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ATTITUDE Attitude is the way in which a person intent to act.

INTRODUCTION Attitudes and values have significant impact on the behaviour of the people both within the organization as well as with the society. It is a major factor, which affects the behaviour of a person or an organization. It manipulates the perception of objects ansd people, exposure to comprehension of information, choice of friends, co-workers and so on. CONCEPT OF ATTITUDE Attitude is defined both conceptually and operationally. Conceptual definition It is the tendency to respond to some social object. Attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness organized through experience, exerting a directive (or) dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Operational definition The operational definition emphasis on the evaluative nature of attitude. “ Attitude is the persistent tendency to feel and behave in a favourable and unfavourable way towards some object, person or ideas”. FUNCTIONS The work situation is interpreted by the individual as per his attitudes which play an important part. Only after the individual’s interpretation and comparison does the response occur. This tells that response is a result of a purely objective and rational consideration of the work situation and its characteristics may not be the actual response of the individual.

Attitudes are of an important consideration because of their central position in the process transforming work requirements into effort. Attitudes have been thought as serving four functions and thereby affecting behaviour as discussed below: • • • • Instrumental Value – orientation Ego – defensive Knowledge

Instrumental Attitudes serve as a means of reaching a desired goal or avoiding an undesired one. Instrumental attitudes are aroused by the activation of a need or cues that are associated with the attitude towards an object and arouse favourable or unfavourable feelings. Value orientation The value orientation function tales into account attitudes that are held because they express a person’s values or enhance his self-identity. These attitudes arise from conditions that threaten self-concept, appeals to reassert the person’s self-image, or by cues that engage the person’s values and make them salient to him. Ego – defensive The ego-defensive function of attitudes recognizes the significance of psychological thought. Attitudes may be required and maintained to protect the person from facing threats in the external world or from becoming aware of his own unacceptable impulses. Ego-defensive attitudes may be aroused by internal or external threats, frustrating events,appeals, by build-up or represent impulses and suggestions by authoritarian sources. The attitude influences his behaviour by affecting his perception of the situation.

Knowledge The knowledge function of attitudes is based on a person’s need to maintain a stable, organized and meaningful structure of the world. Attitudes that provide a standard against which a person evaluates aspects of his world serve the knowledge as well. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE There are three components namely, • • • Cognitive component Affective component Behavioural/conative component

Cognitive component This represents the opinion or belief segment of an attitude. It consists of beliefs and values, ideas, opinions and other information a person has about the attitude object. For example: the belief that “discrimination is wrong” is a value statement. Such an opinion is the cognitive component of an attitude. Affective component It is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. It involves the person’s feelings of likes and dislikes towards the attitude object. For example: I don’t like Jon because he discriminates against minorities. Behavioural/conative component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. The tendency of a person to behave in; a particular manner towards the attitude object is the conative component of an attitude. So, to continue our example, I might choose to avoid Jon because of my feeling about him.

These are acquired (or) learned by the people from the environment in which they interact. Attitudes are formed on the basis of one’s past experience in corcerned object or person. How do you know that you like Organizational Behaviour (or) dislike financial management? The answer to it is that you have formed these attitudes from your experience in studying the two subjects.FORMATION OF ATTITUDES Attitudes are not inherited. Individuals develop certain attitudes from family members – . In social learning. for instance.durable and are difficult to change than are attitudes that are formed through indirect experience. The formation of attitudes is broadly classified into two sources: • • Direct experience Social learning Direct experience One’s direct experience with an object or person serves as a powerful source for his/her attitude formation. Research has shown that attitudes derived from the direct experience are more powerful.stronger. peer groups. • Family Social learning starts from early age when children derive certain attitudes from parents. Family exerts influence on the initial core of attitudes held by an individual. Social learning The process of deriving attitudes from family. Family is the primary group where an individual belongs to. For example: take your own case. an individual acquires attitudes from his/her environment in an indirect manner. This is because of their availability in our cognitive processes. religious organizations and culture is called social learning.

