was the Jupiter-C rocket, a modified Redstone missile with

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External Publication No. 649 The missile is shown in A

three additional solid-propellant stages.

Fig. 1 a few seconds after lift-off from its launching pad.

description of this satellite-launching vehicle and its payload is given in Ref. 1. The characteristics of the initial orbits of the

three successful Explorers are given in Table 1. The launching vehicle for Pioneers III and IV, the space probes discussed in this paper, was a Juno II rocket0 The vehicle, shown

in Fig. 2, consisted of a modified Jupiter missile as the first stage with the same additional stages that were used with the Jupiter C. Orbital characteristics are given in Table 2. The satellites carried two radio transmitters, telemetry equipment, and the devices designed to take certain measurements in orbit. Cutaway drawings showing the arrangement of the instrumentation

in the three satellites are shown in Fig., 3. Explorer I carried the following scientific instrumentation: 1. A Geiger-Mueller tube and scaling circuit, designed to measure the intensity of high-energy radiation. 2. A sensitive microphone placed in contact with the shell, designed to respond to the impacts of micro meteorites. 3. Twelve cards wound with fine wire placed on the shell of the satellite, designed to measure, by their fracture, the impact of micrometeorites. 4. Four temperature-measuring devices, three on the shell and one in the interior of the satellite.

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Information from these experiments was carried on eight channels of telemetry, four on each of the two transmitters. The low-power

transmitter, mounted in the nose section, radiated approximately 10 milliwatts of power on a frequency of 108.00 me. The high-power

transmitter, mounted near the base of the payload, radiated approx imately 60 milliwatts of power on a frequency of 108.03 me. Explorer III was designed to make more sophisticated measurements of cosmic-ray intensity than had been made by Explorer I. Explorer III

carried the same type of Geiger-Mueller tube, but the information from this measurement was stored on a magnetic tape. recorder is shown in Fig. 4.) (The tape

Once during each orbit, when the

satellite passed over one of the Minitrack receiving stations, a coded interrogation signal was transmitted to the satellite. Upon

receipt of this signal, a playback of the recorder was initiated. In approximately 5 sec, all of the cosmic-ray information gathered from one orbit around the earth was transmitted to the ground station. The transmitter used in the satellite for this operation was similar to the high-power transmitter of Explorer I. A low-power transmitter was also included in the payload of Explorer III. This transmitter radiated cosmic-ray information In addition,

continuously, as did both transmitters in Explorer I.

the low-power transmitter carried information from twelve sets of wire grids and two thermistors. Explorer IV was devoted completely to the measurement of cosmic radiation. No tape recorder was included; however, two transmitting

beacons were carried, as well as the following detection instruments:

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1.

A scintillator consisting of a disc of plastic, 0.178 cm thick and 0.762 cm in diameter, cemented on the face of a photomultiplier tube. The tube was mounted with

its axis perpendicular to the longitude of the payload, with the scintillator near an open hole in the wall of the shell. This aperture was covered by aluminum foil

with a stopping mass of 0.14 g/cm2 . 2. A scintillator consisting of a disc of cesium iodide crystal, 0.203 cm thick and 0.762 cm in diameter, mounted on the face of a photomultiplier tube. The

multiplier tube was mounted with its axis perpendicular to the longitude of the payload, but facing in an opposite direction from that of the previously described detector. The scintillator was covered with a layer of

aluminum foil with a stopping mass of 0.2 mg/cm2 and a nickel foil shield of 0.8 mg/cm2 stopping mass. 3. A Geiger tube, Anton Model 302,*- shielded only by the structure of the satellite, principally stainless steel, with a stopping power of approximately 1.2 g/cm2 t 4. An Anton 302 Geiger tube shielded not only by the structure but by an additional lead shielding with a stopping power of 1.6 g/cm2 , giving a total of 2.8 g/cm2 . The scientific instrumentation in the Pioneer space probes was devoted to the measurement of cosmic rays. in each of these probes: Two devices were included

an Anton 302 Geiger tube operating as an

^Anton Electronic Laboratories, Brooklyn, N. Y. Page 4

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event counter, and an Anton 213 tube instrumented to measure the average current through this tube, although the tube was operating in the Geiger region. The payload of the Pioneer probe is shown in

Fig. 5, and Fig. 6 is a cutaway drawing showing the position of the instruments. Instrumentation for Pioneers III and IV was quite similar. only difference lay in a lead shield with a stopping power of 3.7 g/cm^ placed around the 213 tube in the Pioneer IV package, giving a total stopping power (including tube case and payload shell) of 5.25 g/cm^. Analyses of the data received from the experiments have been carried out and are reviewed in the following sections of this paper. Some of the results verify the preliminary predictions and extra polations made from high-al'titude rockets. However, the measurement The

of cosmic-ray intensity reveals some surprising new facts.

