You are on page 1of 6

1. plasma % in blood: 55% 2. formed elements in blood: RBC, WBC, PLT 3. erythrocyte % in blood: 45% 4. thrombocyte:: platelet 5.

leukocyte & thrombocyte %: ~1% 6. alterations in blood: result or cause of disease?: result 7. birth: more lymphs or neutrophils?: neutrophils 8. how soon after fertilization does hematopoiesis begin?: 19th day 9. yolk sac makes only what?: RBC 10. liver takes over in embryo at...: 6 weeks 11. fetal liver makes:: RBC, beginnings of leukocyte and thrombocyte 12. minor sites of hematopoiesis: spleen kidney thymus lymph nodes 13. lymph nodes particpate in hematopoiesis how long?: life 14. when does bone marrow take over fetal hematopoiesis?: 6 months gestation 15. when are leukocytes and thrombocytes made?: 6 months, when bone marrow production begins 16. RES (reticular endothelial system): mononuclear phagocytic system includes monocytes, macrophages 17. what processes antigens for lymphocyte presentation: monocytes/ macrophages 18. Kupffer cells- location and function: liver, phagocytic cells that filter- less efficient than spleen 19. largest concentration of lymphocytes, thrombocytes or mononuclear phagocytes:: spleen 20. lymph nodes are composed of:: lymphocytes, macrophanges, reticular network 21. lymph node function: filter foreign particles, immunity 22. antigen passes through lymph node. what happens?: stimulate immuno cells to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells 23. lymph node structure:: inner medulla: plasma cells, outer cortex: B, T, macrophage 24. hormone helping T cells mature: thymosin 25. thymus structure inner:: inner: medulla with few lymphocytes macrophages epithelials. 26. thymus structure outer:: outer: cortex densly packed lymphocytes macrophages 27. Hematology:: study of blood and diseases affecting blood 28. 2 cytokines: (general): CSF (colony stimulating factor), interleukins 29. yolk sac derived from:: mesenchymal stem cell 30. yolk sac hematopoiesis time range:: 6 weeks- 2 month gestation 31. liver hematopoiesis time range: 2 months- 7 months gestation 32. megakaryocytes appear when in fetus:: 3 months 33. granulocytes appear when in fetus:: 5 months 34. spleen hematopoiesis time range: 3-6 months gestation 35. bone marrow start in fetus:: 7 months 36. when does fat start to replace hemopoietic area?: 4 years 37. adult hematopoisis location:: sternum, ribs, pelvis, spine, skull 38. at 40 years old, what is the ratio of fat to hematopoietic area?: 50:50

39. granulocytes storage pool:: 50% (marginal pool. line vessel walls) (50% functional pool) 40. thrombocyte storage pool: 30% (70% functional pool) 41. erythrocyte functional pool: 100% 42. nucleated stage of RBC lasts:: 5 days 43. one blast can form __ mature RBC: 14-16 44. decreased oxygen tension causes __ to produce __: kidney; erythropoietin 45. what stops Hb synthesis during hematopoiesis?: until RNA and mitochondria are gone (through reticulocyte) 46. myelopoeisis __ total days in bone marrow: 7-11 47. how long does it take to mature from myelocyte to metamyelocyte once in the maturation pool?: 8-9 hours 48. Mature neutrophils stay in circulation: T/F: T 49. secondary lymphoid organs (3): lymph nodes, spleen, mucosal tissue 50. endomitosis definition: nucleus replicates but does not divide 51. totipotential stem cell (CSF-S): differentiates into pluri or multi potential stem cell & lymphoid stem cell 52. BFU- E: burst forming unit erythrocyte 53. CFU- S -->: CFU - L and CFU- GEMM 54. BFU- E -->: CFU- E 55. cytokines act on:: multipotential stem cells of committed cell lines 56. EPO: erythropoietin 57. G-CSF made by:: macrophage endothelial fibroblast 58. IL effect: lymphocyte proliferation and immunity 59. EPO made by: kidney & liver 60. G-CSF: granulocyte stimulating factor. 61. IL-2: cell growth factor 62. IL-3: multi CSF 63. IL-4: B cell stimulating factor 1 64. rHuG-CSF: increase neutrophils 65. RBC lifespan: 120 plus or minus 20 days 66. lipoprotein % in RBC membrane: 95 67. % of lipid in lipoprotein: 40% 68. % of protein in lipoprotein: 52% 69. % of carb in lipoprotein: 8 70. of the membrane, 95% are what?: cholesterol and phospholipids 71. types of phospholipids in rbc membrane (2): phosphatidyl choline and sphingomyelin 72. % of cholesterol in membrane: 25 73. abetalipoproteinemia: decrease in apolipoprotein B 74. LCAT does what?: increases free cholesterol 75. ApoB and LCAT result in:: acanthocytes 76. main glycoprotein is __ at __% of total membrane: glycophorin, 20 77. Sialic acid: from glycophorin, zeta potential 78. main peripheral protein is __: spectrin 79. spectrin __ % of total membrane and __ % of peripheral protins: 25-30 and 75