Psychological factors . Saxena is likely to attend his duty on time.parents. the family characteristics influence the individual’s early attitude patterns. brothers. individuals shape their attitude to align with their models.Reference group b. The observer overheads their models expressing their opinion (or) watches them displaying a behaviour that reflects their attitude. Group factors a. to say. Then the same attitude is imbibed and displayed by the observer.Family c. Learning attitudes from observation involves the following four processes. For example: If SAXENA has been attending his duty late for some days but co-workers have always been on-time. So. • Models Individuals acquire much of their attitudes by merely observing their models whom they admire and respect. • • • • Attention: attention must be focused on model Retention: What was observed from the model must be retained. Reproduction: Behaviour must be practiced again and again.Social factors 2. FACTORS INFLUENCING ATTITUDE FORMATION 1. • Peer groups and society Attitudes are derived from peer group also. Motivation: the learner must be motivated to learn from the model. sisters etc. Personality factors a.

Reference group The level of understanding and learning of behavior alternatives is accomplished efficiently through the influence of reference group. which are shared by all other persons. Organisational factors 4. Group factors The influence of group on the attitudes of individuals is inversely proportional to the distance of the group from individual.3. the values and norms of the primary groups play a very important role in influencing the attitudes. evaluative criteria and attitudes and the family as a whole has certain attitudes and values. Family Families have an influence on the attitudes of individuals. A reference group is any interacting aggregation of people that influences an individual’s attitudes of behavior. either primary or secondary. family mediates the influence of the larger social systems on the . a. First. From the point of view. The family has two important roles. Second.three types of group have different types of effect on the attitudes of a person. Economic factors 5. Political factors 1. It provide significant inputs to an individual’s learning of attitudes and awareness of alternative behaviors and life-style. This group may include family or other types of groupings. b. the norms and the required behavior patterns of the society. It takes place through the process of socialization. Though all groups with which an individual makes contact have an influence on his attitudes. other family members have certain personality characteristics. opinions and beliefs of the members of the group. organizations or groups in which he is entering. which is a process by which a member learns the value system.

Thus he learns from the family members who provide him with ready-made attitudes on a variety of issues such as education. Since a family is a primary group. which tends to restrict attitude formation. b. values. themselves are determined by the group and social factors. in other members. social factors check the behavior between individuals of differing social classes. they define the expectations of the society for groups of people and cultural expectations to the individual. health. Social factors Social factors have an important impact on an individual’s attitudes. especially in known relationships. values and personality characteristics. beliefs. Many personality characteristics. As an individual interacts with other family members.individual’s attitudes. in a similar pattern. Personality factors Personality factors are significant in attitude formation. politics. Since they have the significant work of transmitting cultural behavior patterns to particular group and families. Thus. 3. ideas. because attitudes and values provide goals. 2. which aid alternative evaluation and give motivation for research and evaluation. religion. • Psychological factors The psychological make-up of a person is made up of his perceptions. he simultaneously influences both the personality characteristics and attitudes of others and in turn is influenced by others. People have close relationships with people of similar classes. information etc. Organizational factors . economics etc. the attitudes of family memberstend to converge and are typically more homogenous than would be the case if they were not in the family. it has a crucial role in determining a person’s attitude. This is so. work.

fellow workers. work etc is influenced by economic factors such as his economic status in the society. people may vary along a number of attitudinal dimensions. political stability and the behavior of the political leaders greatly affect the attitudes of the people. political factors such as ideologies of the political parties. Political factors Policies play a crucial role in the administration of a country. ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT Attitudes are subjective attributes of people. 4. government’s economic policies and the country’s economic conditions. factory or office layout. Indirect tests: such as projective techniques and disguised approaches. The following are the classification of methods of attitude measurement: a. rate of inflation in the economy. Self report: usually elicited with questionnaires dealing with beliefs. Therefore. 5. Thus. c. They can be regarded as constructs in the sense that they are conceptualization of human qualities that are formed on the basis of either rational consideration or statistical evidence. organizational factors such as nature of the job. quality of supervision play an important role in shaping the job attitudes of a person. b. feelings and behaviours. . Direct observation techniques: by observing employees directly by an observer with the help of a questionnaire. Economic factors A person’s attitude towards a host of issues such as pleasure.It should be remembered that a worker spends a major part of his life in the institution in which he works. Thus.

