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CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION

Compression ignition engines are employed particularly in the field of heavy transportation and agriculture on account of their higher thermal efficiency and durability. However, diesel engines are the major contributors of oxides of nitrogen and particulate emissions. Hence more stringent norms are imposed on exhaust emissions. Following the global energy crisis in the 1970s and the increasingly stringent emission norms, the search for alternative renewable fuels has intensified. 1.1 NEED FOR ALTERNATE FUELS Probably in this century, it is believed that crude oil and petroleum products will become very scarce and costly to find and produce. Although fuel economy of engines is greatly improved from the past and will probably continue to be improved, increases in number of automobiles alone dictate that there will be a great demand for fuel in the near future. Bio-diesel is reliable, renewable, biodegradable and non toxic. It is less harmful to the environment for it contains practically no sulphur and substantially reduces emissions of HC, CO, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic and particulate matter. It has fuel properties comparable to mineral diesel and because of great similarity; it can be mixed with mineral oil and used in standard diesel engines with minor or no modifications at all. Bio diesel works well with new technologies such as catalysts, particulate traps and exhaust gas recirculation. It can be produced from any kind of oil both vegetable and animal source. Used frying oil can also be used and therefore be a very promising alternative for waste treatment. Being an agricultural product, all countries have the ability to produce and control this energy source, which is a situation very different to crude oil business. It can strengthen economy by creating more jobs and create independence from the imported depleting commodity petroleum. Another reason for bio-diesel development is the fact that large percentage of crude oil must be imported from other countries which decrease the dependency on foreign fuel and increase the Indian economy. 1

1.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, along with increasing demand for energy is a matter of serious concern. To solve both the energy concern and environmental concern, the renewable energies with lower environmental pollution impact should be necessary. Biodiesel is renewable and environmental friendly alternative diesel fuel for diesel engine. It can be produced by trans-esterification process. Trans-esterification is a chemical reaction in which vegetable oils and animal fats are reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The products of reaction are fatty acid alkyl ester and glycerin, and were the fatty acid alkyl esters known as biodiesel. Transesterification of Mahua Oil: To reduce the viscosity of the Mahua oil, trans-esterification method is adopted for the preparation of biodiesel. Methylester of Mahua oil: The procedure involved in this method is as follows: 1000 ml of Mahua oil is taken in a three way flask. 12 grams of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 200 ml of methanol (CH3OH) are taken in a beaker. The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the alcohol are thoroughly mixed until it is properly dissolved. The solution obtained is mixed with Mahua oil in three way flask and it is stirred properly. The methoxide solution with Mahua oil is heated to 60 0C and it is continuously stirred at constant rate for 1 hour by stirrer. The solution is poured down to the separating beaker and is allowed to settle for 4 hours. The glycerin settles at the bottom and the methyl ester floats at the top (coarse biodiesel). Methyl ester is separated from the glycerin. This coarse biodiesel is heated above 100°C and maintained for 10-15 minutes to remove the untreated methanol. Certain impurities like sodium hydroxide (NaOH) etc are still dissolved in the obtained coarse biodiesel. These impurities are cleaned up by washing with 350 ml of water for 1000 ml of coarse biodiesel. This cleaned biodiesel is the methyl ester of Mahua oil.

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The solution is poured down to the separating beaker and is allowed to settle for 4 hours. The solution obtained is mixed with Mahua oil in three way flask and it is stirred properly. The ethoxide solution with mahua oil is heated to 60°C and it is continuously stirred at constant rate for 1 hour by stirrer. These impurities are cleaned up by washing with 350 ml of water for 1000 ml of coarse biodiesel.gravity Diesel 5.835 Mahua oil 17.1 properties of Mahua oil Properties Kinematic viscosity at 40 0C (cSt) Density at 15 0C (kg/m3) Flash point (0C) Calorific value (kJ/kg) Sp.Ethyl ester of Mahua oil: The procedure involved in this method is as follows: 1000 ml of Mahua oil is taken in a three way flask. Ethyl ester is separated from the glycerin. 12 grams of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 200 ml of Ethanol (C2H5OH) are taken in a beaker.97 835 45 43000 0. Table 1.57 880 98 39390 0. The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the alcohol are thoroughly mixed until it is properly dissolved. This coarse biodiesel is heated above 100°C and maintained for 10-15 minutes to remove the untreated ethanol. The glycerin settles at the bottom and the ethyl ester floats at the top (coarse biodiesel). Certain impurities like sodium hydroxide (NaOH) etc are still dissolved in the obtained coarse biodiesel. This bio-diesel of methyl ester of Mahua oil and ethyl ester of Mahua oil was then blended with mineral diesel in various concentrations for preparing biodiesel blends to be used in CI engine for conducting various engine tests. This cleaned biodiesel is the Ethyl ester of Mahua oil.880 3 .

