You are on page 1of 41

ASSESSING ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA

ASSESSMENT TRIP REPORT

SPRING, 2004

PREPARED BY:

ENGINEERS WITHOUT BORDERS-USA
P.O. BOX 270570
LOUISVILLE, COLORADO 80027-5009

PROFESSOR PETER BOSSCHER – EWB-UW
PROFESSOR BERNARD AMADEI – EWB-CU

ARTHUR MILLER – EWB PROFESSIONAL, JR ENGINEERING, DENVER
FRANCES FEENEY – REGISTERED NURSE, DENVER
MAGGIE MONTGOMERY – EWB PROFESSIONAL, SAN FRANCISCO

ELLIOT GOLDMAN – EWB-CU
KEIR HART – EWB-CU
ANDREA KHOSROPOUR – EWB-UW
LAURA RICHARDS – EWB-CU
EVAN THOMAS – EWB-CU

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 1-
TABLE OF CONTENTS:

0.0 COVER

1.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Contacts
1.3 Assessment Budget / Funding
1.4 Engineering Components Considered

2.0 COMMUNITY OVERVIEW
2.1 History
2.2 Local Leaders
2.3 Geographical / Environmental Description / Maps
2.4 Community Needs

3.0 HEALTH METRICS

4.0 WATER SYSTEM
4.1 Overview
4.2 System Assessment
4.2.1 Infrastructure / Schematics
4.2.2 Geography / Maps
4.2.3 Quantity
4.2.4 Quality
4.2.5 Project Phasing

5.0 IMPLEMENTATION SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Source water dams / collection / boxes / improved piping
5.1.1 Component Description
5.1.2 Materials and Logistics
5.1.3 Materials Cost
5.1.4 Plan for Village Participation and Sustainability
5.1.5 Operation and Maintenance Procedures (O&M)

5.2 Taps / Faucets / Toilets maintenance
5.2.1 Component Description
5.2.2 Materials and Logistics
5.2.3 Estimated Budget
5.2.4 Plan for Village Participation and Sustainability

5.3 Future improvements

5.4 Potters for Peace

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 2-
6.0 OTHER IDENTIFIED PROJECTS
6.1 Rain water catchments
6.2 Lighting
6.3 Drip Irrigation
6.4 Digital Divide
6.5 Vocational School
6.6 Orphan Assistance
6.7 AIDS Testing

7.0 PARTNERS
7.1 Rotary International / Kigali / Denver
7.2 Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST)
7.3 Community and Government Leaders
7.4 Gates Foundation
7.5 USAID

8.0 APPENDICES
8.1 Possible Additional Water Source Rough Location
8.2 Materials Costs
8.3 Contacts

9.0 REFERENCES

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 3-
1.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
1.1 Background

The community of Muramba lies near the border of the Congo in the Rwandan province
of Gisenyi. The area of this province referred to as “Muramba” is in fact not a specific
town or village. It is instead a geographical area defined by the influence of the Muramba
Deanery, through four parish churches. EWB-USA focused its efforts on the Muramba
Parish, the seat of the Deanery, and the people who live near this Parish, which straddles
several villages and counties.

Almost eighty years ago Catholic missionaries developed the Parish, and installed a water
system that has since been expanded to serve other buildings in the area. All told, the
existing water system serves the Muramba Parish, a semi-private Catholic school the
Muramba College, the attached Convent, the Goretti School, Primary School B, and the
Muramba Vocational School. Additionally, there are several public taps available for
villagers to use. It is estimated that 1,500 people use this system everyday for their water
needs, at a minimum of 25 liters per person per day. All of these facilities line one
mountain ridge at approximately 6000 feet. The existing water system is a spider web of
pipes and tanks that converge to two interconnected source pipes that lead down into a
western valley at a base of 5750 feet, and then climb up the opposing mountain side to
the water sources at 7000 feet. The entire system is gravity-fed, and the source areas all
appear to be surface water, running through the mountains into gullies. The water is
collected in five different areas by small 1.25 inch PVC pipes resting in small streams.

EWB-USA sent a team of three engineers, four students and one nurse to Muramba in
March, 2004 to assess engineering solutions for this community.

1.2 Contacts

Contacts were made with the community by Denver Nurse Frances Feeney. In Rwanda,
additional relationships were established with local and national leaders. Contact
information Appendix 8.3.

1.3 Assessment Budget / Funding

The assessment trip was paid for through grants from the University of Colorado at
Boulder Outreach Committee, EWB-USA, and private donations totaling approximately
$13,000. These funds supported travel and equipment for most of the team.

1.4 Engineering Components Considered

The EWB-USA assessment team considered primarily the existing water system, and also
looked at expanding the system. Additionally, Drip Irrigation systems and Solar LED
Lighting systems were installed.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 4-
2.0 COMMUNITY OVERVIEW
2.1 History

In 1994, genocide overwhelmed the people of Rwanda. In 1997, the defeated Interhamwe
made incursions from the Congo into Rwanda, partially through the area known as
Muramba. Government forces attempted to contain these incursions, and as a result 1997
is referred to by the people of Muramba as “The Time of the Running”, where the people
were forced to run between two warring groups.

As a result of these times in Muramba, the water system serving the Muramba Parish and
associated buildings was both intentionally damaged by the warring forces and looters,
and unintentionally through neglect as the buildings were abandoned. Now, the
community leaders EWB-USA worked with in Muramba were often at a loss to explain
maintenance concerns and the system history, since many of them simply came into the
community after the war. Likewise, almost all documents that would have explained
when the system was installed, improved and maintained were destroyed.

The community leaders associated with the Muramba Parish as well as the villagers
leaders living near the water system are working everyday towards improving the quality
of life for all of their neighbors.