Thrustone type of scale: it was developed by collecting a large number of statements relating to the areas in which attitudes were to be measured. In using this scale. The statement relating to the measurement of attitudes is given to the person concerned and he is asked to check one of the five points given for every statements. c. His attitude score is based either on the average or the median scale of the statements that he has checked. a.d. to the most unfavourable one being placed in pile 11. the errorchoice method and the sentence completion method. Likert scale: Likert’s attitude scale use five points. For any given purpose it consists of several or many pairs of opposite adjustive or phrases. The statements relating to the attitude object are both favourable and unfavourable and are placed in 11 piles with most favourable statement placed on pile 1. These include the Guttman technique. . The scale is then presented to the respondents. Psychological reaction technique: by testing psychological reaction of the employee with the help of questionnaire. Apart from these measures of attitudes. Each respondent cheks the statement with which he agrees. Scale values( often ranging from 1 to 7) are associated with the different responses and individual’s attitude score is usually is the sum of these. certain other scales have also been developed. b. Semantic differential scale: Semantic differential means the successive allocation of a concept to a point in the multidimensional space by selection from a set of given sealed semantic alternatives. with scale values in between. the respondent marks the position along each scale that reflects his attitude to the object. The three types of attitude scaling which are commonly used in measuring attitude. These points show degree of agreement or disagreement with the given statements.

CHARACTERISTICS OF VALUE 1. Part of culture: Values are elements of culture and culture is the complex of values. 3. ideas. An individual’s way of thinking and behaving is not culture. rather group behavior constitutes culture. This is because human beings live in a society having certain cultural characteristics which prescribe to behave in a particular way. They have to learn almost everything about how to be human from experience. Values are convictions and a framework of philosophy of an individual on the basis of which he judges what is good or bad. educational. ethical or unethical.attitudes and other meaningful symbols to shape human behavior in the society. 4. Social phenomenon: Values are a social phenomenon. desirable or undesirable. religious and ethnic institutions also transmit cultural values from generation to another. Learned responses: Human Behaviour represents learned phenomenon. 2. Apart from family. . Inculcated: Values are inculcated and are passed through generation to generation by specific groups and institutions. Such transmission starts from the family from where the socialistion process starts. Rokeach has defined values as “Global beliefs that guide actions and judgements across a variety of situations”.VALUES • • • Values that a person has are one of the major forces shaping behavior. that is cultural habits are shared by aggregates of people living in organized society.

1. the change occurs slowly as a gradual process. Economic: Emphasis on usefulness and practicability. Aesthetic: places the top most importance on beauty. In such a case. Theoritical: This shows high importance on the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking. helpfulness. Instrumental values reflect the way to achieving goals.5. Thus.g ) honesty. but not through revolution.g family security. elements in the culture become extinguished when they no longer are gratifying to members of the society. c. Dialectical or sharply discontinuous change occurs when the value system of a culture becomes associated with the gratification of only one group or class in the environment. ( E. either through a dialectical process or evolutionary process. In the evolutionary process. self-respect). including the accumulation of wealth. form and artistic harmony. ( E. b. forgiving nature. TYPES OF VALUES There are two basic types of values namely ( i) Terminal values (ii) Instrumental values • • Terminal values reflect what a person is ultimately striving to achieve. . 6. other classes of the society reject the logic of the value system and replace it with a new value system. ALLPORT’s CLASSIFICATION: Allport and his associates have categorized values into six major types as follows: a. Grafting responses: Values exist to meet the biological and other needs of the individuals in the society. Adaptive process: Culture is adaptive. such as through revolution.