most of the engines convert thermal energy into mechanical work and therefore they are called ‘heat engines’. the efficiency of conversion plays an important role. The machine which does this job of energy conversion from one form to another.1. (1) Rotary Engines (2) Reciprocating Engines 4 . is the wide use of mechanical power. Internal Combustion Engines (IC Engines) 2. The machine which does this job of energy conversion is called engine 1.3 DEFINITION OF “ENGINE”: An Engine is a device which transforms one form of energy into another form. Heat engines can be broadly classified in to two types: 1. one that makes it different from all others.5 DEFINITION OF “HEAT ENGINE”: Heat engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal energy and utilizes this thermal energy to perform useful work. Normally. animals were trained to help and afterwards the wind and the running stream were harnessed. Later. However.4 ENERGY CONVERSION: The distinctive feature of our civilization today. the great step was taken in which direction when man learned the art of energy conversion from one form to another. while transforming energy from one form to another. thermal energy is converted into mechanical energy in a heat engine. Thus. the primary source of our power for work was chiefly man’s muscles. At one time. But. External Combustion Engines (EC Engines) 1. 1.6 CLASSIFICATION AND SOME BASIC DETAILS OF HEAT ENGINE Engines whether internal combustion or external combustion are of two types.

Also it is not possible to use a variety of fuels in these engines. the gas turbine and the steam turbine. Further.1 Classification of Heat Engine The widely used ones are the reciprocating internal combustion engine. This results in a considerable mechanical simplicity and improved efficiency of the internal combustion engine. The reciprocating internal combustion engine has some advantages over the steam turbine due to the absence of heat exchanger in the passage of the working fluid.A detailed classification of Heat Engine is given as follows. Only liquid or galleons fuels of given specification can be efficiently used. the weight to power ratio is less than that of the stream turbine plant. These fuels are relatively more expensive 5 . The main disadvantages of this type of engine are the problem of vibration caused by the reciprocating components. Heat Engines I. and therefore.C. higher thermal efficiency can be obtained with moderate maximum working pressure of the fluid in the cycle. Another advantage of the reciprocating internal combustion engine over the other two types is that all his components work at an average temperature which is much below the maximum temperature of the working fluid in the cycle. Engines E. in internal combustion engine. Engines Rotary Reciprocating Reciprocating Rotary Wankle Engine open cycle gas turbine Gasoline Engine Diesel Engine Steam Engine Stirling Engine Steam Turbine closedcycle gas turbine Figure 1.C.

7 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT: The earliest internal combustion engine can be credited to famous Dutch physicist Christian Huygens in the year 1680 Huygens engine employing gunpowder is shown if figure.2 Huygens Engine Employing Gunpowder In consisted of a vertical cylinder having a sliding fit type of piston explosion of a charge Explosion of a charge of gun power in the cylinder drove the piston on its upward stroke and the return stroke was caused by atmosphere pressure acting on the piston and arising from the drop of pressure in the cylinder as the gaseous products of the explosion began to cool. The Lenoir engine was essentially similar to a double acting stream engine in which steam was replaced by the gas formed by the combustion of the 6 . Figure 1. This engine worked with single explosive change but it was not found possible to produce means for delivering the sequence of charges necessary The difficulties for continuous operation and controlling the rate of explosion. prevented the development of the early concept of an internal combustion engine. Though many attempts to build internal combustion engines were made during the period 1820 to 1860 to utilize coal gas.1. the next important development was the manufacture of a non compression combustion gas engine by a Frenchmen Lenoir in 1860. The useful power was produced on the down ward stroke of the piston and by an arrangement of ropes a loaded platform with four men on if into the air.

