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Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL

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Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer in which the body produces a large number of immature white blood cells (lymphocytes). These cells are found in the blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and other organs. Causes ALL makes up 80% of childhood acute leukemias. Most cases occur in children ages 3 - 7. The disease may also occur in adults. In acute leukemia, cancerous cells multiply quickly and replace normal cells. Cancerous cells take over normal parts of the bone marrow, often causing low blood counts . Most cases of ALL have no obvious cause. However, the following may play a role in the development of leukemia:
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Certain chromosome problems Radiation exposure or being exposed to x-rays before birth Past treatment with chemotherapy drugs Receiving a bone marrow transplant Toxins such as benzene

Persons with Down syndrome or other genetic disorders, or who have a brother or sister with leukemia are at increased risk for ALL. Symptoms A person with ALL is more likely to bleed and have infections because there are fewer normal blood cells and platelets. Life-threatening symptoms may develop.
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Bone and joint pain or tenderness Easy bruising and bleeding (bleeding gums, skin bleeding, nosebleeds, menstrual irregularities) Feeling weak or tired Fever Loss of appetite and weight loss Paleness Pain or feeling of fullness below the ribs Pinpoint red spots on the skin (petechiae) Swollen glands (lymphadenopathy) in the neck, under arms, and groin Night sweats

Note: These symptoms can occur with other conditions. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific symptoms.

Exams and Tests A physical exam may reveal the following:
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Bruising Enlarged liver, lymph nodes, and spleen Signs of bleeding (petechiae, purpura)

Blood tests may show the following:
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Abnormal white blood cell (WBC) count Low red blood cell count (anemia) Low platelet count (thrombocytopenia)

A bone marrow aspiration will show abnormal levels of certain cells. The bone marrow is usually taken from the back of one of the hip bones, but can be taken from other bones. Tests are done on the bone marrow cells to identify the type of leukemia. A lumbar puncture or spinal tap is usually done to both detect if leukemia cells are in the spinal fluid and to give chemotherapy to prevent spread to the spinal fluid. Doctors look for chromosome changes in the cells of some leukemias. This helps aid in diagnosis and prognosis. Leukemias with certain types of chromosome changes have a poor outlook, while those with other types of genes can have a very good outlook. This may determine what kind of therapy is used to treat the ALL. Treatment The goal of treatment is to get the blood counts and the bone marrow back to normal. If this occurs and the bone marrow looks healthy under the microscope, the cancer is said to be in remission. If you have ALL, you will need chemotherapy. For the first round of chemotherapy (called induction), you may need to stay in the hospital for 3 - 6 weeks. Later you may get chemotherapy on an outpatient basis (living at home and going to a clinic to receive your treatments). If you have a low white blood cell count, you may need to be placed in a room by yourself so you do not catch an infection. Many chemotherapy drugs given into the veins do not reach the brain and spinal cord tissue. Therefore, many patients will also receive radiation therapy to the brain or chemotherapy drugs injected into the space around the brain and spinal column to prevent later spread to these sites. If you go into remission, you may receive additional chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill any cancer cells that are in the spinal fluid. You may also receive chemotherapy from time to

A bone marrow or stem cell transplant may also be recommended. a person with ALL can expect to live for only about 3 months. Additional treatments depend on other symptoms. such as platelets or red blood cells. a bone marrow or stem cell transplant is usually recommended. Without treatment. Outlook (Prognosis) Children usually have a better outcome than adults.time to prevent relapse. especially if a fever occurs Support Groups Patients can ease the stress of their illness by joining a support group where members share common experiences and problems.5 weeks of starting treatment Patients whose leukemia spreads to the brain or spinal cord tend to have a worse outcome.000 when first diagnosed Those who do not have a Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL (a specific genetic change) Those who achieve complete remission (disappearance of signs and symptoms of cancer) within 4 . If your leukemia returns or does not respond to other treatments. The following patients tend to do better:      Younger adults (especially those younger than age 50) Children between the ages of 1 and 9 Those who have a WBC count below 50. Almost all children go into complete remission. Possible Complications       Bleeding Damage to different organs from chemotherapy Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Relapse of ALL Severe infection Spread of the cancer to other parts of the body When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: . especially if one of your siblings is proven to be a full match. They may include:   Transfusion of blood products. to fight thrombocytopenia and anemia Antibiotics to fight infection.