President Paul Kagame, when he met with the EWB-USA team privately for an hour in
his office, offered his full support for EWB efforts in Muramba. He said, “I wish to thank
you for finding the time to come to our country, and your interest to help our country in
Muramba. As you have found out, we are not short of things to do. Everything here is
about engineering—how to engineer reconstruction. We are always happy when people
find time to come and help with things affecting peoples’ daily lives. … We have been
trying to find ways to help when you are around. The road is one way, and I’m sure we
can do something about it. … We are in full recognition that what you are going to do is
going to be very helpful. We will be talking to people about Engineers Without Borders,
and we will ask other to help.”

Similarly, the Muramba community leaders have continually offered their full support
and assistance as we undertake these ongoing projects together. In a broad and open
meeting between religious and village leaders and EWB-USA, the EWB team presented a
package of hybrid seeds for planting. The community leaders embraced the token, and
said that likewise EWB-USA can provide the seeds for development, but it is up to the
community to lay the ground, nurture the growth, and ensure the prosperity of the
projects.

2.2 Local Leaders

Father Bosco
Associated with the Catholic Church, Father Bosco housed the five men in the parish
complex. He is the most visible, English-speaking figure of the Muramba Parish.
Moving from Uganda has allowed Father Bosco to remain separate, while still

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 5-
maintaining his ability to interact and serve the local community. The local community
respects him greatly and recognizes him and Sister Donata as figureheads for the
Muramba Parish area. He has contacts throughout the region, including the Goretti
School, the Muramba College and School, and has founded a nearby vocational school.
Confined to occasional e-mails and a cellular phone with limited reception, he lacks a
dependable means of communication with EWB-USA, the University of Colorado, and
the University of Wisconsin. Father Bosco is an unparalleled asset to the EWB Muramba
Project and is willing to assist us in any way possible. He is a warm, caring person with
a broad understanding of the local people and terrain.

Sister Donata
Also associated with the Catholic Church, Sister Donata housed the four women in the
convent. She is head of Muramba College and one of the most prominent, English-
speaking figures of the Muramba area. In addition, Sister Donata has access to existing
records of the Muramba Water System. She is both a religious and educational leader of
the surrounding community who provided unimaginable information. She is a kind,
humble person with knowledge of the local area. She also has internet access.

Village Leaders
These people are responsible for the villages surrounding Muramba Parish. They provide
the foundation for the work force in Muramba. Without the support of the local leaders,
it will be quite difficult to accomplish EWB’s goals. These local leaders will be able to
incorporate and motivate the people of Muramba to aid in the construction and
maintenance of the entire system. EWB has been assured that the local community fully
supports the Muramba, Rwanda Project.

Kabande Innocent
The local technician for Muramba Parish, he has extensive knowledge of the Parish water
system.

Pastor Dusabe Prote
He serves as the primary religious leader for the Muramba area. He is an amiable and
friendly individual who is somewhat hesitant to use English, though he understands it
completely.

Mayor Evariste
In charge of the Muramba region, Mayor Evariste has offered his help when and where it
is needed. Currently, he and the Minister of Infrastructure are working to improve the
road leading to Muramba.

2.3 Geographical / Environmental Description / Maps

Rwanda is located in Eastern Africa and bordered on the west by the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, on the north by Uganda, on the east by Tanzania, and on the
south by Burundi. The overall size is approximately 26,000 square kilometers, roughly

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 6-
the size of Maryland. Muramba is located in the Gisenyi Province situated north west of
Kigali, Rwanda’s capital.

There are two rainy seasons, with the first between late February and April, and the
second lasting from November to early January. Snow can occur in the higher regions,
but rarely accumulates. There are mostly grassy uplands and hills. Muramba fits the
description of a “Land of a thousand hills.” More accurately, these hills are mountains,
some with elevations over 7,000 feet. Light terracing and gardens cover the landscape.

The figure below roughly depicts the area of Muramba that the EWB-USA team is
currently focused on.

Figure 1: Muramba Community Map

2.4 Community Needs

The water system was identified to EWB-USA as having critical quantity issues. During
the dry seasons in Rwanda, 150 kilometers south of the equator, there is simply not
enough water for everyone to live comfortably.

During the assessment, several reasons for these quantity problems were identified. These
were primarily the lack of adequate source collection and maintenance at the taps where
dozens of leaky joints were found.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 7-
The second most critical aspect to the water system was identified as quality. Those
community members with the resources to do so boil their water for drinking and cooking
purposes, but the vast majority of the people that use this water system make no effort to
sanitize the water. As a result, many people are sick, a critical health problem.

The EWB-USA team tested several taps, as well as each of the sources. In every sample,
the results showed excessive amounts of E.Coli as well as Coliform. The reason for this
contamination is obvious—the sources are all surface water, running through homes and
animal grazing areas.

A concern raised by the EWB-USA team in-country was that the water system being
looked at serves a church community on one mountain ridge. However, the water is being
taken from an opposing mountainside where there are villagers not necessarily associated
with the church community. EWB-USA will be working through their area, however any
fixes to the water system will not directly benefit these people, who will continue to drink
the same dirty water.

A possible solution was embraced by the EWB-USA team as well as the community
leaders whereby the Vocational School students will learn how to manufacture Potters for
Peace pots that can sanitize water, and distribute these to villagers near the water sources.
This way, everyone in the geographical area that EWB-USA will be working through will
eventually receive access to clean water.

Other community identified needs include adequate lighting for homes and community
buildings including schools. Education in agriculture, sanitation, and vocational skills is
also hoped to aid the development of the community. Other broad needs were expressed,
such as assistance in closing the digital divide between Muramba and the rest of the
world. As EWB-USA has acknowledged, bringing light and computers goes hand-in-
hand with clean water, if true development will take place.

3.0 HEALTH METRICS

A health metrics assessment was conducted by Denver Nurse Frances Feeney, as
prescribed by the EWB-USA Technical Advisory Committee. Report available on EWB-
USA Muramba, Rwanda website.