followed by expansion during the next outward stroke of the piston called power or expansion . Otto’s engine can be said to have ended the period of pioneering and founded the combustion engine technology. Later in 1892 Rudolf Diesel developed ‘Diesel Engine’. All the Engines developed until 1860’s provided combustion of the charge at about atmosphere pressure. In 1892 he proposed compression on of air alone until a sufficiently high temperature was attained to ignite the fuel which was to be 7 Ignition of the charge at inward dead centre. Stroke 2: Compression of the charge during the inward stroke of the piston is called Compression stroke. This very important concept of compression ignition can be credited to Rudolf Diesel. The operations involved in four stroke engine are Stroke 1: Ignition of the charge during the outward stroke of the piston called Suction stroke. a German engineer. As Otto demonstrated Rocha’s principle in his practical engine. This laid the foundation of the four stroke cylinder engine which is used till today. thus the working cycle is named as Otto cycle. Stroke 3: stroke. a German engineer. Stroke 4: Exhaust during the next inward stroke of the piston called Exhaust Stroke. On the return stroke the gasses were discharged from the cylinder. This engine is used throughout the world to denote compression ignition oil engines. Though efficiency of Lenoir’s was low because of low expansion ratio. The charge was induced during first part of stroke and was ignited by an electric spark. The return stroke was caused by the energy stored during power stroke in a large flywheel. In 1862. which were demonstrated in a practical engine by Otto. with airless fuel injection. This caused rise in pressure and the products of combustion did work on the piston for the remainder of the stroke.charge of air-gas mixture. it was better than the efficiency of small steam engine of those times. a Frenchman Bean De Rocha’s wrote a paper describing the fundamental principles for efficient operation of a piston combustion engine.

It forms the first link in transmitting the gas forces to the output shaft.2 percent. liquid fuel. Before going through the working principle of this complex machine a bride description of the important engine components and the nomenclature associated with as engine are more appropriate and are given below. 8 . is called the combustion chamber. they are highly complex machines. There are hundreds of components which have to perform their functions satisfactorily to produce output power. but the high speed diesel engine has a combustion process that lies between that of the Otto engine and the slow speed diesel engine. and high pressure injection.injected at the end of the compression stroke. by the cylinder head and the piston top during the combustion process. Combustion Chamber: The space enclosed in the upper part of the cylinder. This mixture suddenly exploded then he switches over to liquid fuel and achieved success after four years of hard work. The combustion of fuel and the consequent release of thermal energy results in the building up of pressure in this part of the cylinder. Cylinder: As the name implies it is a cylindrical vessel or space in which the piston makes a reciprocating motion. The varying volume created my cylinder during the operation of the engine is filled with the working fluid and subjected to different thermodynamic processes. The slow speed diesel engines follow diesel cycle of operation. The early engines employed a compression pressure of about 28 bar. It fits perfectly (snugly) into the cylinder providing a gas tight space with the piston rings and the lubricant. The cylinder is supported in the cylinder block. 1.8 BASIC ENGINE COMPONENTS AND NOMENCLATURE: Engine though reciprocating internal combustion engines look quite simple. Piston: It is a cylindrical component fitted into cylinder forming the moving boundary of the combustion system. In his first experiments he tried to inject coal dust into a cylinder containing air that had already been highly compressed. The early engines attained a thermal efficiency of 26.