benzene) Certain chemotherapy drugs. Cancer .) AML is more common in men than women. radiation. which helps the body fight infections. including AML:    Certain chemicals (for example. Acute childhood leukemia. Alternative Names ALL. including etoposide and drugs known as alkylating agents Radiation Problems with your genes may also play a role in the development of AML. The bone marrow. It generally occurs around age 65. Leukemia . You have an increased risk for AML if you have or had any of the following: . The cells grow very fast. eventually stops working correctly. (This article focuses on AML in adults. Most of the time. and chemicals. You may reduce your risk of ALL by avoiding exposure to toxins. This type of cancer is rare under age 40.acute childhood leukemia (ALL). the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. Persons with this type of cancer have abnormal cells inside their bone marrow. a doctor cannot tell you what caused AML. However. Persons with AML become more prone to infections and have an increased risk for bleeding as the numbers of healthy blood cells decrease. Causes Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most common types of leukemia among adults. the following things are thought to lead to some types of leukemia. it is not possible to prevent most cases.  You develop ALL-like symptoms You have ALL and you have a persistent fever or other signs of infection Prevention Because the cause is usually unknown. The cancer grows from cells that would normally turn into white blood cells.acute childhood (ALL) Acute myeloid leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. and replace healthy blood cells. Acute means the disease develops quickly.

There are eight subtypes of AML. too. There may be signs of a swollen spleen. If your doctor learns you do have this type of leukemia. liver. A white blood cell count (WBC) can be high. further tests will be done to determine the specific type of AML. But chemotherapy kills normal cells. Your doctor may want to keep you away from other people to prevent infection. or normal. or lymph nodes. based on which blood cells are abnormal. low. Bone marrow aspiration will show if there are any leukemia cells. including: o Polycythemia vera o Essential thrombocythemia o Myelodysplasia (refractory anemia) Exposure to radiation and chemicals Symptoms             Abnormal menstrual periods Bleeding from the nose Bleeding gums Bruising Bone pain or tenderness Fatigue Fever Paleness Shortness of breath (gets worse with exercise) Skin rash or lesion Swollen gums (rare) Weight loss Exams and Tests The doctor will perform a physical exam. Other treatments for AML may include:  Antibiotics to treat infection . This is called chemotherapy. A complete blood count (CBC) shows anemia and a low number of platelets. They range from M0 to M7. This may cause side effects such as excessive bleeding and an increased risk for infection. Treatment Treatment involves using medicines to kill the cancer cells.   A weakened immune system (immunosuppression) due to an organ transplant Blood disorders.

Complete remission occurs in many patients. a form of AML called acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is treated with a medicine called all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However. you should always wear protective gear. the cancer comes back (relapses) after treatment. Possible Complications Complications of AML and cancer treatment include severe infections and life-threatening bleeding. The 5-year survival rate is much lower in older adults than younger persons. With treatment. younger patients with AML tend to do better than those who develop the disease at an older age.acute granulocytic. you are said to be in remission. AML. Alternative Names Acute myelogenous leukemia. Call your health care provider if you have AML and have a fever that will not go away or other signs of infection. you are considered permanently cured. Leukemia . Sometimes.acute myeloid (AML). The drug arsenic trioxide is approved for use in patients with APL who do not get better with ATRA or chemotherapy. If the cancer does not come back (relapse) within 5 years of the diagnosis. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you develop symptoms of AML. Leukemia . Prevention If you work around radiation or chemicals linked to leukemia. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). This medicine helps leukemia cells grow into normal white blood cells. the cancer returns within 2 years of diagnosis. Most of the time.nonlymphocytic (ANLL) . Leukemia . Experts say this is partly due to the fact that the body of a younger person may better tolerate strong chemotherapy medicines.   Bone marrow transplant or stem cell transplant Red blood cell transfusions to fight anemia Transfusions ofplatelets to control bleeding Most types of AML are treated the same way. Outlook (Prognosis) When the signs and symptoms of AML go away. Acute granulocytic leukemia.