Moralist: A moralist is one who is guided by the ethical considerations of right or wrong. These are value – forming activities of various social institutions. e. 3. values of an organization. peers and . These are: a. Social: Accords the highest value in people and human relationship. c. FACTORS IN VALUE FORMATION Values of people have their roots in numerous aspects of contemporary society. Egocentric: Orientation to survival and power. Political: Assigns importance to the acquisition of power and influence. Conformistic: Orientation towards achievement of material beliefs through control over physical resources. d.d. e. b. Sociocentric: Orientation with getting people. honest or dishonest. GRAVE’S CLASSIFICATION Graves has classified various personal values into five categories. Religious: Have concernwith the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole. he opts for concepts and actions which appear to him as important and successful irrespective of good or bad. Pragmatic: A pragmatic is one who takes a pragmatic view of the situation which is stereotyped. Existentialism: Orientationof behaviour congruent with existing realities. Tribalastic: Orientation towards safety by submitting to power. 2. b. f. ENGLAND’S CLASSIFICATION England has classified personal values into two categories: a.

school. d. The basic process of value formation by these institutions is that they prescribe what is good or bad for an individual. Value forming institutions: The life and development of a society are both based upon and produce values. In particular.colleagues in the organization. b. they are . Since people belong to various professions. Essentially work is human energy directed at the achievement of a desired end. state and religion. a. In organizations. where the individuals work also shape their values though in a lesser degree. An individual in a work group tends to conform to the group’snorms as long as he values the friendship and approval of his associates or fears the possibility that they will cut him from rights. directed. he may either leave the organization or he may adjust himself to the values of the organization. there can be various institutions in the society which inculcate values in an individual. each work will have its own values and persons performing the work will follow that values. e. controlled and entrusted to individuals willing to become employees through a more or less permanent association with the organization. Therefore. Work and career: work consists of the tasks or responsibilities associated with a particular job or position in an organization. this work is organized. Where the organizational values do not match with the individual values. privileges and benefits they can offer. Therefore. work and career and professionalisation and professional code of conduct. Organizational values: Apart from value-forming institutions of the society. c. organizations. Professional codes: A code is found in company operational policies which set up guides to action that have an ethical content. Peers and Colleagues: An individual gets clue of behaviour from his peers and colleagues with whom he is associated. there are four major institutions which provide the sources of values for persons and organizations: family. An organization has its own values which are reflected in the form of collective values of individuals who join it.

Professional codes are an increasing source of ethical norms for managers in business organizations. Therefore. Perceptual inputs Stimuli . Robbins has defined perception as follows: “ Perception may be defned as a process by which individuals organisw and interpret their sensory impressions inorder to give meaning to their environment”.also governed by code of conduct framed by their associations. Perceptual Process: Perception is a process consisting of several sub-processes. organizing and interpreting or attaching meaning to the events happening in the environment. PERCEPTION Perception is the process of selecting.

attitudes etc which ultimately influence our behaviour can be viewed as the perceptual outputs. organization and interpretation can be treated as the throughputs and the resultant opinion. or people can be considered as the perceptual inputs. Perceptual mechanism: .Perceptual throughputs Receivingselectingorganizinginterpretin g Perceptual outputs Actions The stimuli in the environment – subjects. feeling. The actual transformation of these inputs through the perceptual mechanisms of selection. events.