80. need __ to preserve spectrin complex: ATP 81. RBC permeable to: water & anions 82. RBC inpermeable to: anion or cation?: cations 83. calmodulin definition: cytoplasmic ca binding protein 84. calmodulin purpose: controls ca ATP-ase pumps 85. Ca2+ is __ pumped __ of the cell: actively pumped out 86. Na ratio in:out: 1:12 87. K ratio in:out: 25:1 88. Ca ratio in:out: 1:12 89. Mg ratio in:out: 3:1 90. 1 gram of Hb can hold __ mL of O2: 1.34 91. Hb degraded into:: iron, protoporphyrin, globin 92. Hb __ % dry wt, __% cell volume: 95, 33 93. __ % of Hb synthesis in nucleated state: 65 94. __% Hb synthesis in reticulocyte: 35 95. __ % of Hb production in bone marrow: 85 96. __ % Hb synthesis in liver: 15 97. ceruloplasmin function: Fe2+ to Fe3+ 98. transferrin: transports Fe3+ to bone marrow 99. Aptoferrin: pulls iron through mucosal cells and holds it 100. Rhopheocytosis: RBC nurses off macrophage storing iron 101. what happens to iron in mitochondria: Fe3+ converted to Fe2+ for attachment to ring 102. HEME (long ass word): ferroprotoporphyrin IX 103. Heme synthesis begins where?: mitochondria 104. rate-limiting step in protoporphyrin synthesis: form deltaALA from glycine & Succinyl CoA 105. rxn with dALA in cytoplasm, then what?: back to mitochondria to attach Fe2+: Heme 106. chromosome 11 contains which sites?: beta, delta, epsilon, gamma 107. chromosome 16 contains which sites?: alpha, zeta 108. after Heme formed, back to cytplasm, what happens?: heme attaches to globin chains: Hb 109. embryonic globin:: epsilon, zeta 110. which sites have 4 genes instead of 2?: gamma, alpha 111. Gower I: zeta 2 epsilon 2 112. Gower II: alpha 2 epsilon 2 113. Portland: zeta 2 gamma 2 114. HbF: alpha 2 gamma 2 115. HbA1: adult- alpha 2 beta 2 116. HbA2: alpha 2 delta 2 117. HbA1 A%: 95-97 118. HbA2 %: 2-3 119. HbF % adult, fetal: 1-2 adult, 60 fetal

120. HbA1c: glycosolated 121. relaxed Hb affinity: high 122. tense Hb affinity: low 123. when is 23DPG attached: relaxed or tense: tense 124. alkaline pH: Hb affinity high or low?: high 125. at 40mm Hg what % O2 is released: 25 126. if P50 increases oxygen affinity for Hb __: decreases 127. if P50 decreases oxygen affinity for Hb __: increases 128. shift to R affinity __: decreased 129. shift to R pH __, everything else __: decreases, increases 130. shift to L affinity __: increases 131. shift to L pH __, everything else ___: increases, decreases 132. fetal Hb affinity: increased 133. fetal Hb affected by 2,3 DPG: none 134. CarboxyHb affinity: 200x 135. MetHb: oxidation to Fe3+, unable to carry O2 136. MetHb morphology: Heinz bodies 137. moth balls:: MetHb 138. SulfHb reversible?: no 139. what color blood with SHb?: purple 140. Embden-Meryerhof Pathway produces __% energy of RBC: 90 141. Embden-Meyerhof Pathway (EMP): glucose to lactic acid, 2 ATP 142. Heinz bodies not formed in __ pathway deficiency: Embden-Meyerhof 143. most common deficiency of EMP is__: pyruvate kinase deficiency 144. test for PK deficiency (2): enzyme assay, fluorescent spot test 145. fluorescent spot test PK- what happens if enzyme is working?: spot fades 146. Hexose-monophosphate shunt: 5-10% glucose, NaDPH to NADP+. protect cell from oxidative injury 147. what happnes to morphology as Hexose monophosphate shunt doesn't function?: heinz bodies from oxidized precipitated Hb 148. G6PD deficiency: X-linked, hemolytic anemia (fava beans) 149. G6PD tests (4): enzyme assay, Heinz bodies, Fluorescent spot test, Ascorbate cyanide 150. Fluorescent spot test G6PD- what happens if enzyme is working?: spot seen 151. Rapaport-Leubering pathway: 23 DPG stimulated by hypoxia 152. RL pathway deficiency: erythrocytosis, too many RBC shift curve to L 153. MetHb Reductase Pathway: Fe2+ maintained via NADH and NADPH and MHb Rase 154. MetHb Reductase deficiency: no enzyme leads to Fe3+ accumulation 155. extravascular hemolysis %: 90% 156. extravascular hemolysis (EH) removed via: RES 157. EH Iron:: returned to BM via transferrin 158. EH Globin:: broken down to AA 159. EH Protoporphyrin:: broken down 160. EH alpha carbon:: exhaled