4.0 WATER SYSTEM
4.1 Overview

The current system is gravity-fed and initially installed approximately 75 years ago.
Upgrades have helped to maintain a working system, but improvements in both quantity
and quality are required. There were six areas examined in assessing the water system:
source identification, distribution system identification, storage capacity, water quality
testing, water pressure testing, and flow testing.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 8-
Source identification consisted of identifying is the source was groundwater or surface
water, if there were any wells, pumps, or filters in use, and who maintains the system.

Distribution System Identification focused on the overall layout of the system, including
elevation and proximity with respect to surrounding homes and farms. The overall
condition of the piping, sources, and outlets were noted, as well as the material they were
constructed out of. Other problems associated with corrosion and maintenance were
examined. Additionally, demand throughout the year was considered along with storage
capacity.

Storage capacity is essential for any water system with seasonal fluctuations. Prior
information relayed in the Project Proposal indicated a lack of safe drinking water
especially during the dry season. One possibility for averting this dilemma would be to
increase storage of potable water. Roof areas (catchments) and tank capacity were
measured.

Water Quality Testing gathered samples from around the community to check for a
variety of contaminants, including bacteria presence, Coliform, E. Coli, pH, alkalinity,
nitrate, and nitrite.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 9-
4.2 System Assessment
4.2.1 Infrastructure / Schematics

The schematic below depicts the existing water system. Numbered boxes
indicated GPS data points.

Hill Source

Near Valley Source Nearby Surface (29) Mountain Source

(26) Collection Tank (28) Collection Tank

(10) Parish Bleed (9) College Bleed

(3) Cross Valve
(4) Water Tower

(4) Goretti Resevoir
(5) College Resevoir
(2) Muramba
Parish (12) Valve

(7) Goretti School (6) Primary Muramba
School B College
Vocational
Clinic School

Figure 2: Pipeline Schematic

4.2.2 Geography / Maps

The GPS data and rough map below shows the waypoints gathered by the EWB-
USA team during the assessment of the water system.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 10 -
Table 1: GPS Data
PT Name GPS Alt
2 Parish S1 45.947 E29 37.101 6255 ft
4 Water Tower / Goretti Res S1 46.013 E20 37.024 6252 ft
5 Muramba College Res S1 45.810 E29 37.052 6271 ft
6 Primary School B S1 45.849 E29 36.863 6215 ft
7 Goretti School S1 45.935 E29 36.800 6252 ft

3 Cross Valve S1 45.889 E29 36.888 6128 ft
9 College Bleed S1 45.890 E29 36.885 6136 ft
10 Parish Bleed S1 45.914 E29 36.826 6163 ft
12 Parish Valve to Goretti S1 45.959 E29 36.771 6165 ft
13 Kickblock S1 45.953 E29 36.747 6149 ft
14 Exposed Piping S1 45.941 E29 36.718 6089 ft
17 Pipe Material Change S1 45.944 E29 36.671 5983 ft
18 Valley River Crossing S1 45.926 E29 36.567 5762 ft
22 Landslide Area S1 45.909 E29 36.234 6216 ft
23 Small Bridge S1 45.877 E29 35.962 6296 ft
26 COLLECTION POINTS S1 45.866 E29 35.759 6460 ft
27 Gully, Possible Source S1 45.794 E29 35.717 6581 ft
28 College Collection Tank S1 45.802 E29 35.646 6701 ft
29 Main College Source S1 45.804 E29 35.608 6743 ft
31 Main Parish Source S1 45.828 E29 35.772 6550 ft
39 Caves Sources S1 45.690 E29 35.499 7153 ft
40 Possible Spring S1 45.660 E29 35.539 7181 ft
41 Source Water S1 45.761 E29 35.530 6933 ft
42 Source Water S1 45.797 E29 35.562 6859 ft
43 Collection Tank S1 45.794 E29 35.560 6851 ft
44 Unused Source S1 45.796 E29 35.620 6761 ft
45 Unused Source S1 46.103 E29 36.685 6038 ft

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 11 -
4.3.3 Quantity

The P3 Collector has three collection pipes from three surface water sources.

Table 2: P3 Parish Line Source Flow Rates
Source: Average Flow (L/min) Average Flow (gal/min)
1 1.1 0.29
2 10.13 2.69
3 6.4 1.70
Total: 17.63 4.68 = 6,745 gal/day

The CM4 Collector has one source entering that comes from three sources further
up. An additional source is several hundred feet away, and is not currently being
tapped.

Table 2: CM4 College Line Source Flow Rates
Source: Average Flow
4 2.4 gal/min = 3,456 gal/day
Potential 2.75 gal/min= 3,957 gal/day

Potential Total: 10,201 gal/day

If we use 10 gal/person day at the day tested the system will serve 1,020 people.
So the system at this time not considering the dry season is providing an
inadequate supply of water.

Additional water sources:
A waterfall located 2.84 miles from the Muramba Parish could supply an
additional 1 l/s and the locals say the water is continuous throughout the dry
season. This would supply an additional 15.85 gal/min or 22,824 gal/day. If we
add in the additional source at CM4 Collector 3,957 gal/day we can add an
additional 26,781 gal/day of supply. At 10 gal/person day this would allow an
additional 2,678 persons to be served. This would greatly increase the number of
people being served but would still be drastically short from the 12,000 persons
living in the area.

Appendix 8.1 depicts roughly the location of this second source.

4.2.4 Quality

Many of the microorganisms that cause serious disease, such as typhoid fever,
cholera, and dysentery, can be traced directly to polluted water. These disease-
producing organisms, or pathogens, are discharged along with fecal wastes and
are difficult to detect in water supplies. People may contact these pathogens in
swimming pools, on bathing beaches, in rivers and streams, and from drinking
contaminated water.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 12 -
Testing for bacterial pathogens in water is impractical for a number of reasons,
such as lengthy and involved test procedures. Most microbiological testing of
water measures indicator organisms, not pathogens. Indicator organisms are
bacteria that may not be pathogenic but usually are present when pathogens are
present, and are more resistant to environmental stresses than pathogens. No
organism or group of organisms satisfies all of the criteria for an indicator;
however, coliforms satisfy most of the requirements.