They are provided either on the cylinder head or on the side of the cylinder for regulating the charge coming into cylinder (inlet valve) and for discharging the products of combustion (exhaust valve) from the cylinder. This shaft also provides the drive to the ignition system. rocker arms. The 9 . Piston Rings: piston rings fitted into the slots around the piston provide a tight seal between the piston and the cylinder wall thus preventing leakage of combustion gases. In the crankshaft of a single cylinder engine there is pair of crank arms and balance weights. The balance weights are provided for static and dynamic balancing of the rotating system.The pipe which connects the intake system to the inlet valve of the engine and through which air or air fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder is called inlet manifold. valves springs and tapers. The associated parts are push rods. Cams: These are made as integral parts of the camshaft and are designed in such a way to open the valves at the correct timing and to keep them open for the necessary duration. The camshaft is driven by the crank shaft through timing gears. The pipe which connects the exhaust system to the exhaust valve of the engine and through which the products of combustion escape into the atmosphere is called the exhaust manifold. Connecting Rod: It interconnects the piston and the crankshaft and transmits the gas forces from the piston to the crank shaft Crank Shaft: It converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into useful rotary motion of the output shaft. In order to achieve a uniform torque on inertia mass in the form of a wheel is attached to the output shaft and this wheel is called Flywheel. Gudgeon Pin: The cam shaft and its associated parts control the operating and closing of the valves. Fluctuations causing a change in the angular velocity of the shaft. Flywheel: The net torque imparted to the crankshaft during one complete cycle of operation of the engine. Valves are commonly mushroom shaped poppet type. The crank shaft is enclosed in a crank case.

10 . due position farthest from the cylinder head (position 3) in Figure. A few commonly used terms are explained here.. This means that a single cylinder engine will have a larger flywheel where as a multi cylinder engine will have a smaller flywheel. 1.e.variation of net torque decreased with increase in the number of cylinders in the engine and then by the size of the flywheel also becomes smaller. 1) Top dead centre (T.D.e. the position closest to the cylinder head (position 2 in fig).9 BASIC ENGINE TERMINOLOGY: A number of basic terms are used to describe and compare engines.D. i.C): This refers to the position of the crank shaft when the pistons in it top most position i.C) This refers to the position of the crankshaft when the piston is in its lowest position.. 2) Bottom Dead Center(B.

D.D. these vary from 15 to 24. 6) Piston displacement: This is the volume swept by the piston in moving from T. This is calculated as the ratio of the volume above the piston of B. If ‘n’ is the number of cylinders and Vs is the piston displacement. where for diesel engines.D.C is called ‘stroke’. 11 .C. is given by 7) Engine Capacity: This is a total piston displacement or the swept volume of all the cylinders.3 Top and Dead Centres 3) Bore: Diameter of the engine cylinder is referred to as the Bore. then For petrol engines. 4) Stroke: Distance traveled by the piston is moving from T.C this is also called ‘swept volume’. If r is the compression ratio. the piston displacement.D. Vs.Figure 1. If ‘d’ is the cylinder bore and ‘s’ the stroke. then ‘Engine displacement’ or engine capacity Vd is given by 8) Compression ratio: This indicates the extent to which the change in the engine is compressed.D.C to the B.C to B. compression ratios are about 8 to 10. 5) Clearance Volume: The volume of cylinder (including the combustion chambers) above the piston when it is in the T.C position (volume between’1’and’2’ in fig) os referred tp as ‘clearance volume’.C to the volume above the piston at T.D.D.

12 . due to frictional and pumping losses in the cylinder and the reciprocating mechanism. During the same amount of work in a lesser time would require more power.stroke is continually varying. It is always less than the indicated power.Effective crank radius (m). Thus it is more helpful to refer to the mean pressure instead.P): This is the actual power delivered at the crank shaft. 12) Brake Power (B. In fact the cylinder pressure varies considerably during the power stroke. 11) Indicated power (I.9) Mean effective pressure: This is the average effective pressure throughout the whole power stroke.Engine torque (N-m) F . It is obtained by deducting various power losses in the engine from the indicated power it is measured with a dynamometer and is expressed in kilowatts. As the value of ‘r’ varies during the power-stroke the torque on the power. It is given by T . Moreover there is no torque delivered during the three idle strokes.W). It is expressed in bars or kilo Pascals (1 bar=100kps).Force Applied to crank (N) R . 10) Power: It is the work done in a given period of time. Therefore the engine manufactures always quote the average value of torque throughout the engine cycle.P): The power developed within the engine cylinder is called indicated power. This is calculated from the area of the engine indicator diagram. 13) Engine Torque: It is the force of rotation acting about the cranks shaft axis at any given instant of time. It is usually expressed in kilowatts (K.