and is uncommon in Asians. resulting in low blood counts. The cancerous cells spread from the blood marrow to the blood. in the bone marrow. The reason for this increase in B cells is unknown. Symptoms Symptoms usually develop slowly over time. Tests to diagnose and assess CLL include:     Complete blood count (CBC) with white blood cell differential Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy CT scan of the chest. and weakens the immune system. or spleen Excessive sweating. or B cells. There is no link to radiation. Symptoms that can occur include:         Abnormal bruising (occurs late in the disease) Enlarged lymph nodes. cancer-causing chemicals.Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is cancer of a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. CLL primarily affects adults. CLL eventually causes the bone marrow to fail. and can also affect the lymph nodes or other organs such as the liver and spleen. It is rarely seen in people younger than 40. night sweats Fatigue Fever Infections that keep coming back (recur) Loss of appetite or becoming full too quickly (early satiety) Unintentional weight loss Exams and Tests Patients with CLL usually have a higher-than-normal white blood cell count. liver. Many cases of CLL are detected by blood tests done in people for other reasons or who do not have any symptoms. Causes Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) causes a slow increase in the number of white blood cells called B lymphocytes. The average age of patients with this type of leukemia is 70. or viruses. The disease is more common in Jewish people of Russian or East European descent. and pelvis Flow cytometry usually done on blood or bone marrow . abdomen.

Low blood counts (anemia and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) are present Fatigue. Generally. chlorambucil.  Blood immunoglobulin level Blood lactate dehydrogenase level If your doctor discovers you have CLL.    Fludarabine. If chromosome tests indicate a more high risk type of leukemia. intermediate-. However. these people must be closely watched by their doctor. Bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be used in younger patients with advanced CLL. Treatment may also be started if:     Infections keep coming back Leukemia is growing rapidly. transplant is the only therapy that offers a potential cure for CLL. weight loss. tests will be done to see how much the cancer has spread.The results can help predict prognosis and help guide how strong or aggressive the treatment needs to be. cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan). There are two systems used to stage CLL:   The Rai system uses numbers to group CLL into low-. and high-risk categories. or night sweats occur Several chemotherapy drugs are commonly used to treat CLL. the higher the stage number. This is called staging. Bendamustine is a newer drug recently approved for use in patients with CLL that has come back after initial treatment. The Binet system uses letters to stage CLL according to how many lymph node groups are involved and whether you have a drop in the number of red blood cells or platelets. Outlook (Prognosis) . Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood counts are low. Alemtuzumab (Campath) is approved for treatment of patients with CLL that have not responded to fludarabine. treatment may be started earlier. Right now. the more advanced the cancer. and rituximab (Rituxan) may be used alone or in combination. radiation may be used for painfully enlarged lymph nodes. Treatment For most patients with early stage CLL. loss of appetite. Rarely. Some newer tests analyze the chromosomes in the leukemia cells. no treatment is started.