The various forms of organizing stimuli are figure-ground. Organization of stimuli: After the stimuli are received. a. these are organized in some form in order to make sense out of that. (i) Proximity: The proximity (or) nearness principle of grouping states that a group of stimuli that are close together will be perceived as a whole of parts or pattern of parts belonging together For example: all employees working in a particular department may be grouped together because of physical proximity and are perceived as such. organization of stimuli and interpretation of stimuli. perceptual grouping. These are external and related to stimuli and internal related to the perceiver. For eg: while reading a book.Perceptual mechanism involves 3 elements – selection of stimuli. Grouping: The grouping principle of perceptual organization states that there is a tendency to group several stimuli into recognizable pattern. simplification and closure. some are selected for further processing while others are screened out because it is not possible for a person to select all stimuli which he sees in the environment. Selection of stimuli: After receiving the stimuli from the environment. (ii) Similarity: The principle of similarity states that the greater is the tendency to perceive them as a common group. b. People generally group various stimuli on the basis of proximity and similarity. Figure ground: this involves that in perceiving stimuli (or) phenomena. I. the letters printed are treated as figure while the page on which the letters have been printed is taken as ground. II. . More attention is paid to phenomena which have been kept as figure and less attention to phenomena kept in background. While proximity principle is based on the similar features of various stimuli irrespective of nearness. the tendency is to keep certain phenomena in focus and other phenomena are in background.

they try to simplify it to make it more meaningful and understandable. These outputs along with other factors may result in overt behavior. They also become judgemental as well and tend to interpret the things as good or bad. This may be done on the basis of past experience past data (or) hunches. These outputs may be in the form of covert action like development of attitudes. perceptual output emerge. beliefs. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION: The following are the factors that influence the process of perception • • Characteristics of the perception Characteristics of the perceived . III. IV. Closure: When faced with incomplete information . Simplification makes the things more understandable because the perceiver has been able to reduce the complexity by eliminating some of the things which are less important. opinions. impression about the stimuli under consideration. Interpretation of stimuli: The perceptual inputs that have been organized will have to be interpreted by the perceiver so that he can sense and extract some meaning of what is going on in the situation. People interpret the meaning of what they have selectively perceived and organized in terms of their own assumptions of people.c. things and situations. people fill up the gaps themselves to make the information meaningful. Perceptual outputs: Based on perceptual mechanism which ends with interpretation of stimuli. d. Simplification: Whenever people are overloaded with information. beautiful or ugly and so on which are quite relative terms.

Needs and motives 8. Characteristics of the situation: The context in which objects or events is seen is important. heat and thus requiring the interaction of atleast two actual people.Characteristics of the perceiver: 1. Characteritics of the perceived 1.Frequency 2. Mental Set 3. Self-concept 9. light.Beliefs II. Attribution 4. Personality 2. First impression 5. Contrast III. Status 3. Elements in the surrounding environment influence our perception. as can location.• Characteristics of the situation I. The time at which an object or event is seen can influence attention. Halo effect 6. . Stereotyping 7.

. Known to self Open area Not Known to self Blind area Hidden area Unknown area Known to others Not known to others Open area: This cell includes all the factors upon which I and others have mutually shared perceptions. The theoretical conceptualization of this process can be depicted in “ Johari Window”. Unknown area: In this cell are factors that I do not see in myself nor do others see in me. (ie) people see me the way I see myself.INTERPERSONAL PERCEPTION: Interpersonal perception defines how a person perceives another person.

physical status. Thus. or values. impression management has many possible conceptual dimensions arid has been researched in relation to aggression. five factors have been identified as being especially relevant to the] kinds of impression people try to construct: the self-concept. role constraints. two separate components of impression management have been identified . the discrepancy between the image one would like others to hold and the image one believes others already hold. motivated to control how their boss perceives them. The Process of Impression Management As with other cognitive processes. target values and current social image. Although there has been a considerable research done on how these five factors influence the type of . Although some theorists limit the type of impression only to personal characteristics others include such things as attitudes.impression motivation and impression construction. It serves as a pragmatic. impression management has considerable' implications for activities like determining the validity of performance appraisals. desired and undesired identity images. Most recently. impression management is the process by which the general people attempt to manage or control the perceptions that others form about them. attributions and social facilitation. Using this broader approach. Especially in an employment situation. interests. is concerned with the specific type of impression people want to make and how they create it. however. Impression construction. Conversely. the other major process. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT Social perception is concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals. The degree of this motivation to manage impression will depend on factors like the relevance that these impressions have on the individual's goals. attitude change. among other things. the value of these goals. political tool for someone to climb the ladder of success in organizations. subordinates may be. People often tend to present themselves in such a way so as to impress others in a socially desirable manner.Hidden area: In this cell are factors that I see in myself but that I hide from others Blind area: In this cell are factors that other people perceived in me but I do not see in myself.