II.

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Interpretation of satellite temperature measurements has been carried out by E. P. Buwalda, A. R. Hibbs, and T. 0. Thostesen of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. A complete discussion of these measurements is given in Ref. 2. The purpose of the temperature measurements was to verify the predictions of temperature environment which were made during the . design phase of payload development. The results of this design

study indicated that adequate temperature control could be achieved simply by coating a certain fraction of the case with a suitable

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material.

For the satellites, the ceramic material aluminum oxide

was chosen and was applied to the stainless steel case by a flamespray process. Approximately 25% of the cylindrical section of the

case and 30 % of the nose-cone section were covered with this ceramic material in a pattern of longitudinal stripes, as shown in Fig. 7. By this means, the correct value (averaged over the case) was obtained for the ratio of surface emissivity at solar temperatures to surface emissivity at room temperature. Although materials other than

stainless steel and aluminum oxide could have been chosen, these materials were convenient, since the shell of the satellite was constructed of stainless steel and the surface had to withstand a certain amount of aerodynamic heating during the launch phase, when it was exposed to the atmosphere. Since the Pioneer payloads were

protected by a covering during their launching, ordinary paint was used on their surfaces over a gold-wash substrate. Preliminary calculations indicated that the average surface characteristics achieved by proper surface treatment would control the internal temperature of the payload to within the limits established by the operating conditions of the electronic equipment. Examination of the telemetered data from Explorer I has shown that temperatures on various parts of the shell range between -25 and 75 C; temperatures inside the cylindrical section range from 0 to 35 C. Additional information on the temperature of the components in the nose section of the payload was obtained by observing the frequency of a temperature-sensitive oscillator on one of the

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External Publication No. 649 The response of this frequency to temperature Measurements in the These

telemetering channels.

variations had been calibrated before flight.

nose cone showed temperature variations from 5 to 40 C.

temperature ranges include all the data taken during the lifetimes of the telemetering systems of both Explorer I and Explorer III. typical set of data for the cylindrical shell is shown in Fig. 8. The temperatures of the Pioneer space probes were affected by the earth only for a few hours after the launching time as the payload moved out of the shadow of the earth into the sunlight. Thereafter, the temperature very rapidly reached its steady-state value. For Pioneer III, the value so obtained was 38 C, and for A

Pioneer IV the value was 42 C. The results of these measurements not only verified the results of the design study but also demonstrated the adequacy of the measurements used to determine radiative properties of the materials involved. These were the measurements of the reflection coefficient

taken in a spectrometer with wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to the far infrared. Apparently, neither the environment encountered

during launching nor that encountered during the subsequent orbit produced any changes in the surfaces which would be measured in terms of temperature.

III.

MICROMETEORITE MEASUREMENTS

The measurement of micrometeorite densities in Explorers I and III was carried out under the direction of Dr. E. Manring and Dr. M. Dubin of the Air Force Cambridge Research Center. The first

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presentation of preliminary results from these measurements, given in Ref. 3, was made May 1, 1958. Explorer I contained two devices for the measurement of micro meteorite activity. The first device was a microphone mounted The

against the outer skin of the satellite as shown in Fig. 9.

impact of micrometeorites approximately 4 microns or more in diameter was detected by this microphone. Each such impact caused the

frequency of a subcarrier oscillator to be changed between two preselected values. The second device, which was also carried on Explorer III, consisted of a set of twelve wire gauges, shown in Fig. 10. Each

gauge was approximately 1 cm2 in area and was wound with two layers of enameled wire 17 microns in diameter. Impact by micrometeorites

approximately 10 microns or more in diameter causes the fracture of such a gauge. The gauges were mounted as a parallel resistance

network so that the fracture of any one would cause a change in the frequency of a subcarrier oscillator. In the data thus far reduced from the high-power transmitter of Explorer I, which carried data from the microphone, 102 impacts were observed in 49,000 seconds of data. This result indicates that the

average influx of particles 4 microns or larger in diameter was approximately 10~2 particles/m2/sec, averaged over a time period from January 31 to February 12. Diurnal variations in impact rate were observed. It was found

that almost all impacts occurred between midnight and noon (satellite local time). This implies that the earth is sweeping through a field