The outlook depends on the stage and behavior of the disease. Possible Complications         Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Bleeding from low platelet count Fatigue from anemia Hypogammaglobulinemia (reduced levels of antibodies) -.20% cases of leukemia. the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. bruising. or weight loss. including transformation to a much more aggressive lymphoma (Richter’s transformation) Side effects of chemotherapy When to Contact a Medical Professional Call health care provider if you develop enlarged lymph nodes or unexplained fatigue. . The cancer grows from cells that produce white blood cells.increases the risk of infection Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) Recurrent infections Other cancers. Leukemia . Alternative Names CLL. See also:    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Leukemia Causes CML most often occurs in middle-aged adults and in children. Half of patients diagnosed in the earliest stages of the disease live more than 12 years. The disease affects 1 to 2 people per 100. Some people may not require any treatment at all. Newer tests that look at cell genetic changes may be done to help predict disease behavior and thus guide treatment approaches.000 and makes up 7 .chronic lymphocytic (CLL) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Chronic myelogenous leukemia is rcancer that starts inside bone marrow. excessive sweating. while others may have faster spreading disease that requires aggressive therapy with multiple chemotherapy agents.

It is usually associated with a chromosome abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome. Chronic myelogenous leukemia is grouped into several phases:    Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for months or years. bone pain. If untreated. CML progresses to the blast crisis phase. However. Bleeding and infection may occur due to bone marrow failure. Exposure may occur from:   High-dose radiation treatments used in the past to treat thyroid cancer or Hodgkin’s lymphoma Nuclear disaster It takes many years to develop leukemia from this cause. Most people are diagnosed during this stage. . and most patients with CML have not been exposed to radiation. This phase may be associated with fever (without infection). The disease may have few or no symptoms during this time. and body tissues. A complete blood count (CBC) shows an increased number of white blood cells. and a swollen spleen. most people treated for cancer with radiation do not go on to develop leukemia. Symptoms CML causes rapid growth of the immature blood-forming cells (myeloid precursors) in the bone marrow. during which the leukemia cells grow more quickly. when they are having blood tests done for other reasons. Other possible symptoms include:        Bleeding and bruising Excessive sweating (night sweats) Fatigue Low-grade fever Pressure under the lower left ribs from a wollen spleen Sudden appearance of small pinpoint red marks on the skin (petechiae) Weakness Exams and Tests A physical examination often reveals a swollen spleen. blood. Radiation increases the risk of developing CML. The accelerated phase is a more dangerous phase.

You should discuss your options in detail with your oncologist. Possible Complications . Sometimes a chemotherapy medicine called hydroxyurea (Hydrea) is used temporarily to reduce the white blood cell count if it is very high at diagnosis. Gleevec is a pill. because it is marked by a very high count of immature white blood cells (leukemia cells). you are said to be in remission. Stem cell tansplantation should be considered in patients whose disease comes back after initial treatment with imatinib (Gleevec). The only known cure for CML is a bone marrow transplant or stem cell transplant. taken by mouth. It is treated similarly to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Many patients can remain in remission for many years while on this drug. the outlook for patients with CML has improved dramatically. When the signs and symptoms of CML go away. New medications similiar to Gleevec include dasatinib (Sprycel) and nilotinib (Tasigna). Support Groups See:   Cancer support group Leukemia support group Outlook (Prognosis) Since the introduction of Gleevec. The blast crisis phase is very difficult to treat.80%. Long-term cure after transplantation ranges from 60 . It is associated with very high rates of remission and survival.Other tests that may be done include:    Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy CBC with white blood cell differential Blood and bone marrow testing for the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome This disease may also alter the results of the following tests:   Platelet count Uric acid Treatment Imatinib (Gleevec) is the first-line therapy for everyone with CML.

This causes anemia. it can put pressure on the nerves. If the bones in the spine are affected. Causes Plasma cells help the body's immune system fight disease by producing proteins called antibodies. they can cause pain and destruction of the bones. Chronic granulocytic leukemia. white blood cells. most often in the ribs or back Fevers without any other cause Increased susceptibility to infection Symptoms of anemia (such as tiredness. unexplained fever.chronic granulocytic (CML) Multiple myeloma Multiple myeloma is cancer of the plasma cells in bone marrow. The growth of these bone tumors makes it harder for the bone marrow to make red blood cells. Alternative Names CML. depending on the drugs used.Blast crisis can lead to complications. bleeding. Leukemia . shortness of breath. including infection. Symptoms       Bleeding problems Bone or back pain. fatigue. or cough. In multiple myeloma. and fatigue) Unexplained fractures . and kidney problems. sore throat. chills. As the cancer cells grow in the bone marrow. which makes a person more likely to get infections and have abnormal bleeding. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of CML or have been diagnosed with CML and develop a fever higher than 100°F. plasma cells grow out of control in the bone marrow and form tumors in the areas of solid bone. resulting in numbness or paralysis. Prevention Avoid exposure to radiation when possible. A history of radiation therapy raises your risk for this type of cancer. Multiple myeloma mainly affects older adults. and platelets. Chemotherapy can have serious side effects.