craving or need that must be satisfied.impression that people try to make. Motivation is the key to organizational effectiveness. Employees secretly tell their boss that they fought for the right thing. Employees point out that they did more. they may employ a demotion-preventative strategy. The promotion enhancing strategies involve the following activities: • • • • Employees harbor a feeling that they have not been given credit for a positive outcome. If employees are trying to minimize responsibility for some negative event or to stay out of trouble. On the other hand. Employees apologies to the boss for some negative event. The manager . Employees ascertain that they are seen with the right people at the right times. MOTIVATION The word motivation is derived from ‘motive'. if they are seeking to maximize responsibility for a positive outcome or to look better than what they really are. but were overruled. then they lean use a promotion-enhancing strategy. Employee Impression Management Strategies There are two basic strategies of impression management that employees can use. Employees using this approach try to disassociate themselves from the group and from the problem. which means an active form of a desire. Employees identify cither personal or organizational obstacles they had to overcome to accomplish an outcome and expect a higher credit. but received a lesser credit. there is still little known of how they select the way to manage others' perceptions of them. The demotion-preventative strategy is characterized by the following activities: • • • Employees attempt to excuse or justify their actions.

These 'others' are human resources who need to be motivated to attain organizational objectives. it is "the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization". Motivated employees make full use of their energy and other abilities to raise the existing level of efficiency. Viteles defines motivation as "an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium." According to Encyclopaedia of Management. Motivation is directly related to the level of efficiency of employees. ." IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is an important part of managing general has to get the work done through others. These factors help reduce absenteeism and labor turnover. "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness. They are more committed and cooperative for achieving organizational objectives." In the words of Robert Dubin. causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium. Motivation is considered as a backbone of good industrial relations. Motivated employees make goal-directed efforts. A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organization because of the following reasons: • • • • • • Motivated employees make optimum use of available resources for achieving objectives. Motivated employees are more loyal and sincere to an organization. DEFINITION According to George R. "Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action. by satisfying the need. Terry.

the cycle of motivation is constantly repeated. If his hard work resulted in a pay rise. That is. For example. TYPES OF MOTIVATION There are various types of motivations that can influence a person. This includes managers. In many ways they involve a person's own sense of values and priorities in life. then he tries to fulfill his needs by asking for a raise or by working harder to earn a raise or by seeking a new job. Many of the behaviour derived from secondary motivation are conscious ones. this type of "drives" differ from one person to another. warmth. Since people have many different needs. These include the following: Primary or Basic Motivation This mainly pertains to motives involved with our need for self-preservation. But if no raise has been provided he is likely to try another option. Extensive research has been performed to find out what makes people work and how to motivate them. The motivation process begins with identification of individual needs. working harder while simultaneously looking for a job. Motivation also helps in improving the image of an organization. Understanding these theories facilitates the managers to get a better insight into the human behavior. even though there is no universally acceptable motivation theory. he probably feels satisfied and will continue to work hard. This includes needs such as hunger and thirst. avoidance of pain and other primary motives which influence a person's behaviour at a very basic level. social scientists.• • Effectively motivated employees get more job satisfaction and possess high morale. a person . Thus. Secondary Motivation More known in psychology as "learned" motivation. He then chooses to pursue one or more of these options for instance. the satisfaction of one need or set of needs is likely to give rise to the identification of other needs. when an employee feels underpaid then what. behaviorists and psychologists. A number of theories have been developed. sex. Understanding human motivation is crucial for managing people.