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of micrometeorites whose average speed in the solar system is less than that of the earth, i.e., less than 30 km/sec. The low-power transmitters on both Explorer I and Explorer III carried the data from the wire gauges. No more than one of the wire

gauges was broken during the lifetime of the telemetering system on Explorer I, and it is possible that none was broken. This information

permits an upper limit to be established for the influx of particles 10 microns or more in diameter This limit is 10"3 particles/m^/sec

during the lifetime of the experiment, January 31 until April 14. Data received from Explorer III showed no wire gauges broken until May 6. Then, between 2243 GMT, May 6, and 0232 GMT on May 7, All of the micrometeorite data

two of the gauges were fractured.

taken before this time were taken in a period of normal background activity. No meteor showers were encountered. However, the shower

Eta Aquarides, which has been associated with Haileys Comet, occurs during the early part of May, reaching its most intense activity on about May 5. Thus, there is a strong implication that the fracture

of these gauges was associated with a meteor shower. Certainly it would be of very great interest to operate more extensive micrometeorite instrumentation on a satellite during a period of meteor showers. for such an experiment. Even the limited amount of information gained from these two experiments has permitted us to extend our knowledge of micrometeorite activity into a range of particle size never before observed. This Late summer or fall would be a good time

data, combined with previously available data on particles of larger

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sizes, indicates that meteoritic material is falling on the earth at the rate of about 2000 tons per day.

IV.

MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH-INTENSITY RADIATION

The measurement of high-intensity radiation carried out with the Explorer satellites and Pioneers III and IV has been under the direction of Dr. James A. Van Allen of the State University of Iowa. Analyses of the results of these measurements have been made by Dr. Van Allen and his associates and have been reported to the U.S. National Committee for the IGY (see Refs.. 4, 5, 6). At altitudes below about 1000 km, the radiation measurements indicated a cosmic-ray intensity which agreed very well with extrapolations made on the basis of experiments with high-altitude rockets and balloons. However, above 1000 km a sudden anomalous

increase in cosmic-ray activity was observed. On the basis of satellite information, several maps showing contours of constant counting rate have been made for various geographical longitudes. reproduced from Ref. 5. The contour lines shown on this diagram represent the lower limits of two separate belts of charged particles trapped in the earths magnetic field. The density of charged particles diminishes This sudden One such contour map is shown in Fig. 11,

very rapidly at the lower limits of these belts.

decrease is undoubtedly due to absorption and scattering of the charged particles by the earth's atmosphere.

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Observations begun with the Explorer satellites were projected to extreme altitudes by the measurements taken on board Pioneers III and IV. and 13. The results of these measurements are shown in Figs. 12

Figure 12 shows the counting rate obtained from the Anton 302

tubes carried in Pioneers III and IV, plotted against distance from the center of the earth. Figure 13 shows the current obtained from

the Anton 213 tubes flown on Pioneers III and IV plotted against distance from the center of the earth. Conversion of the current

readings into intensity readings requires calibration data on the tube. These tubes are calibrated with X-rays, and the results of Radiation

the calibration depend on the hardness of X-rays used.

intensity at the maximum value observed during flight might be anywhere between 25 and 250 r/hr. As can be seen in Fig.' 12, two distinct maxima are obtained from the 302 tube when the data are plotted against distance from the earth. Data from the 213 tube carried on Pioneer III also show two maxima. However, on the Pioneer IV flight, only the first maximum is clearly indicated from the 213 tube. This point is quite significant, since

in the payload of Pioneer IV the 213 tube was shielded with lead. Thus the absence of any indication of the higher belt from this tube leads to the conclusion that the particles of the higher belt have less energy than those of the lower belt. In particular, the energies

of most of the particles must be less than 10 mev if they are protons or 50 mev if they are electrons. On the other hand, a large fraction

of the particles in the lower belt appear to have energies in excess of this. 2Prepared by C. W. Snyder and H. Anderson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Page 11

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External Publication No. 649

These results on relative energy values agree with those obtained from the Explorer satellites. The results from Explorer IV indicated

that the radiation encountered near the magnetic equator when the satellite was traversing the low-altitude edge of the inner radiation belt was more penetrating than the radiation encountered at high magnetic latitudes when the satellite was going through the lowaltitude region of the upper radiation belt. A diagram of the probable shape of these two belts is shown in Fig. 14, reproduced from Ref. 6. This diagram shows the trajectory Counting rates

of Pioneer III plotted in geomagnetic coordinates.