The ideal sequence of operations for the four stroke C. The four stroke C. compression. Due to high compression ratio employed the temp at the end of the compression stroke in sufficiently high to self ignites the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber. Heat is added to have been added at constant pressure. engine operates at a much higher compression ratio.10 WORKING OF FOUR STROKE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE: In a four stroke engine the cycle of operations is completed in four strokes of the piston (or) two revolutions of the crankshaft. During the four strokes there are five events to be completed v92 suction.I.I. Expansion stroke: Fuel injection starts nearly at the compression stroke. Compression stroke: Air inducted during the suction stroke is compressed into the clearance volume. after cut off) the products of the combustion expand. engine is as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Suction stroke Compression stroke Expansion stroke Exhaust stroke Suction stroke: Air alone is inducted during the suction stroke. Both valves remain closed during this stroke. The rate of injection is such that the combustion maintains the pressure constant inspired of the piston movement on its expansion stroke increasing the volume. combustion expansion and exhaust. 13 .e. During this stroke in take valve is open and exhaust valve is closed. Each stroke consists of 180 degree of crankshaft rotation and hence a four stroke cycle is completed through 720 degree of crank shaft rotation. 1.Engine torque goes through the vehicle transmission system to the road wheel and is responsible for rotation of the latter and hence for pulling of the vehicle. Both the valves remain closed during the expansion stroke. After the injection of fuel is completed (i.

11. The exhaust valve is open and the intake valve is closed during this stroke.1. butyl rubber. fuel injector treatments. ferrous picrate. antiknock agents. and tetranitromethane. Oil additives and fluid additives are related products. Typical detergents are magnesium sulfonates. ferox. There are many different types of products. and water removers are also available. leader scavengers.Figure 1. oxygenates. TYPES OF FUEL ADDITIVES (a) Detergent additives. 14 . octane boosters. fuel injector cleaners.I Engine Exhaust stroke: The piston traveling from BDC to TDC pushes out the products of combustion. oxyhydrogen.11 FUEL ADDITIVES Fuel additives are chemical substances that are added to gasoline. are used to clean and neutralize oil impurities which would normally cause deposits (oil sludge) on vital engine parts. fuel dyes. diesel fuel treatments. metal deactivators.4 Working Principle of 4-Stroke C. Additional categories of fuel additives include antioxidants. and corrosion inhibitors. nitro methane (nitro). 1. hybrid compound blends. dating back to the early 1930s. Common types of fuel additives include acetone. nitrous oxide (nitrous). silicone and other anti-foaming agents. Gasoline treatments. ether. 1. diesel. kerosene and other fuels to impart or improve certain properties.

(c) Antioxidant additives retard the degradation of stock oil by air. Typical antiwaer agents are zinc dithiophosphates.(b) Corrosion or rust inhibiting additives retard the oxidation of metal inside an engine. (d) Metal deactivators create a film on metal surfaces to prevent the metal from causing the oil to oxidized. Typically additives antimisting agents are silicones. Typically additives are organic amines and phenols. 15 .