Total coliform tests are used for potable water supplies. Fecal coliform tests
usually are performed on untreated non-potable water, wastewater, bathing water,
and swimming water.

For simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli), a type
of fecal coliform, IDEXX offers Colilert. When total coliforms metabolize
Colilert’s nutrient-indicator, ONPG, the sample turns yellow. When E. coli
metabolize Colilert’s nutrient-indicator, MUG, the sample fluoresces. Colilert
can simultaneously detect these bacteria at 1 cfu/100 ml within 24 hours even
with as many as 2 million heterotrophic bacteria per 100 ml present.

The Presence/Absence (P/A) method was used and is a qualitative test that
indicates only the presence or absence of organisms, not the number of organisms.
The P/A method is fast and suited to spot-checking applications. Only a minimal
amount of analytical experience is required to perform the test. Simply combine
sample with medium, incubate for 24 hours, and check for a reaction indicating
the presence of either total coliforms (yellow color) or E. coli (fluorescence).

The World Health Organization recommends using the P/A method for drinking
water to ensure zero total coliforms and zero fecal coliforms or E. coli. The
maximum contaminant goal of zero total coliforms eliminates the need to
enumerate coliforms.

A Hach Portable Incubator was borrowed from Michigan’s AWWA Water for
People organization and brought along to Rwanda. This is a bacterial incubator
designed for field use. The Portable Incubator maintains temperatures with ± 0.5
°C and the incubation temperature is adjustable between 30 and 50 °C. Ideally
suited for total coliform, fecal coliform, and E. coli testing, the incubator may be
used for Presence/Absence (P/A), Membrane Filtration (MF), and the Most
Probable Number (MPN) procedures.

The instrument power cord easily plugs into an automobile cigarette lighter. The
unit draws substantial power so a solar panel was used to daily recharge the
automobile battery.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 13 -
The following results were obtained from the testing:

Table 3: Bacterial Testing Results
Bottle Location Coliform P/A E. Coli P/A
1 P3 Collector Presence Presence
2 P3 Collector Presence Absence
3 P3 Collector Presence Presence
4 CM3 Collector Presence Presence
5 New Water Source Presence Absence
6 Rain Tank Presence Presence
1 Tap in Parish Kitchen Presence Presence

A second set of water quality analyses were conducted testing for the presence of
bacteria. These test were done using HACH chemical kits. A 10 ml sample test
tube was filled with the sample water along with a packet of HACH reactant
chemicals that turned the solution yellow. After shaking for a few seconds the
tubes were left in a cool, dark area for 24 hours. Presence of bacteria was
indicated by a black solution. These tests did not involve incubation of bacteria
and are less accurate than the test described above. The presence of bacteria was
found in all samples taken confirming that the water in Muramba is contaminated.

In addition other basic parameters were tested to assess the overall quality of
water in the Muramba area. These parameters include: pH, alkalinity, nitrate, and
nitrite. All of these parameters were measured using HACH indicator sticks that
were dipped into the water being analyzed. The resulting color was then
compared to a color-coded scale and the value was recorded. Again, these tests
were not as accurate as laboratory analyses but do provide some information
about the water.

The pH values for all the samples taken were lower than expected. The WHO
recommends pH values between 6.5-8.5 while the range of pH values in the
Muramba samples was from 4.5-6 with the average close to 5. This could be of
some concern. Low pH indicates that the water is somewhat acidic. Acidic water
could cause corrosion of the pipes, faucets and other components of the water
system. This is problematic both in terms of water quantity lost through leaking,
corroding pipes, but also in terms of water quality. The corroding pipes may
degrade into the water and depending on pipe material could lead to negative
human health effects. The other parameters (nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity) all
measured close to zero. These results are expected in untreated surface water
supply. Nitrate and nitrites, if they are naturally occurring, are primarily found in
groundwater. They can be a major concern as they inhibit the body’s ability to
metabolize oxygen. Nitrate in concentrations greater than 45 mg/l can cause
death to young infants. Alkalinity is a measure of the water’s ability to buffer
reagents and is used to control water treatment processes. Again, untreated
surface water is not likely to have high values of alkalinity. The complete set of
results are found below.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 14 -
Table 4: Additional HACH Water Test Results
Sample Location pH Nitrate Nitrite Alkalinity Bacteria
1 Teachers Quarters 5.5 1 0 20 Presence
2 Outside Tap at 6 1 0 20 Presence
Muramba College
3 Kitchen, Muramba 5.5 1 0 20 Presence
College
4 Goretti Commons 5.5 1 0 40 Presence
Area, Tap 1
5 Goretti Commons 5 1 0 20 Presence
Area, Tap 2
6 Technical School 5 .5 0 20 Presence
Workshop Tap
7 Elementary School Tap 4.5 0 0 20 Presence
8 Parish Kitchen 5 1.5 0 10 Presence

In summary, the water quality testing clearly demonstrates contamination with the
presence of Coliform in all water tested. The presence of E. coli in most of the
water tested also indicates significant contamination. Clearly the criteria
established by the World Health Organization are not being met. Future water
supply efforts will need to focus on eliminating this contamination.

4.2.5 Project Phasing

Cattle and other grazing animals are known to carry E.coli in their gut and excrete
the organism in their feces. Millions of tons (dry weight) of animal wastes are
disposed of onto land around the world. Most of the waste matter and enteric
bacteria will be broken down in the top layers of the soil and recycled to plants.
However, during episodes of high rainfall, run-off to surface waters may present a
threat to untreated water supplies. Such is the case in Muramba. To significantly
reduce the presence of E.coli in the water supply, it will be necessary to eliminate
surface water collection and instead to collect the water below the ground surface,
where the bacteria do not exist.

In addition to improvement of water quality, water quantity will also need to be
improved, especially during the dry season. To this end, additional water sources
will need to be tapped.

