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World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (4): 555-561, 2011 ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2011

The Relationship Between Gender and Emotional Intelligence
Fataneh Naghavi, Marof Redzuan Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia Serdang 43400, Malaysia
Abstract: The article reviews empirical studies which emphasized on the relation between gender and emotional intelligence. Emotional quotient (EQ) is a set of abilities such as conception, emotion appraisal and expression, emotion management and regulation and emotion utilization of emotion. As emotional intelligence is acquisitive and of social origin, parents and children thus expose their emotions in an expressive way to one another, either consciously or unconsciously in their interactions. It seems that further to individual differences of boy and girl, the expectations of society and people around, especially parents, are different in terms of children’s sexuality. Culturally, girls are mostly expected to be more expressive of feelings, whereas abstaining from feelings expression in boys is strengthened as a manly model. The research showed that emotional intelligence is meaningful associated with gender differences. The article is divided into several sections. The review is started with the definition of emotional intelligence and this is followed by a review on the emotional intelligence, as well as the effects and interaction of gender differences. Then, an overview of the paper is included a demonstration of the influence of gender differences on emotional intelligence is also given. Finally, as conclusion it is important to realize that girls are higher than boys in emotional intelligence, but high emotional intelligence in boys is a better predictor for achievement. Key words: Emotional intelligence INTRODACTION Recognition and emotion have always been focused on in philosophy and later in psychological research. One century before the Christ, Pablilius stated: “rule over your feelings and do not let your feelings rule over you”. For a very long period of time, emotions were regarded as non-logical modes which were imperfect and confused. Some research even indicates that emotion release is not valuable without recognition processing. Similarly, mental ruminating as to negative emotions causes depression to increase. However, is uncontrolled emotion release and rumination the only ways of using emotions [1]. Today, absolute recognition focus in man’s psychological studies has been replaced by emotion and recognition influence and role in his/her psychical health and development [1]. Emotional Recognizing emotions and feelings is a basis and radical for emotional intelligence [5]. intelligence is conceptualized to incorporate recognition and emotion or intellectual emotion. Although psychological systems have negatively Looked into emotions, the attention given to emotions and feelings can be regarded. Emotional quotient Gender Early adolescence

The core and basis of psychology and one can therefore look for mental disturbances roots in emotional perturbations like fear, anxiety, depression and alexithymia [2]. Freud [3] used free association and dream interpretation in his treatments and helped patients restate their thoughts and desires by providing an ambience free of the judgment and appraisal of wisdom. This insight towards behavior is not only intellectual, but also a correcting emotional experience. This new experience is both the change center and the main factor of psychotherapy. The aim of psychoanalysis is emotional reconciliation and insight creation; insight is a method to acquire emotional reconciliation. In the course of psychoanalysis, primary emphasis is on the clarification of emotions and feelings. Similarly, Parker [4] also emphasizes consciousness in psychoanalysis. Gestalt-therapy techniques are defined by two behavioral axes, namely “rules” and “designs.” In particular, rules are effective instruments to integrate the thought and feeling of references, while designs are activities carried out by references to recognize different poles of their personality and dealing with facts [5].

Corresponding Author: Ma’rof Redzuan, Department of Social and Development Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdand Selangor, Malaysia.