transesterification and thermal cracking/pyrolysis. thereby sequestering carbon from the soot formation process. vegetable oil has been considered as alternative fuels for compression ignition engines. formation of injector deposits. increases in prices of petroleum based fuels and environmental pollution due to exhaust emissions have encouraged studies to search for alternative fuels. a significant reduction in SO2 emission was obtained. nontoxic. Since biodiesel contains little sulphur compared to the diesel fuel. such as preheating oils. and have low emission profiles. Biodiesel containing oxygen reduces exhaust emissions such as HC. The lower energy content causes reductions in engine torque and power. smoke and CO mainly due to the effect of complete combustion. high viscosity of vegetable oils may lead to ring sticking. Detailed reviews about transesterification process are available in the literature. Different techniques have been developed to solve their high viscosity and low volatility problems of vegetable oils. In view of these. The high viscosity causes some problems in atomization of injector systems and combustion in cylinders of diesel engines. biodegradable. Also. Vegetable oils are renewable. development of gumming. The important compositional difference between biodiesel and the diesel fuel is concerned with oxygen content. Third is the removing carbon from soot formation process via C–O bonding within molecule due to oxygen. as well as incompatibility with lubricating oils. blending or dilution with other fuels.CHAPTER – 2 LITERATURE SURVEY The gradual depletion of world petroleum reserves. Transesterification appears to be the most promising technique which is a chemical process of converting vegetable oil into biodiesel fuel. lower volatility and lower heat content. there are some drawbacks related to the use of straight vegetable oils in diesel engines primarily due to their high viscosity. There is four possible reasons for reduction in particulate emissions. Fourth is the low level of sulphur content of biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used as a blend in diesel engines without modification. Biodiesel contains 10–12% oxygen in weight basis and this lowers the energy content. First is the presence of oxygen in fuel rich regions of the combustion fuel spray Second is the modification of radical pool. NOx emissions mainly depend on the engine 16 . However. which inhibits key soot formation reactions and provides OH radicals for oxidation of soot precursors. in long term operations.

First.1 MAHUA OIL A large deciduous tree. in South Indian forests and Sri Lanka. Specifications of the Mahua oil investigated and compared these specifications with other vegetable oils and this was the basic motivation behind the research in this paper. The quality of expelled oils depends largely on storage conditions of the kernels. found in Maharashtra. which are susceptible to fungus and insect attack. while commercial oils are generally greenish yellow with disagreeable odor and taste. use of waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils have been considered as potential alternative fuels. Orissa. Two different observations can be seen in the literature. Mahua oil. when yield is 10 times more than the yield at the age of 10. In the present investigation. 2. some studies showed lower NOx emissions. The average yield of sun-dried mahua seeds is about 1. However. The orange brown pipe flesh berry (2. Free fatty acids of oil from fresh kernels are very less (1-2 %) compared to that from poorly 17 . was considered as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines.5-5. 20%. that is non-edible oil.0 cm long) contains 1-4 shining seeds. The results were summarized. instead of using such oils. The expelled cake is solvent extracted to recover residual oil.fuelling system. The price of edible vegetable oils is higher than that of the diesel fuel. Fresh oil from properly stored seeds is yellow. 40% and 100% Mahua oil-diesel blends by volume with and without additive. West Bengal. This is because higher cetane numbers of biodiesel shortens the ignition delay. 30%. Kernel contains 20-50 percent oil depending on expelled by ghani or expeller. Drying and decortification yield kernels (70% by wt). This is also evident from higher exhaust gas temperatures from biodiesel fuelled engines. higher NOx emissions may be due to higher temperatures of combustion chamber using biodiesel. Mahua tree starts giving seeds after 10 years and it goes up to 60 years. leading to the reduction in NOx emissions. The yield of mahua seeds varies (5-200 kg/tree) depending upon size and age of the tree. The amount of premixed fuel and peak burning temperature are reduced. Recovery of kernel is a village level activity and lack of proper facilities for drying and preservation affects quality.6 kg/tree. Therefore. The engine tests were carried out on a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with diesel fuel and 10%. engine type and engine loading.