you are "rewarded" by a desired end result. When you find that you have saved enough for that trip. and behaves in a way that brings them closer to that particular goal. For instance. Thus. . a student is motivated to get good grades (external motivation) or simply. The external motivation is the vacation. This kind of motivation generally falls into two basic types: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. which is also the reward for your act of saving for it. you resist the urge to make impulsive purchases and in general become more discriminating in how you spend your money. Thus. he desires to know more about a particular subject (intrinsic motivation). by engaging in a particular type of activity or behaving in a particular manner. Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation is likely to involve the concept of rewarded behavior. Hence. For the itself also correctly seen as a reward . but more internal and psychological. After a time you find that you have a steadily growing amount of savings which you set aside. the end goal is not a visible or external thing.consciously desires a particular goal or result. Internal Motivation On the other hand. What drives them to do something or to act in a particular way is the longing for something which they currently do not have or possess. The achievement of these goals . there are other less-visible types of motivation. To be more in general not visible to other persons. you utilize your savings for the intended purpose and go on vacation. for instance. you are motivated to save money for a vacation. Getting good grades is the reward visible to others. the fact that he has become an expert in a particular subject or lesson is also a psychological reward for his intrinsic desire to learn. It would be a mistake to say that such behaviour does not come without its own rewards.

starting from the bottom of the hierarchy. An individual is motivated first and foremost to satisfy physiological needs.NEED-BASED THEORIES TO MOTIVATION Need-based theories try to answer the question. he is motivated and . This theory.1 shows Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow suggested that the five levels of needs are arranged in accordance with their importance. The figure 9. "what factor(s) motivate people to choose certain behaviors?" Some of the widely known need-based theories are as follows: (a) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow Abraham proposed his theory in the 1940s. esteem and self-actualization needs. belongingness. When these needs are satisfied. security. popularly known as the Hierarchy of Needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs: physiological.

most physiological needs are satisfied by adequate wages and by the work environment itself. self-actualization needs . These needs involve realizing one's potential for continued: growth and individual development. social aspect of human life. At the top of the hierarchy are those needs. Security needs are satisfied for people in the work place by job continuity. Examples include the desire for adequate housing and clothing. Security or safety needs refer to the requirements for a secure physical and emotional environment.'moves up' the hierarchy to satisfy security needs. comfortable temperatures and ventilation. organizations can also help satisfy esteem needs by providing employees with challenging job assignments that can induce a sense of accomplishment. In organizational settings. This 'moving up process continues until the individual reaches the self-actualization level. The need for recognition and respect from others. Belonging or social needs are related to the. sex. Since these needs are highly individualized and personal. For most people these needs are satisfied by a combination of family and community relationships and friendships on the job. Organizations can help address esteem needs by providing a variety of external symbols of accomplishment such as job titles and spacious offices. At a more fundamental level. adequate lighting. the need to be free from worry about money and job security and the desire for safe working conditions. water and air. Esteem needs actually comprise of two different sets of needs: • • The need for a positive self-image and self-respect. a grievance resolving system and an adequate insurance and retirement benefit package. which provides employees with rest rooms. Managers can help ensure the 'satisfaction of these important needs by allowing social interaction and by making employees feel like part of a team or work group. which Maslow defines the self-actualization needs. They include the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by one's peers. Physiological needs represent the basic issues of survival such as food.