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On the other hand. Emotions are functional and social and emotional experiences inside us to others through creating distinctive facial and body states [15]. In general. their gender and number. a clear and comprehensive recognition of this structure is therefore achieved when the family’s role in development and its relation with emotional intelligence is specified. abstract and mechanicalobjective aspects of intelligence. raising and training generations. but also the factor that he called as ‘social intelligence’. express their emotions more often [12] and experience their emotions more intensely [13. it is the stimuli. the internal procedures of the people are not entirely internal. The family has the highest effect on the individuals and it can mould their behaviors at any moment. Years before that. 20]. children’s situation in a family (e. much attention has been paid on the concept of social intelligence. such abilities are distinct from the classic. The family can form abnormal behaviors. as well as regulate and utilize emotions in problem solving [17]. although small on average. The history of research on intelligence has made it clear that the reason for people’s success in their personal and occupational life is not merely EQ. J. Since then. girls use more emotion regulation strategies [10. consultation and psychoanalysis is the development of patients’ emotional intelligence.. A lot of studies have been carried out to separate educationalscientific intelligence from social intelligence. family is a consequent or reflection of the whole society and its significant roles are obviously to transfer values and cultural and credence heritage by word-of-mouth. Sci. or the opposite side’s emotions. the treatment by parents to their children and how they react to their interests and activities. WHAT IS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE? Emotion is resulted from interaction between physiological stimulation and appraisal of situation identification. 14]. For years. In the same vein. 2011 Among the pioneers of family treatment. while maintaining kinship relations. Nonetheless. she also persuaded family members to describe their feelings and notice both facial and nonverbal states of one another [6]. relation with their age group or other relatives) and cultural and economic factors influence the formation of their personality [9]. According to Ford . as a concept different from personality and emotional quotient (EQ). the principal question has been that whether an empirically unique and solid limit for social intelligence can be specified and whether it is only a function of a more general abstract intelligence. behave in the same way?. appraise and express emotions of one’s own and others’ access and generate feelings when they facilitate thinking. At the same time. Considering the orientation of the recent studies in the identification and role of emotional intelligence. Researchers studying behavioral sciences call a suitable environment an orchard and an unsuitable environment. Virginia Stair was one who had placed the highest emphasis on feelings in the family. as well as creating emotional and psychic balance among the members [7]. Considering the above information. it cannot be claimed as healthy. they are rather influenced by external factors which mutually affect each other. 15 (4): 555-561.g. as well as kids’ treatment to one another. personality and development of his different talents is important. A behavior which is created in relation to other family members is not limited to a normal agreeable behavior. emotion and 556 information exchange among them. supplying basic human needs. it seems that one of the aims of psychology. In addition. man’s conception and management abilities are intellectual abilities and secondly. birth order. Mayer and Salovey [16] indicate that emotional intelligence is the ability to percept precisely. Throndike’s definition of social intelligence was a behavioral and cognitive ability and it implied that firstly. 11]. she paid attention on the family’s daily work and emotional experiences.World Appl. have been reported. The role of a family’s’ performance in shaping an individual’s behaviors. In the other hand. gender differences in emotion regulation. Throndike [18] presented a model of intelligence which included not only the factors of traditional intelligence. Do children whose parents provide suitable environments for them have higher emotional intelligence? Do children whose parents show their emotions to each other and to their kids improperly not understand each other. When there is physiological stimulation. He defined it as the ability to understand and management of wise action and behaviour in human relations. Unless a society contains sound families. Compared to boys. a cemetery of talents. too [8]. This paper is a literature review of several past research conducted on the role of family functioning in emotional intelligence. but only a little progress has been made [19. conditions and signs surrounding the individual that specify which emotional state he/she will experience. emotional protection to one another and the relationships of the family members’ with outsiders may also influence the children’s emotional intelligence.

(3) emotion utilization [32]. A recently developed orientation has shifted its focus from emotional intelligence concept as a property or trait [30. is a strong basis to study individual differences. whereas other definitions consider it a multi-dimensional structure. distinguish between them and use such information to direct one’s thinking and practice [21].e. Considering the evolutional aspects of emotional intelligence. the ability to identify and understand one’s and others’ emotions based on situational and expressional cues. Both the cognitive and emotional aspects of intelligence are incorporated in Gardner’s theory. apply and manage emotions in oneself and others. emotional meanings of which are in accordance with culture). Considering the developmental aspects of emotional intelligence. GENDER AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE A 20-year research on interactions between emotion and cognition has created a basis for the recent works on emotional intelligence.World Appl. Emotional intelligence is a form of social intelligence [21] and a suitable predictor of general functioning and particular areas such as occupational performance [26. 35]. analyses tended to use other conceptualization and non-intellectual factors measurement methods. emotional intelligence.e. i. it measures abilities related to emotion [29. Some of them take control of their own and others’ emotions more skillfully due to big differences in individual abilities and their social world. as well as concealing one’s negative emotions to avoid harming others’ personal feelings [32]. According to this orientation. J. For about forty years. appraisal and expression of emotion. appraisal and emotion expression. the ability to plan flexibly and use emotions in problem-solving [21]. which incorporating the cognitive aspects of intelligence. The concept of emotional intelligence. 27]. 33] to conceptualization of capabilities in emotional intelligence [34. these are (1) comprehension. also. 15 (4): 555-561. one is personal intelligence that is divided into intrapersonal intelligence – knowledge of one’s internal feelings and events and interpersonal intelligence . In other words. 1942). (c) emotion utilization. This concept originated form Waksler’s general nonintellective factors thought (1940. Leeper [23] applied this concept and assumed that emotional thoughts were a part of logical intelligence and played a role in logical and general intelligence. . 21].the ability to specify others’ reactions. emotional intelligence is one’s ability to comprehend. first. three mental abilities of adolescents are significant. defining social intelligence is difficult a different task and different researchers have presented different definitions. On the other hand. has the scientific features of a rational intelligence [28] as elaborated: Conceptual criterion: emotional intelligence reflects mental functioning. (i. or self-respect only. needs. comprehend. 31]. Later. Sci. understand. which was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer [21]. 557 Developmental criterion: emotional intelligence develops along with age and experience from childhood to adulthood [30. Correlation criterion: emotional intelligence includes a set of abilities which are dependant and related to other mental skills. some children lack adequate skills to interpret emotions for achievement in the social world [36]. three features of mental capabilities in adolescents take special importance. Another option was the concept of emotional intelligence which was introduced by Mayer and Salovey [21] and later developed by Goleman [22].. (b) emotions regulation and management and one’s ability to compatibly dealing with opposite or negative emotions using self-regulation methods that improve the extent or duration of such emotions. including one’s ability to manage his/her and others’ feelings and emotions. described by other kinds of proved intelligence [29. not the salient methods of behaving or sagacity-free skills. namely (a) conception. understand and regulate emotions by exchanging their emotions with parents and coevals. 21]. 2011 and Tisak [20] most of such studies were not successful due to two reasons. Children learn to express. This theory includes seven independent kinds of intelligence. nothing else was done regarding emotional intelligence until Gardner [24] introduced his Multiple Intelligence theory. the ability to create joyful conditions for others. Moreover. particularly on how reasoning is done by feelings and about feelings. Considering such problems in relation to the concept of social intelligence. express. emotions and purposes [25]. The second problem lies in the method to be used to measure social intelligence so that it is justifiable from psychometric point of view. (2) emotion regulation and management.