potential to be produced locally etc.00 lakh and 1. And Madgi West Bengal: Mahwa. And Mahula Mahwa seed is botanical name for what is known as ‘Ippa’ in Telugu. The two major species of genus Madhuca found in India are Madhuca Indica (syn. Tonne. Mahwa. Brassica longifolia). The seed and oil potential of this tree in the country is 5. flower and fruit give good economic returns. availability. Bassia latifolia) and Madhuca longifolia (syn. Yappa Hindi: Mahua. Moha. Ilupa Orissa: Mahula.8 lakh M. Mahua is the widely accepted as local name for the fat from both these species. Besides oil.000 million tones. And Mauwa Kerala: Ponnam. Mahua is perhaps the second most widely known tree in India after mango. The cake after oil extraction is used as fertilizer and sometimes as cattle feed. Almost all parts of Mahua tree are saleable. 18 . along with Jatropha is being vigorously pursued and promoted in India. because it is one such forest-based tree-borne non-edible oil with a production potential of 135. Common names for Mahua: Botanical Name: Madhuca Indica Family: Sapotaceae Sanskrit: Madhuka Gujarat: Mahuda Karnataka: Hippe Maharashtra: Mahwa. It is for this reason that this particular oil has been chosen for the present investigation.stored kernels (30%). Mahua oil is selected for the present investigation because of its exclusive advantages like relatively lower cost. elupa Andhra Pradesh: Ippe. Mohwra Tamil Nadu: Illupei. Mohwa. Maul. This plant is common in deciduous forests.

Mahua tree Mahua seeds 19 .

Mahwa normally starts yielding in 3 to 4 years.2 m at the end of the fourth year. Hardwood is reddish brown in colour. nearly smooth. 7. Mature seeds can be obtained during June to July.9 to 1. The coppice crop may attain a mean height of 9. and gray to brown with vertical cracks on it. The tree has a large spreading root system. The flowers are fleshy. Even though the output of a young sapling could be only a fraction of that of a mature tree. The bole is relatively smaller with round spreading crown. egg shaped. The tree may attain a height of up to 20 meters. As a matter of fact even goats do not graze these saplings and therefore it does not require any special protection while growing. which will have numerous other benefits to the villagers and to their commerce.2 cm thick. many of these trees yield 10 to15 tons of seeds per hectare on maturing.19 m and girth 0. off white in colour. The bark is 1. It has a disagreeable odor and bitter taste. Mahua is a slow growing species.5 m in 30 years The freshly extracted Mahua oil is yellowish orange to brown and rapidly darkens on storage. attains a mean height of 0.5 to 23 cm long. Wood is hard to very hard with large sapwood. Generation of grafted saplings in large numbers will also help in obtaining early yields from tree plantations. the yield per hectare could still be comparable to what could be obtained from a mature plantation. Modern silvicultural methods make use of dense planting of saplings to start with. There is also no possibility of total yield failure with trees in any year. India has the requisite land area (waste lands being estimated at 70-130 million hectares). These trees can be found abundantly in our country. Madhuca longifolia of family Sapotaceae with wider and round canopy. and emit attractive sweet fragrance when the plant is in full bloom. especially in wastelands. Since 15 to 20 years old trees use soil to more than 10m depth (unlike agricultural crops which use only 150 mm of top soil) both the survivability during dry periods and annual output per hectare are better than what could be obtained from many agricultural crops.Mahua name for a medium to larger tree. The fruit is a kind of berry. since the number of saplings planted per unit area are high. Simple lanceolate leaves grow in cluster at the tip of the branches. man power and skill to create this renewable energy base. though many of them are superficial. At commonly used densities of more than 100 trees per hectare. 20 .

Sathiyagnanam et al. heat release and emissions for both sole fuel (diesel) and oxygenated additives were tabulated during the process of combustion and were compared. The physicochemical properties of the base fuel and the modified fuel formed by dispersing the catalyst nanoparticles by ultrasonic agitation are measured using ASTM standard test methods. further reduction in engine emission becomes one of major tasks in engine development.Sivalakshmi et al.P. S. the engine performance. water-cooled DI diesel engine. The smoke concentration was found to decrease by 20% when 3% of DEGDME and EGDME by volume to sole fuel were used as fuels. [ESD2010] Increased environmental concerns and depletion of fossil fuel resources necessitate the search for a viable alternative fuel for diesel engines.600 and 800 in the diesel engine. Ethylene glycol Dimethyl Ether (EGDME) a nd the combustions of both DEGDME and EGDME as additives blend to diesel with 1%. 3%. However. Biofuels are renewable. 400. an attempt has been made to 21 . The parameters of peak pressure. reduce green house gas emissions and mitigate their adverse effects on the climate resulting from global warming. One promising approach to solve this problem is to add the oxygenated fuels in biodiesel. and emissions are studied. [2010] studied the results of experimental investigations on the influence of the addition of cerium oxide in the nanoparticle form on the major physicochemical properties and the performance of biodiesel. and the dosing level of the additive is optimized. A.2 LITERATURE V. But Nox emission increased slightly and results were observed for different cycles of combustion 200. The emission levels of hydrocarbon and NOx are appreciably reduced with the addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles. The combustion characteristics under various cycles in a diesel engine fueled with Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DEGDME). The experiment was carried out on a two cylinder. Comparisons of the performance of the fuel with and without the additive are also presented. The flash point and the viscosity of biodiesel were found to increase with the inclusion of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. In this research work.2.Sajith et al. 2%. and 4% by Volume to diesel were investigated. The effects of the additive nanoparticles on the individual fuel properties. can supplement fossil fuels. [2006] has studied the prospective methods to reduce emissions and improve combustion is to use oxygenated fuel additives in diesel.