at distinct points along the trajectory are indicated by the contour lines drawn through those points. At low altitudes, these contour At

lines coincide with those discovered by the Explorer satellites. high altitudes, the contour lines are drawn to reasonably fit the data obtained from Pioneer III. Of course, the contour lines in

regions not actually traversed by this probe are speculative, but as drawn they are consistent with both the satellite data and the data obtained from Pioneer III. Although the peak intensity of both radiation belts encountered by Pioneer IV appears to occur at the same altitudes as those encountered by Pioneer III, the extension of the belt beyond this maximum is quite different for these two probes. For Pioneer III,

the belt appears to end at an altitude of approximately 60,000 km following a steady decrease in counting rate to an apparent asymtotic value. Beyond that the counting rate is very nearly constant. For

Pioneer IV quite different results are obtained.

Not only does the

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belt appear to extend to much greater altitudes, apparently not terminating until an altitude of about 91,000 km is reached, but furthermore as the edge of the belt is approached the decrease of radiation is not at all steady. observed. It is interesting to note that for several days before the flight of Pioneer III intense solar activity was observed. The coincidence Several strong fluctuations are

between this solar activity and the increase of totail radiation present in the outer belt suggests very strongly that the source of this radiation is the sun. It is also significant to note that the high latitude limit for those regions of the outer belt which descend to the limits of the earth's atmosphere is very nearly coincident with the low latitude limit of the auroral zone. This suggests that there is a connection between auroral displays and radiation activity in the outer belt. This suggestion is strengthened by the fact that energies of particles observed on high-altitude rocket flights into the auroral zone correspond closely with the energies indicated from the data on Explorer IV in these high-altitude regions and by the energies indicated from the differences in readings between the two sets of counters in Pioneers III and IV. principally low-energy electrons. As to the origin of the intensity found in the lower belt, one theory has been suggested by several authors. This is the theory That is, the outer belt contains

that the particles which make up the lower belt have as their source the decay of albedo neutrons, neutrons that result from primary

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cosmic-ray interactions with the atmosphere and are traveling in an outward direction from the surface. The energies of the particles to

be expected from such neutrons (electrons with energies up to 782 kev and low-energy recoil protons) are consistent with the observations of the satellites and the space probes. However, this source does

not appear adequate to explain the activity in the auroral zones. The strength of the albedo neutron source is low by a factor of 10^ below that required for the observed intensities of radiation in the auroral zones. Thus, the explanation of solar supply for the upper

belt seems' more likely. It is not possible to assign a definite number to the biological exposure level of the observed radiation. As yet, insufficient

information is available as to the energies and natures of the particles involved. For example, if the response of the detectors

is due to electrons or X-rays, then the exposure levels near the maximum point of the two radiation zones are between 5 and 10 r/hr. There is no assumption as to the nature of the radiation which would lead to a lower value. However, there are many types of radiation For example, if

which would give a higher value of exposure level.

the response is due to protons whose spectrum lies in the tens of mev, the corresponding exposure is about 50 to 100 r/hr. There are other

assumptions as to the nature of the radiation which would lead to even higher estimates of the exposure level. The data taken during the remaining flight of Pioneer IV from the apparent limit of the radiation belt at 91,000 km out to the limit at which radio signals were received >660,000 km show only

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minor fluctuations which appear to be within the expectations of statistics. The data in this region have been compiled in a histogram For this histogram an event is the occurrence of The variable used in the histogram The number of

shown in Fig. 15.

256 counts by the 302 Geiger tube.

is the length of time required for one such event.

events for any particular time value is plotted vs the time value. The resulting histogram has a shape quite consistent with statistical expectations. Two types of data are shown in Fig. 15. The data shown by the

darker shaded bars corresponds to all of the data between the two limits. The data taken in the vicinity of the moon is shown with This particular region was treated separately

the lighter shaded area.

to make sure that no unusual occurrences were observed that might be identified with the presence of the moon. It would appear that these This is not

data are also explainable as statistical variations.

too surprising, since the closest approach to the moon obtained by the probe was approximately 60,000 km from the center of the moon. It must be remembered that the nature and structure of the radiation zones as represented by the data so far obtained depend critically upon the nature of the detectors used in the probes. Different detectors sensitive to different energies and types of radiation might give quite different results. A complete picture of

radiation activity above the earths atmosphere can be constructed only when much more detailed observations have been made with additional rocket flights into this most interesting region.