After discussions with the Muramba area village leaders, it was agreed to deal
with the Parish and Schools as the first priority, with the surrounding villages and
individuals not living in villages as the second and third priorities. The water
supply system will eventually support approximately 12,500 individuals. The
phasing of this work is estimated to be as follows:

PHASE 1: Improvement of existing water system to provide potable water for
Muramba Church and six nearby schools, directly affecting 1,200 people.
This phase will also include improving water conservation by modifying the
schools toilets, faucets, and water use. Repairs will also be affected on the
piping system, reservoirs, and valves as needed.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 15 -
PHASE 2: Expand water system by adding new water source and associated
piping. Some piping and public spigots already exist in the villages which
will be assessed during Phase 1. It is anticipated that the new piping will
attach into and utilize this existing piping.

PHASE 3: Bring potable water to households not on main system through use
of individual filtration kits. It is anticipated that during Phase 2, the in-
country manufacturing operation for these kits will be determined.

Depending on available resources, it is anticipated that these phases will be
carried out in the Summers of 2004, 2005, and 2006 respectively.

5.0 IMPLEMENTATION SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Source water dams / collection / boxes / improved piping

The current water supply is being gathered from six surface water locations into
collection boxes. Three water sources go into the Parish line and three water sources
higher up go into the college line. The two lines are separate water pipes until the water
is mixed at a crossover valve system located close to the schools. This crossover valve
system is critical to the amount of water each system receives. If too much water is going
to the Parish for example and the water tower overfills then the excess water is lost and
the schools could be lacking water while the Parish is wasting water. The importance of
this crossover valve and the constant need to oversee and adjust this valve will need to be
discussed in the maintenance of the system.

There are five major aspects that will need to be addressed in the upcoming design stage
with regards to the water system. The first is ways of increasing water quantity. The first
step in this process will be to evaluate the existing two lines to see what is their
maximum capacity. Once this is known we will be able to determine if the existing lines
will be able to provide enough quantity for the 1,200 people now using this system and
the projected 2,000 people in the future. Then we can try to ensure that the system is
operating towards the maximum flow rate to make optimum use of the existing
infrastructure. To increase the supply there are many solutions. Here are some ideas:

• Increase the diameter of pipe at the sources to the collection boxes.
• Create small dams at the water collection points to capture most of the water.
• Dig deep long trenches close to following a contour line and then fill them with a
gravel material to create trench drains to capture subsurface water into the collection
boxes.
• Rainwater catchment from roof runoff.
• Run a new water line from an additional source located further away.

The Second major aspect that will need to be addressed is water storage. If the supply is
increased will the existing water towers be able make use of this additional supply or will
it be wasted? During peak demands and through the dry season when the supply may not

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 16 -
be providing the maximum amount needed will there be enough reservoir to supply the
needs? These questions will need to be evaluated and if the existing system does not
supply enough storage capacity alternate storage systems will need to be evaluated and
implemented. To increase storage there are several solutions:

• Rebuild and increase volume of the dilapidated tank that is next to the Parish water
tower.
• Build underground cisterns for rainwater catchment or overflow of water tower
catchment.
• Build larger scale dams at water sources.
• Build additional water storage tanks.

The Third major aspect that will need to be addressed is water quality. We know that
this is a very highly populated area. All the ground is being farmed regardless of the
slope. Animal and human feces are bound to end up into the surface water collected.
Also, large amounts of sediment will be washed into the system during rains. Since the
system is set up on surface water collection this will be a hard issue to address. Also, we
could not come up with any good geological data for the area making it difficult to
determine if there are any underground sources than can create the supply and have the
quality needed. Some ideas are:

• Building structures at the inlets of the pipes and filling with a gravel material to
filter the water before entering the system.
• Drilling horizontally into the hillside and collect the water from beneath the surface
water.
• Trench drains to collect subsurface water instead of surface water.
• Find a drill rig and crew to do exploratory drilling at the Muramba location and see
if vertical wells with solar pumps would provide a clean water source for drinking
water.
• Partnering with Potters for Peace to teach the people how to make these clay pots for
filtering the water for drinking and cooking.

The fourth major aspect that will need to be addressed is water conservation. During the
site assessment we evaluated the existing water faucets, showers and toilets. The toilets
did not have water supplied to them. A few showers had water to them and leaked. Most
of the operational faucets leaked loosing precious water. Also, the Parish water tank was
overflowing with the excess water being lost in the path while school children were
walking to the Parish to fill buckets of water to take back to the schools (crossover valve
not being adjusted correctly). Some ideas are:

• Replace the faucets and leaking showers.
• Bring over washer kits and teach people how to replace the seals and repair leaking
faucets.
• Train students and staff in the importance of water conservation and turning off
faucets completely. Set up a procedure for reporting problems so they can be fixed.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 17 -
The final major aspect that will need to be addressed is water pressure. The explanation
given for the toilets not being attached to the water supply is that when the students come
for a restroom break the first person uses the toilet and flushes. The second student
comes uses the toilet pulls the cord and the tank has not filled up so it does not flush.
Then the third student comes etc. There needs to be a way to increase pressure at the
dormitory bathrooms or provide an alternative way for the students to flush the toilets.
Some ideas are:

• If additional storage is required build these at a higher elevation to increase pressure.
• Add small solar pumps to increase pressure.
• Build a tank in each bathroom facility and the students can fill a bucket of water
from the tank before using the bathroom and then flush using the bucket of water.

5.1.1 Component Description

The overall water system is in relatively good shape. The water valve from the
Parish water tower that goes to the Parish needs replaced. The P1 bleed valve is
not functioning and needs replaced. One support structure that holds the pipes
above ground as it crosses the stream needs some foundation work and some
slope protection to move the stream away from flowing against this structure and
continuing the erosion around the foundation. The Parish water tower overflow
pipe inside the tank is rusted off and needs a PVC extension pipe so the entire
capacity of the tank can be utilized. There are also some erosion problems along
the line. This will become a maintenance issue. There will be no way to stop this
type of erosion as long as people farm these steep slopes right next to the line.