. Some people have a slow-developing form of multiple myeloma that takes years to cause symptoms. Medications for the treatment of multiple myeloma include:   Dexamethasone. In younger patients. and abnormal kidney function Complete blood count (CBC) reveals low numbers of red and white blood cells and platelets Serum beta 2 microglobulin level Serum immunofixation electrophoresis Urine immunofixation electrophoresis Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP) or Bence-Jones protein analysis Quantitative immunoglobulins (nephelometry) Serum free light chain measurements Bone x-rays may show fractures or hollowed out areas of bone. Two types of bone marrow transplantation may be tried:   Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation makes use of one’s own stem cells. People who have mild disease or where the diagnosis is not certain are usually carefully watched without treatment. Treatment The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms. Drugs called bisphosphonates (pamidronate) are used to reduce bone pain and prevent fractures. They may include:          Blood chemistry may show increased levels of calcium. Bone density testing may show bone loss. lenalidomide (Revlimid). If your doctor suspects this type of cancer. and prolong life. it has been shown to increase survival. thalidomide. melphalan. Weakness of the arms or legs Exams and Tests Blood tests can help diagnose this disease. Allogeneic transplant makes use of someone else’s stem cells. and bortezomib (Velcade) can be used alone or together. total protein. This treatment carries serious risks. avoid complications. Radiation therapy may be performed to relieve bone pain or treat a bone tumor. a bone marrow biopsy will be performed.

liver. Support Groups The stress of illness may be eased by joining a support group whose members share common experiences and problems. Other complications may include:     Bone fractures High levels of calcium in the blood.multiple Hodgkin’s lymphoma Hodgkin's lymphoma is a cancer of lymph tissue found in the lymph nodes. The disease can spread to nearby lymph nodes. They should also be cautious when having x-ray tests that use contrast dye. Causes The first sign of this cancer is often an enlarged lymph node which appears without a known cause. Some cases are very aggressive. Plasmacytoma of bone. . bone marrow. Plasma cell myeloma. Alternative Names Plasma cell dyscrasia. or other organs. and other sites. liver. Malignant plasmacytoma. Possible Complications Kidney failure is a frequent complication. or loss of sensation develops. while others take years to get worse. Chemotherapy and transplants rarely lead to a permanent cure. which can be very dangerous Increased chances for infection (especially pneumonia) Paralysis from tumor or spinal cord compression When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your doctor if you have multiple myeloma and infection develops. Outlook (Prognosis) Survival of people with multiple myeloma depends on the patient's age and the stage of disease.People with multiple myeloma should drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and help maintain proper kidney function. spleen. or numbness. loss of movement. bone marrow. Myeloma . Later it may spread to the spleen.

Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to contribute to most cases. The following procedures will usually be done:     Blood chemistry tests including protein levels.35 and 50 . or breathing problems if there are swollen lymph nodes in the chest Excessive sweating Pain or feeling of fullness below the ribs due to swollen spleen or liver Pain in lymph nodes after drinking alcohol Skin blushing or flushing Note: Symptoms caused by Hodgkin's lymphoma may also occur also with other conditions. Symptoms        Fatigue Fever and chills that come and go Itching all over the body that cannot be explained Loss of appetite Soaking night sweats Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck. or groin (swollen glands) Weight loss that cannot be explained Other symptoms that may occur with this disease:      Coughing. and pelvis Complete blood count (CBC) to check for anemia and white blood count PET scan . kidney function tests. armpits. and uric acid level CT scans of the chest. This is called staging. abdomen. Exams and Tests The disease may be diagnosed after:   Biopsy of suspected tissue. Staging helps guide future treatment and follow-up and gives you some idea of what to expect in the future. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific symptoms. usually a lymph node biopsy Bone marrow biopsy If tests reveal you do have Hodkin's lymphoma. Hodgkin's lymphoma is most common among people ages 15 .The cause is not known. additional tests will be done to see if the cancer has spread.70. chest pains. liver function tests.

groin and armpit). or liver). People with Hodgkin’s lymphoma that returns after treatment or does not respond to treatment may receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by an autologous bone marrow transplant (using stem cells from yourself). Stage IV (extensive disease) is most often treated with chemotherapy alone. chemotherapy. Additional treatments depend on other symptoms. They may include:   Transfusion of blood products. night sweats. Stages III is treated with chemotherapy alone or a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Stage III indicates lymph node involvement on both sides of the diaphragm (for example. Treatment varies with the stage of the disease and age of the patient. especially if a fever occurs Support Groups . such as platelets or red blood cells. or a combination of both. However. Stage IV involves the spread of cancer outside the lymph nodes (for example. to fight low platelet counts and anemia Antibiotics to fight infection. lungs.    Stages I and II (limited disease) can be treated with local radiation therapy.In some cases. and fever A staging evaluation is necessary to determine the treatment plan.     Stage I indicates one lymph node region is involved (for example. The best treatment depends on each individual and should be discussed with a doctor who has experience treating this disease. Stage II indicates involvement of two lymph node areas on the same side of the diaphragm (for example. to bone marrow. including weight loss. both sides of the neck). because the other tests are now so good at detecting the spread of Hodgkin's lymphoma. this surgery is usually unnecessary. Treatment Treatment primarily depends on the following:      The type of Hodgkin's lymphoma (most people have classic Hodgkin's) The stage (where the disease is found) Whether the tumor is more than 4 inches (10 cm) wide The patient's age and other medical issues Other factors. abdominal surgery to take a piece of the liver and remove the spleen may be needed. the right neck).

especially if it is diagnosed and treated early. infection. Unlike other cancers. Contact your doctor immediately if you develop fever or other signs of infection.. the treatment is more intense but the percentage of people who survive 5 years is about 90%. Use a soft toothbrush and electric razor for personal hygiene. more than 90% of people with stage I or II Hodgkin's lymphoma survive for at least 10 years. To minimize bleeding. Hodgkin's disease is often very curable even in late stages. With the right treatment. and anemia. Possible Complications Long term complications of chemotherapy or radiation therapy include:       Bone marrow diseases Heart disease Inability to have children (infertility) Lung problems Other cancers Thyroid problems Chemotherapy can cause low blood cell counts. It is important for patients to receive periodic examinations and imaging tests for years after treatment to check for signs of relapse and to check for the long-term effects of treatments. Planning daily activities with scheduled rest periods may help prevent fatigue associated withanemia. Outlook (Prognosis) Hodgkin’s disease is considered one of the most curable forms of cancer. Patients who survive 15 years after treatment are more likely to later die from other causes than Hodgkin’s disease.You can often ease the stress of illness by joining a support group of people who share common experiences and problems. Infection should always be taken seriously during cancer treatment. People with Hodgkin’s lymphoma whose disease returns within a year after treatment or do not respond to the first-line therapy have a poorer prognosis. If the disease has spread. which can lead to an increased risk of bleeding. apply ice and pressure to any external bleeding. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if:  You have symptoms of Hodgkin's lymphoma .