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External Publication No, 649 V. CONCLUSIONS

The results reported in this paper are based upon measurements made with the Explorer satellites and two of the Pioneer probes launched by the U.S. as part of the rocket and satellite program in the IGY. The results have served to verify some of our expectations But they have also

based on previous high-altitude measurements.

shown the existence of completely unexpected phenomena occurring outside the earth's atmosphere. So far, however, we have only touched Before man himself ventures out

the edges of this unknown universe.

into space, there are many mysteries waiting to be discovered by the automatic eyes and ears which he will send ahead of him.

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External Publication No. 649

Table 1. Initial Orbital Characteristics of Explorers I, III, and IV

Orbital Parameter Apogee, km from surface Perigee, km from surface Inclination, deg Period, min

Explorer I 2532 361 33.34 114.81

Explorer III 2801 188 33.47 115.87

Explorer IV 2210 259 50.29 110.21

Table 2.

Orbital Characteristics of Pioneers III and IV

Orbital Parameter Apogee, km from center Time of flight, hr Aphelion, km Perihelion, km Solar period, days

Pioneer III

Pioneer IV

108,051 37.65
-

170.8 x 106 147.6 x 106 394.75

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Fig. 1.

Lift-off of Explorer III Page 18

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Fig. 2.

Lift-off of Pioneer III Page 19

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HIGH-POWER TRANSMITTER

COSMIC-RAY EXPERIMENT AND HIGH-POWER TRANSMITTER

EXPLORER m

LOW - POWER

EXPLORER nr

Fig. 3.

Instrumentation of Explorer Satellites


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III III III I


Fig. 4.

III III III| I I

Tape Recorder for Cosmic-Ray Data Page 21

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Fig. 5.

Payload of Pioneer III

AN TEN N A

T R A N S M IT T E R

CO SM IC-RAY PACKAGE

Fig. 6.

Cutaway Drawing of Pioneer III Payload Page 22

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Fig. 7.

Shell of Explorer III Satellite Page 23

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P a g e 2 4

Fig. 8.

Measured Cylindrical Shell Temperature vs Time for Explorer I (February 1-12, 1958)

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Fig. 9. Micrometeorite Microphone and Amplifier

Fig. 10.

Wire Gauges Mounted on Retainer Ring

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Fig. 11. Page 26

Contours of Constant Counting Rate at 80 W Longitude

No. 649

I_ I !_ i 1_ i 1_ .1 I_ a 1_ a 1_ i 1_ i i_ i !_ o

1_S

1 _

t _

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

A LTITU D E, km x lo"3

External Publication

DISTANCE FROM C E N TE R OF EA R TH , Km x |o";

Fig. 12. P a g e 2 7

Counting Rates from the Anton 302 Tube, Pioneers III and IV

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A L T IT U D E , 0 10 20 30

km x | Q 3 40 50 60 70

External Publication

Fig. 13. P a g e 2 8

Current from the Anton 213 Tube, Pioneers III and IV No. 649

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Fig0 14. Suggested Contour Lines Based on Explorer and Pioneer III Data, with Trajectory of Pioneer III

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NUMBER

O F EVENTS

200

220

235

250

270

TIME FOR ONE EVENT (256 COUNTS), sec


Fig. 15. Statistics of Counting Rate from 91,000 km to 660,000 km

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External Publication No. 649 REFERENCES

1. 2.

Explorer I , External Publication No. 461, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, February 28, 1958. Buwalda, E. P., Hibbs, A. R . , and Thostesen, T. 0 . j Temperature Control in the Explorer Satellites and Pioneer Space Probes, External Publication No. 647, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, May 7, 1959. Manring, E., and Dubin, M . , Satellite Micrometeorite Measurements, Geophysics Research Directorate, Air Force Cambridge Research Center, Bedford, Massachusetts, May 1, 1958. Van Allen, J. A . , Ludwig, G. H . , Ray, E. C . , and Mcllwain, C. E . , Observation of High Intensity Radiation by Satellites 1958 Alpha and Gamma, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, May 1, 1958. Van Allen, J. A., Ludwig, G. H . , and Mcllwain, C. E., Radiation Observations with Satellite 1958 Epsilon, State University of Iowa, Iowa City. Van Allen, J. A., Frank, L. A., Survey of Radiation Around the Earth to a Radial Distance of 107,400 Kilometers, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, January 1959.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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