The system is quite complex. One interesting addition was a sand filtration system
that was added to the schools line that is not being utilized. The reason given for
it not being used is that it is to slow and plugs up all of the time. With some
training and teaching this system this would help improve the quality of the water
going to the schools. It will take some doing to convince the maintenance
personnel that the additional work and oversight of this system is critical to the
students’ health.

5.1.2 Materials and Logistics

Water system pipes, fittings and faucets can be purchased in Kigali at
SONATUBES s.a.r.l. They carry a fairly extensive line of water system related
products and pumps. Communications can be made in French at the email
address snt@rwandatel1.rwanda1.com. They do not carry toilet fixtures or toilet
parts. Sonatubes said these would have to be purchased on the open market.

Cement will need to be purchased at a company called CIMERWA. The phone
number give was never answered. We are working on making contact with this
company to discuss cost and locations of where the cement could be purchased.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 18 -
Transportation of materials will be made easier when the roadway to Muramba
Parish is repaired. KIST has said they would be willing to help coordinate the
transportation of materials to Muramba Parish. KIST would also be willing to
help give us names of suppliers for other items we may need that were not
addressed on this trip.

5.1.3 Material Costs

Appendix 10.2 shows gathered materials costs. Sand/squeegee is made locally in
Muramba. We asked individuals who were constructing a building for the
honeybee operation what it cost for the sand. It runs around 600 Franks or
approximately $1.25 per two wheelbarrows full. This would be around $6.00 a
cubic yard assuming approx. 3 CF per wheelbarrow. Transportation cost were not
discussed in detail and would have to be determined through communications
with KIST.

5.1.4 Plan for Village Participation and Sustainability

Training needs to be provided to ensure proper maintenance. Also, training in the
proper use of the crossover valve and the sand filtration system needs to be taught
and implemented. As with any system things wear out and deteriorate over time.
A maintenance schedule for painting, checking key components, cleaning gravel
filters at the inlets and other routine items needs to be set up with the maintenance
personnel and then followed up on subsequent visits to assure that these
maintenance and funding issues are being addressed. Older students, faculty and
staff would have to be utilized to help with the implementation of any projects.

For the community we have meet with the community and government leaders to
discuss our plans and their participation in any upcoming projects. These leaders
said that they would form a committee to oversee any improvements and tax
people using the system to gather the funds necessary to maintain the system.
They said that the community would help install a water system that would help
supply water to there community.

A suggestion from another agency that helps implement water systems was to
make sure this committee, maintenance schedule and taxing was in place at least
one year before implementation. Then one can see if they will be able to raise the
funds necessary to maintain the system and be able to tell there commitment to
the improvements. If they can show this commitment then we can use the local
people as a volunteer labor pool and they will know the system well for
maintaining it since they were the ones that actually constructed the system. They
will also have one year of taxes in reserve for repairs, which will help for any
early problems, that arises.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 19 -
5.1.5 Operation and Maintenance Procedures

Many of the Operation and Maintenance Procedures for the Parish and schools
will need to be discussed and determined on the next trip with those individuals
responsible for the system. Setting up a contact for items that need fixed and
being able to set aside some funds for these repairs will be necessary. As
mentioned above training students in the use of the faucets, training maintenance
personnel in the use of the sand filter and crossover valve will be critical to the
success of larger improvements in the future. Evaluating success on these smaller
issues can be used to determine the overall commitment of the schools and Parish
for future larger improvements.

It would be advantageous to have a good grasp on all of the maintenance issues
before the next trip so we can guide the discussions with the maintenance
personnel. Tasks should be broken up into daily, weekly, monthly, biannually
and annual tasks. These tasks should be well thought out among the group so
everything is covered.

Additional community meetings are necessary to determine who will provide the
oversight of the maintenance. Also, it needs to be determined how the water fees
will be established and the account that these funds will be stored. In short get a
water district set up and running so when the improvements are implemented the
operations of this district will be well established with a reserve of funds.

5.2 Taps / Faucets / Toilets maintenance
5.2.1 Component Description

During the assessment visit in March, 2004, the water usage of the Muramba
schools was assessed in order to understand the improvements that could be made
in water conservation. To that end an inventory was made of the plumbing
fixtures and their level of repair. The inventory clearly demonstrated the need for
improved maintenance which will in turn reduce the amount of water lost to leaky
plumbing fixtures.

5.2.2 Materials and Logistics

In general a very low percentage of the plumbing equipment is functioning.
Specifically, 0% of the urinals (perhaps due to gender issues), 18% of the faucets,
5 % of the toilets, and 5% of the showers are functioning. The table carries
details of what are the greatest sources of problems. In the case of the faucets, of
the 214 inventoried, 20 were welded shut (reason unknown), 32 were leaking
(perhaps due to problematic faucet washers), and 121 had no handles. Of the 88
toilets, 4 were working, 14 were missing the supply hose, 11 were missing the
down pipe, and 3 were missing the tank. Many were clogged and most had not
been flushed recently. Of the 57 showers, 3 were functioning. It should be noted

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 20 -
that some of these facilities may have been turned off in order to conserve water
due to the large amount of leakage that might have occurred if left on.

Future plans to improve these conditions require an assessment of the
appropriateness of this type of plumbing for the conditions faced in Muramba
(low amount of water supply). Certainly in the case of the faucets, water
conservation would be greatly improved by supplying needed handles and
replacing faulty faucet washers. This should be part of the Summer, 2004 visit.
In the case of the showers, similar issues are likely and similar remedies should be
followed. However, the toilets seem to require a more long-term solution, not
dependent on difficult-to-obtain and expensive hardware. Instead, a large drum
(plastic 55-gal or so) should be set up in each bathroom near a faucet and hose. It
would be someone’s job to keep the drum filled with water (though this water
does not need to be potable and could be rainwater). Near the water drum should
be empty buckets. The user of the toilet, upon coming in would fill a bucket from
the drum, and take the filled bucket to the toilet. After using the toilet, the person
would then pour the water from the bucket down the toilet to “clean” any residue
from the surfaces of the toilet. This would mimic a flush of the toilet. The user
would then return the empty bucket to the location near the water drum. By using
this method, the toilets are still used as appropriate without relying on the
plumbing hardware that tends to wear out or get broken fairly easily.