C. CO2. NOx and smoke intensity. [2007] studied to improve the performance of a diesel engine by adding oxygenated fuel additive of known percentages. It is a unique blend of surfactants.analyze the effect of diethyl ether as an additive at different proportions with biodiesel in a single cylinder. 22 . brake specific fuel consumption and engine exhaust emission of CO. oxides of nitrogen.G. four stroke naturally aspirated. antioxidant. increasing the combustion efficiency. The measured performance parameters are brake thermal efficiency. 10% and 15% and used. Thermol-D technology The core technology of Thermol-D helps in complete combustion of diesel and also helps in maintaining cleanliness of the entire fuel system components. cetane improver. multifunctional diesel additive developed in association with Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay. thereby breaking it into two or three smaller droplets resulting into better atomization and thus. The experimental study was carried out in a multi-cylinder diesel engine. 2. The effect of fuel additive was to control the emission from diesel engine and to improve its performance. The fuel additive dimethyl carbonate was mixed with diesel fuel in concentrations of 5%. thus making it safe for safe for use in any industrial or domestic applications. Significant improvements in performance parameters and exhaust emissions have been observed by the addition of diethyl ether blends with biodiesel. lubricity additive. HC. These actions further help in improving the combustion of diesel. Surfactants present in the product reduce the surface tension of the droplet. All the ingredients used in its preparation are organic in nature. Dispersants present help in cleaning and preventing any carbon deposits in the system and filter clogging.3 THERMOL-D FUEL ADDITIVE What is Thermol-D Thermol-D is an eco-friendly.Sarvanan et al. solvents & combustion catalysts etc. The result showed an appreciable reduction of emissions such as particulate matter. computerized diesel engine (5hp @ 1500rpm). smoke density. unregulated emission-benzo (a) pyrene and marginal increase in the performance when compared with normal diesel engine.

Advantages • • • • • • • Improves combustion efficiency. Thermol-D is also recommended for use in biodiesel and biodiesel blends. thereby helping in better atomization.79 . Reduces harmful emissions and smoke. Thermol-D has been evaluated and approved by a prestigious OEM in India. Thermol-D also helps in improving the combustion of biodiesel.florescent red 23 . Properties of Thermol-D additive Flash point Specific gravity Colour . Thermol-D is also recommended for usage with biodiesel. This reduces engine vibrations. When added to biodiesel.0. Reduces maintenance cost.450C . Improves life of fuel injection system and diesel pump. giving better output & reduces pollutants. Thermol-D dosage Thermol-D is self miscible liquid and it is to be added directly into the diesel tank.e. Thermol-D reduces the viscosity. thereby helping it to give energy more output. Enhance smoother engine operation and reliability.Cetane improver present in Thermol-D increases the cetane value of diesel leading to reduction in the ignition delay. The recommended dosage is 1: 2000 on v/v basis (i. Reduces engine noise. 1 litre of Thermol-d to be dosed with 2000 litres of diesel). It also helps in reduction of the gelling point. Reduces diesel consumption by 3-6%.

water and liquid .-180C Insoluble Viscosity at 400C .3.Freezing temperature .78 centi stokes 24 .