Contrary to what was expected. Meanwhile. parental sub-system relationship with them should change from parents-child to parents-young adult mode [37]. 15 (4): 555-561. management) and females got higher scores of emotion conception and aberration than males. This feeling is created by participating in different sub-sets (systems) of the family and connecting to the outside world. in his/her behavior proportional to the situations and time. rejecting attachment had a positive relation with the ability of emotion conception. If the family fulfils its roles and tasks correctly and enjoys required efficiency. Children’s externalization with the family is the source that creates belongingness. feelings and emotions conduct individuals in the course of life. Therefore. J. more recent findings indicate that appropriate emotional raise of children is an important factor which affects their future achievements in different fields [27]. fear. Compared to sons. life satisfaction. Emotional intelligence enables an individual to correctly exhibit suitable amount of different emotions such as rage. it is also associated with successful marriage. so the adolescent’s attention and tendency to things outside of home and conflicts between them and their parents in this period provide the ground for the influences inflicted by social damages. stringent discipline. it enables them to know about others’ emotions and react accordingly [27. An important task during growth for children and adolescents is therefore to learn expression or instrument. everyone has the feeling of being distinct from others. parents give more information about feelings to their daughters. happiness. Thus. recognize and comprehend emotional states accurately. This is particularly because they benefit from emotional knowledge as a guide in the social world [36]. etc. the feeling of ‘belongingness’ and the feeling of ‘distinction’ or to be separated. more recent findings indicate that appropriate emotional raise of children is an important factor which affects their future achievements in different fields [27]. 34]. On the contrary. about emotions (except for anger). Adolescents’ relations with their parents become deranged and they should take some distance from sisters and brothers sub-system and find responsibilities and independence proportional to their age. Salovey. Elder participants got higher score of the emotional intelligence fork (facilitation. the results of emotional intelligence abilities between different sexual and age groups showed a meaningful difference. Meanwhile. or sincerity have deep and continuous consequences in their emotional life and provide the ground for their achievement or failure in different fields of life. in their study titled “Sexuality and emotion”. moreover. emotional intelligence is a protecting factor against social damages and based on relevant research.. it enables them to know about others’ emotions and react accordingly [27. In adolescence period. conception. The findings indicated that secure attachment had correlation with all subscales (except for emotion conception) and the overall score of emotional intelligence. etc. 21]. that boys and girls learn different lessons in controlling their emotions. Numerous studies have shown that parents’ interaction with their children. in his/her behavior proportional to the situations and time. culture and properties. Boys. unanimity. understand. nobody may be defined separately from their family which is the constituting factor of their personality. Caruso’s Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2) and filled out the relations questionnaire. rather than sons. Since girls get mastery over language faster than boys this causes them to be more experienced in precisely expressing their feelings and more skillful in using words to name emotional reactions and replace words for physical reactions than boys.World Appl. As indicated by Minuchin [37]. the basis of human’s identity comprises two foundations. 2011 In all cultures. love. . Also. Brudy and Hall [39] say. Emotional intelligence enables an individual to correctly exhibit suitable amount of different emotions such as rage. fear. Everybody is a part of a family and carries his/her name. Adolescence is a sensitive period of one’s life when he/she begins investigating their surroundings and seeks to establish relationship with. emotional intelligence can help adolescents to identify 558 emotions and shocks so that they can correctly appraise. express and use emotions in their thinking and practice. it can protect its members against external damages. are probably unaware of their and others’ emotional states to a large extent [36]. Sci. Meanwhile. as well as job and academic achievements [27. family is the center of the formation of individual’s identity. Therefore. The statistical universe included 239 mature people between 19 to 66 years old who completed Mayer. 34]. Moreover. happiness. love. carelessness. for whom emotions expression has not been emphasized. Parents mostly talk to their daughters. Kafetsios [5] studied hypotheses about the relation between attachment orientation and emotional intelligence in a research titled “Attachment and emotional intelligence power during lifetime”.