5.2.3 Estimated Budget

See Appendix 8.2 for component costs.

5.2.4 Plan for Village Participation and Sustainability

It is suspected that most of the damage to the plumbing occurred during the war
thus once these systems are repaired, it is anticipated the routine maintenance
such as faucet washer replacement can be carried out by the local maintenance
technicians.

5.3 Future improvements

Future implementations may include storage capacity increases, improving and
maintaining the existing sand filter, expansion of the water system to capture
additional sources, etc.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 21 -
5.4 Potters for Peace

In the Muramba area, there are many people that do not live near to the stand-taps
associated with the water supply system. Women and children can spend much of
their time hauling water that they know is not clean, but there might be no other
available nearby source. The sources they do collect from are often surface water
based, thus generally contaminated with E. coli. For several years, groups around
the world have studied ways to remove pathogens from contaminated water through
the use of drinking water treatment systems based in houses. Any successful system
must be affordable for some of the world's poorest people, easy to construct and
operate, and cheap to maintain. To date, two separate designs have gained the most
acclaim: the Potter’s for Peace Filtron system and the MIT Arsenic Biosand Filter
(ABF) system.

The Filtron is primarily intended for household use,
ideally as part of an overall water delivery network
combined with intensive educational efforts aimed at
improving water hygiene in marginalized communities
throughout the world. The Filtron consists of a porous
clay filter unit perched inside a lidded 2-5 gallon clay
water jar, 5 gallon plastic bucket or other suitable
spigoted catchment container. The filter unit is saturated
with colloidal silver as a germicide/disinfectant. The unit
has a flow rate of approximately 1-1.75 liters of water
per hour. The Filtron has successfully been laboratory
tested in over ten countries on four continents. This
technology has been proven effective in eliminating coliforms, parasites, amoebae,
and vibrio cholera from water.

MIT PFP Assessment
The results of their 6-month monitoring program showed that the PFP filter is a
valid tool to decrease the contamination level of water consumed by households in
the rural areas surrounding San Francisco Libre. An average of 80% of families had
filtered water with less than 2.2 CFU/100 mL. Although this performance level
does not reach the target of 0 CFU/100 mL recommended for drinking water (WHO,
1996), the PFP filter was successful as an interim solution until a reliable piped
system becomes available for the rural populations of Nicaragua. These step-
improvements are valid milestones if the ideal target is currently unachievable and
are effective to decrease the amount of health risk due to water borne diseases.
Nevertheless, results from this study suggest the need of a complementary water
treatment, such as chlorination after filtration.

There were no noticeable changes on the filter performance in terms of flow rate and
microbiological removal during period. The PFP filter seems to function
consistently over the first 6 months after manufacturing, which may imply that when
the adequate maintenance recommendations are followed, there are no problems due

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 22 -
to pore-clogging or colloidal silver wearing out. However, information on older
filters is not available, for which further studies on the durability of the PFP filter’s
initial performance are recommended.

Despite the potential performance of the PFP filter under adequate maintenance
levels, this device is susceptible to several sources of contamination. Filtered water
was shown to become re-contaminated when the collection vessels were not cleaned
properly. Washing with filtered water was recommended, but in light of the already
low capacity of the filter, this requirement may not be practical for the user. Perhaps
a sealed intersection between the filtering receptacle and the collection vessel may
result in a more robust system. Other possible ways of contamination were observed
when animals or children touch the filter faucet with dirty hands, and the contact
between the filtering ceramic component’s bottom with contaminated areas, such as
the floor or the kitchen table.

In addition, certain user practices created opportunities for contamination. Filters
were not always stored in hygienic places, and apparently, water was not transported
from the well to the houses in clean vessels, since contamination during this transfer
was evident. Similarly, there was a possibility of re-contamination seconds before
consumption due to a contaminated glass, which suggests that glassware utensils for
food and water should be washed with filtered or chlorinated water. This fact raises
the issue of filter capacity, since currently, the PFP filter barely satisfies the drinking
needs of an average-sized family.

Features of the PFP filter that must be improved are its relative fragility and its low
capacity. Approximately 15% of the initial sample population broke by the end of
this study. Taking into account that households participating in this study were
continuously monitored, this breakage rate is high, and may be higher in families
where no follow up was performed. Users complained mainly of the low capacity of
the filter. A higher filtration rate could increase the quantity of water available to
users, but constantly re-filling the filter seemed to be inconvenient for most users.
Therefore, a larger filter should be designed for better user acceptance. In addition,
the material of the collecting receptacle was a source of complaint from the
participants of this study. Many users preferred ceramic vessels from plastic
buckets, probably because of the cooling effect of the ceramic material. Water
temperature seemed to be a factor that could cause rejection of this technology, and
thus further research on solving this problem is recommended.