161. EH Biliverdin:: converted to bilirubin, albumin carries to liver 162. EH Bilirubin:: conjugated to bilirubin glucuronide. taken to intestines 163. bilirubin in intestines:: changed to urobilinogen, some re-absorbed & filtered by kidneys, some pooped out. 164. intravascular hemolysis (IH): RBC removal in circulation 165. IH Hb:: picked up by haptoglobin and taken to liver 166. IH Hb if not picked up:: oxidize to metHb and further broken down to MetHeme and globin chains 167. IH MetHeme:: hemopexin or bind to albumin and wait for hemopexin 168. erythropoietic porphyria: UPG1 accummulate in RBC, BM, and urine. due to abnormal protoporphyin synthesis 169. IH acidic urine: oxidation to MetHb (brown) 170. IH alkaline urine: oxyHb (red) 171. abetaproteinemia results in what RBC morphology: acanthocytes 172. megalobastic anemia: larger cell 173. sideroblastic anemia: deficiency of heme synthesis 174. thalassemia: deficiency of globin synthesis 175. megaloblastic anemia characterized by: oval macrocytes 176. keratocyte: bister cell 177. lead poisoning morphology: lead poisoning 178. aniso: size variation 179. poikilo: shape variation 180. codocyte aka: target 181. drepanocyte aka: sickle 182. echinocytes aka: burr cells 183. do burr cells have central pallor?: yes 184. thorn or spur cells aka: acanthocytes 185. dacrocyte aka: teardrop 186. howell jolly body made of: DNA 187. heinz body made of: Hb 188. is heinz body seen under romanowsky stain?: no 189. porphyrinogen: unstable- oxidized to form porphyrin which is stable 190. what will happen if Ca2+ accumulates in cell?: becomes rigid 191. __ % of Hb synthesis occurs in nucleated state: 65 192. __ % Hb synthesis occurs in reticulocyte: 35 193. __% Hb production occurs in erythropoietic marrow: 85 194. __% Hb production occurs in liver: 15 195. rate of globin synthesis is proportional to rate of __ synthesis: porphyrin 196. Hb A1c: glucose 197. 198. 199. 200. normal p50: 26-30 mmHg Haldane effect: changes in CO2 do not pop tops of what tubes: CO heinz bodies present in what type of Hb: MetHb

201. what cells are present in the granulocyte mitotic pool of the BM?: stem cells, myeloblasts, promyelocytes, myelocyte 202. IgE-triggeres what granulocyte?: basophil 203. G6PD what pathway: hexose monophosphate shunt 204. Phosphogluconate pathway aka: hexose monophosphate shunt 205. Haptoglobin: transports Hb to liver in intravascular hemolysis 206. Hemopexin: transports metHb groups 207. Ferritin: stores iron 208. extravascular hemolysiss Heme breakdown sequence: Hgb, biliverdin, bilirubin, bilirubin glucuronide, urobilinogen 209. respiratory movement: tense/relaxing 210. what part of heme synthesis occurs in cytoplasm? (3): porphobilinogen, uroporphyrinogen III, coproporphyrinogen IX 211. rest of heme synthesis after coprophyrinogen IX occurs where, and the next 2 steps: protoporphyrinogen IX, protoporPHYRIN IX 212. cell dehydration creates: stomatocyte 213. glutathione: neutralizes oxidative toxins 214. Neutrophils recognize which Ig?: G 215. non-oxygen dependent killing:: alter pH, release enzymes 216. oxygen-dependent killing:: NADPH oxidase mediates superoxide and h2o2 217. respiratory burst aka:: oxygen-dependent killing 218. myeloperoxidase found in:: neutrophils, monocytes 219. toxic granulation full of:: peroxidase 220. Dohle body made of:: RER 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. eosinophil activated by:: parasites, some allergies basophil activated by:: allergies, inflammation, histamine monocyte activated by:: chronic lymphocyte activated by:: antigen monocyte granules:: lipozyme, acid phosphatase