But research has revealed several shortcomings of the theory such as some research has found that five levels of needs are not always present and that the order of the levels is not always the same as assumed by Maslow.are perhaps the most difficult for managers to address. The letters E. Maslow's concept of the need hierarchy possesses a certain intuitive logic and has been accepted universally by managers. (b) ERG Theory of Motivation Clayton Alderfer has proposed an alternative hierarchy of needs . it is difficult for organizations to use the need hierarchy to enhance employee motivation. This process of contributing to actual organizational performance helps employees experience personal growth and development associated with self-actualizing. an organization can help his employee by creating a climate for fulfillment of self-actualization needs. Relatedness and Growth. However. For instance. The figure 9. R and G stand for Existence. an employee should try to meet these needs on his own end.called the ERG Theory of Motivation. Moreover. an organization can help in fulfillment of these needs by encouraging employee’s participation in decision-making process and by providing them with an opportunity to learn new things about their jobs and organization. Therefore.2 shows ERG theory: .

The existence needs in this theory refers to the physiological and security needs of Maslow. ERG theory suggests that more than one kind of need might motivate a person at the same time. • Secondly.2. Although ERG Theory assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy in somewhat the same fashion as suggested by Maslow. there are two important differences.ERG Theory the need hierarchy developed by Maslow into three 9. ERG theory has an element of frustrations-regression that is missing from Maslow's need hierarchy. Relatedness needs refers to belongingness and esteem needs. and an opportunity to learn new skills (growth) all at the same time. Growth needs refers to both self-esteem and selfactualization needs. it allows for the possibility that people can be motivated by a desire for money (existence). • Firstly. friendship (relatedness). Maslow maintained that one heed must be satisfied before an . For example.

individual can progress to needs at a higher level. for example. . For" example. Although the ERG theory includes this process. Most employees consider security of job. This is termed as ‘frustration-regression' process. The ERG theory emphasis on the following key points regarding needs: o Some needs may be more important than others. from security needs to belongingness. it also suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some higher level. Then he attempts to establish more friendship to satisfy relatedness needs. Employees must be coerced. • • • • Employees dislike work. a worker previously motivated by money (existence needs) is awarded a pay rise to satisfy this needs. I Theory of X Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of X" regarding their employees. regress to a lower level and will begin to pursue low level needs again. the individual will become frustrated. Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction. 'X' AND ‘Y' THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing viewpoints of managers 'about their employees. most important of all other factors in the job and have very little ambition. controlled or threatened to do the work. o People may change their behavior after any particular set of needs has been satisfied. If for some reason an employee finds that it is impossible to become better friends with others in the work place. he may eventually become frustrated and regress to being motivated to earn even more money. one is negative called "Theory of X" and another is positive called "Theory of Y". This is termed as satisfaction—progression process.

relies heavily on self-control -and self-direction. While applying this theory. . while theory 'Y'. it is difficult for the management to shift to theory ' Y'. Employees accept and seek responsibilities. on the other hand. the use of authority. This motivational theory places emphasis on satisfaction of employees. However.Theory of Y Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of Y" regarding their employees. establish 'norms of production. Employees exercise self-direction and self-control. that are sometimes very vigorously enforced. Organization should keep in mind that once theory 'X' is employed for organizational working. Theory 'Y’. Employees are self-directed and self-controlled and committed to the organizational objectives. Innovative spirit is not confined to managers alone. have rigid rules and regulations. Applicability of Theories 'X' and 'Y' Theory 'X' in its applicability. some employees also possess it. 'Participation' and 'Management by Objectives' are quite consistent with theory ' Y'. places exclusive reliance upon external control of human behavior. with systematic. design equipment to control worker's pace of work. instead of theory ‘X'. secures the commitment of employees to organizational objectives. The concepts of 'Job' Enlargement'. McGregor supports the applicability of motivational theory 'Y'. • • • • Employees love work as play or rest. Theory 'X' points to the traditional approach of management. as an instrument of command and control is minimal. all of a sudden. Some examples of such organizations are organizations that break down jobs into specialized elements. this theory of behavior is related to organizations that lay hard and rigid standards of work-behavior. Literally.

judicious and slow steps. . shifting in the practical applicability of theory 'X' to theory ' Y' usually can be achieved.