Siaruchi and his colleagues [23] selected 73 boys and 58 girls of 13 to 15 age group to whom Schuttle’s Emotional Intelligence Scale was given and they reported proper validity results. Mayer.World Appl. birth order. revengeful gossiping and indirect avenging [37]. emotion regulation and emotion utilization at P<0. the expectations of society and people around. Also. Criterion admissibility and emotional intelligence increase and segregation scale were assessed in this study. the five-factor personality scale and Life Space scales which assess self-care behavior. whereas abstaining from feelings expression in boys is strengthened as a manly model. cognition and conception and emotion management factor. Research orientation has mostly been done toward clarifying and expanding the concept of emotional intelligence. The girls were meaningfully higher than the boys in overall emotional intelligence. With an average deviation of 0. Bracket. Culturally. Thus. It is understood from the previous studies that emotional intelligence is associated with factors such as life satisfaction. the difference was not meaningful.5. 2011 Karniz and Karniz [37] said that in the age of 10 the percentage of girls who show open aggression.05 level.. overall intelligence. educational activities. the girls had higher scores than the boys in overall emotional intelligence (P<0. In this specimen. Warner [21] studied emotional intelligence and its relation with daily behaviors. Although Goleman (1995) considered males and females to have their own personal profiles of strengths and weaknesses for emotional intelligence capacities. CONCLUSION Based on the literature review. studies conducted by Mayer. But in the age of 13 there is a meaningful difference between the two sexes. In a study by Mayer and his colleagues [28] determination of psychic-kinetic features of emotional intelligence structure have been focused. emotion appraisal and expression and emotion utilization.05) and emotion appraisal (P<0. it could perhaps be an indication that more research into EI and reaction time within gender to be carried out to further this discovery. Men’s lower score of emotional intelligence (principally). 330 students were selected for the emotional intelligence ability test. deviated behavior and weakness in relation with friends. According to these studies further to individual differences of boy and girl. but emotional intelligence is a more distinguished predictor in men’s life. 15 (4): 555-561. spare time and interpersonal communications on an arrayed basis. but no such relation was found for females. gender and family size. Previous studies have also shown that girls are higher than boys in their emotional intelligence. Factor analysis and factors internal correlation methods were used together to assess the admissibility of the scale structure. that this scale 559 has high structure validity and admissibility in adolescents’ society. emotion understanding skill. it can therefore be concluded that emotional intelligence has been put forward for about two decades and many related studies have been carried out to study it. The results of factor analysis by using main constituents analyzing method suggested three factors: emotion regulation. it is more widely believed that women have higher EI than men but. girls get more skill in artistic aggressive techniques such as collective banning. but with regard to emotion regulation and utilization factors. optimism. girls are mostly expected to be more expressive of feelings. when they are angry is almost equal. . adaptability. females had better performance than males [18]. The findings showed that females got meaningfully higher scores than males in emotional intelligence. Caruso and Salovey in 1999 and Mayer and Geher in 1996 indicate that women score higher on measures of emotional intelligence than men. personality and emotional disorders like alexithymia. especially parents. Gender differences in EI can be glimpsed from infancy due to the differential teaching given to boys and girls. Khosrow Javid [11] reported. are different in terms of children’s sexuality. Compared with boys. emotional intelligence had overlapping with self-respect and hidden anxiety. Their specimens were 503 people mostly young females. in a research to study the validity and admissibility of Schuttle’s Emotional Intelligence Scale structure in adolescents. like boys. From what has been mentioned above we can conclude the following.001). Their factor analysis of MEIS indicated overall emotional intelligence and conception factors. Sci. In this study. emotional intelligence had a meaningful relation with male students’ inadaptable and negative behaviours. J. but high emotional intelligence in boys is a better predictor for achievement. although these findings seem to contradict this. depression and anxiety. inability to understand emotions and using them to facilitate thinking are associated with negative consequences such as taking alcoholic and illegal drugs.

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