vomiting. loss of appetite. this cancer affects adults. Symptoms Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma can cause a variety of symptoms. This type of cancer is slightly more common in men than in women. diarrhea. which includes the lymph nodes. the cause of this cancer is unknown. However. Most of the time. or B cells. Cancer . intermediate grade. The cancer is further sub-classified by how the cells look under the microscope.Hodgkin's. if there are certain proteins or genetic markers present. including nausea. Symptoms depend on what area of the body is affected by the cancer and how fast the cancer is growing. Causes White blood cells called lymphocytes are found in lymph tissues. Most lymphomas start in a type of white blood cells called B lymphocytes. fever. However. and other organs of the immune system. or bleeding Alternative Names Lymphoma . It is classified according to how fast the cancer spreads. There are many different types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. for example.Hodgkin's lymphoma Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of the lymphoid tissue. Symptoms may include: . children can get some forms of lymphoma. lymphomas may develop in people with weakened immune systems. Burkitt's tumor is an example of a high-grade lymphoma. For example. You are being treated for Hodgkin's lymphoma and you experience side effects of radiation and chemotherapy.   The cancer may be low grade (slow growing). Hodgkin's disease. spleen. or high grade (fast growing). a person has a 1 in 50 chance of developing nonHodgkin's lymphoma. High-risk groups include those who have received an organ transplant or who have a weakened immune system. For most patients. According to the American Cancer Society. the risk of lymphoma increases after an organ transplant or in people with HIV infection.

groin. Most often. which may lead to a loss of appetite.multiple different drugs are used in combination together. called rituximab (Rituxan). abdomen and pelvis Gallium scan Lymph node biopsy PET (positron emission tomography) scan X-rays Treatment Treatment primarily depends on:     The type of lymphoma The stage of the cancer when you are first diagnosed Your age and overall health Symptoms. nausea. If the cancer affects cells in the brain. Exams and Tests The doctor will perform a physical exam and check body areas with lymph nodes to feel if they are swollen. and night sweats Radiation therapy may be used for disease that is confined to one body area. personality changes. is often used to treat B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. . including weight loss. the person may have a headache. which may put pressure on the windpipe (trachea) or other airways. fever. liver function tests. and uric acid levels Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy CBC to check for anemia and low white blood cell count CT scans of the chest. or other areas Unintentional weight loss and loss of appetite Coughing or shortness of breath may occur if the cancer affects the thymus gland or lymph nodes in the chest. kidney function tests. concentration problems. Chemotherapy is commonly used as the main form of treatment. Another drug. Some patients may have abdominal pain or swelling. underarms. or seizures. and vomiting.     Night sweats (soaking the bedsheets and pajamas even though the room temperature is not too hot) Fever and chills that come and go Severe itchiness that cannot be explained Swollen lymph nodes in the neck. includes protein levels. Tests to diagnose and stage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include:         Blood chemistry tests. constipation.

call your health care provider if you experience persistent fever or other signs of infection. and it may take many years before the disease gets worse or even requires any treatment. if the cancer does not respond to chemotherapy drugs. However. especially if a fever occurs Support Groups The stress of illness may be eased by joining a support group whose members share common experiences and problems. This involves linking a radioactive substance to an antibody that targets the cancerous cells and injecting the substance into the body. Histiocytic lymphoma. However.non-Hodgkin's. They may include:   Transfusion of blood products. Outlook (Prognosis) Low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma usually cannot be cured by chemotherapy alone. People with lymphoma that returns after treatment or does not respond to treatment may receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by an autologous bone marrow transplant (using stem cells from yourself). the low-grade form of this cancer progresses slowly. Lymphocytic lymphoma.non-Hodgkin's lymphoma .Radioimmunotherapy may be used in some cases. Cancer . Additional treatments depend on other symptoms. Lymphoblastic lymphoma. Alternative Names Lymphoma . Chemotherapy can often cure many types of high-grade lymphoma. such as platelets or red blood cells. to fight low platelet counts and anemia Antibiotics to fight infection. the disease can cause rapid death. Possible Complications    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Infection Side effects of chemotherapy drugs When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of this disorder. If you have non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.