Finally, the marketing strategy and manufacturing system that the PFP cooperative
is currently implementing is not sustainable in the long-term. Attention should be
paid on establishing solid market niches and decreasing the costs of the filter so that
it becomes affordable to end-users. Finally, the manufacturing process should be
standardized as much as possible, to decrease variability on the quality of raw
materials, which in turn will standardize the quality of the PFP filter.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 23 -
MIT Arsenic Biosand Filter (ABF) System
The MIT ABF is also primarily intended for household use. The ABF filter shell or
container, made of plastic or concrete, stands one meter high and is about 0.3 meters
in length and width -- a little taller than a two-drawer filing cabinet. It's filled with
gravel, coarse sand, fine sand and iron nails. Pathogens are removed from the water
as it seeps through the sand and gravel; arsenic is removed as the iron nails rust, a
process that attracts and binds the arsenic. With their World Bank funding, the MIT
team and Nepali partners "will set up an ABF technology center for enhanced
research, and provide villagers with in-depth training and education about the ABF
technology," said Tommy Ngai, a CEE lecturer who has been in Nepal for the last
month and will be there another seven months to meet that goal. His teammates are
Susan Murcott and Sophie Walewijk, a Ph.D. student at Stanford who joined the
MIT Nepal Water Project team a year ago. "People also like the very high flow
rates. Other filters usually produce one to five liters of filtered water per hour as the
water slowly passes through microscopic pores in clay or other media. The ABF can
process 15 to 30 liters per hour," Ngai said. A pilot study with 15 filters in four
villages over more than a year has found "that the technical performance is good,"
said Ngai. "Users like the filter very much because it's durable and offers a
permanent solution to their water problem. Unlike other filters, there's nothing to
break”. Each village in the program receives two steel molds for making water
filters, plus the necessary tools. Residents can then obtain their own ABF through
the technicians.

Although capital costs are high by local standards -- $20 to $25 to produce filters in
Kathmandu -- there are almost no maintenance costs aside from occasionally
replacing the nails. Therefore, the long-term cost of the ABF is comparable to many
other filters on the market. "In addition, we expect the manufacturing cost to drop as
we train technicians from each village on filter construction," Ngai said.

Depending on the turbidity (sediment content) of the water supply, the ABF filter
will clog between once a month and twice a year and need to be cleaned. That
simple procedure takes about 15 minutes.

The EWB-USA team did not measure the P/A of arsenic in the water in Muramba
however the bio-filter aspects of the MIT filter would likely take care of the
pathogens found. If arsenic is present, the iron nails could be added.

6.0 OTHER IDENTIFIED PROJECTS
6.1 Rain water catchments

Sustainable solutions to the water quality and quantity problems in Muramba must
include measures to diversify the current “water portfolio”. The area relies almost solely
on one network of streams for water. While improving the quality and quantity of this
source is important, it is also necessary to begin planning the utilization other sources to
ensure water security and village sustainability. Nitin Desai, the Secretary General of the
World Summit on Sustainable Development iterates the connection between water and

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 24 -
sustainability; “The improvement of water use is central for all other dimensions of
sustainable development.”

The collection of rainwater or rainwater catchment is one means by which to secure an
additional source of water at a relatively low cost. The collection and use of rainwater is
becoming more prevalent throughout not only Sub-Saharan Africa, but the entire globe.
In countries such as Rwanda that receive large amounts of rainfall (>35 in/yr), rainwater
catchment can yield significant amounts of water. In Rwanda rainwater catchment
systems are found both at the household level and on a larger scale. One system built at
Green Hills Academy in Kigali can generate 4.5 million liters of water each year and has
enough storage for 220,000 L (KIST, 2003). Therefore, preliminary evaluations were
made in Muramba to assess the feasibility as well as the effectiveness of installing
rainwater catchment systems.

Three main areas were investigated for rainwater catchment in Muramba. These areas
were the Muramba Parish, Muramba College and Goretti Secondary School. These areas
were chosen because they have large roof areas that would provide significant catchment
and they are frequented by hundreds of students and villagers and therefore would allow
for visibility and awareness of rainwater catchment. The table below details the buildings
and their rainwater catchment potential.

Table 5: Rainwater Catchments
Location Building Roof Area (ft2) Water
Catchment (ft3)
Parish Parish Center 3,260 8,410
Parish Parish Community Center 6,250 16,130
Parish Catholic Church 7,500 19,350
College Performance Hall 5,600 14,460
College Offices 2,570 6,640
College Cafeteria 5,060 13,04 0
College Classrooms 7,570 19,530
College Chapel 2,530 6,530
College Dorm for Teachers 4,750 12,260
College* Student Dorms (12 total) 40,740 105,110
Notes: *The values for the student dorms are summed (each dorm has a roof area of
3,395 ft2 and catchment of 8,760 ft3).

At each location the roof areas were measured with a 100-m measuring tape. In addition,
notes were taken on the type of roof, whether or not gutters were already installed and if
gutters were not installed the feasibility of attaching gutters to the existing structure. The
amount of rainwater each roof could capture was then calculated by multiplying the roof
area by the seasonal rainfall amounts (600-mm long rains; March-May, 300-mm short
rains; Sept-Dec). All three locations are viable rainwater catchment sites and together
have the potential to generate over 6.4 million L of water per year or enough water to
serve 701 villagers per year (assuming 25 L/person/day).

The implementation of rainwater catchment would involve construction of both
collection and storage systems. The collection system could be made from PVC pipe that

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 25 -
is readily available in Kigali. First, PVC pipe could be cut in half length-wise and
attached to roof overhangs. The gutter could be weighted with a spring, so the initial
capture of water is discarded on the ground. This would ensure the water stored in the
tank is of better quality, free from any contaminants that might be found on the roof.
PVC pipes would then needed to transport water collected in the gutters to the storage
tanks. This design would allow the water collected to be used both for drinking as well
as bathing, irrigation and other water needs. Preliminary studies of water quality in
rainwater tanks in 50 villages in Tanzania found that the water was nearly bacteria free
with 5 coliform colonies/100 ml filtered or less (Mbwette, Montgomery, Leshale, 2002).

Storage tanks can be built either above or below ground. The advantage of underground
tanks is the soil counteracts the forces of the water on the tank walls and therefore they
can be built larger with less concern for structural failure. In addition, underground tanks
are more aesthetically appealing. However, the major disadvantage of underground tanks
is that a pump may be needed to transport water to the end user. The use of a pump,
however, could be avoided in Muramba where the hilly terrain would allow the tank to
be built higher than the end point and the water could flow by gravity. Tanks can also be
built above ground. These tanks would have to be smaller, but could be installed with a
tap so users could directly access the water. A variety of materials could be used to
construct the tanks, many of which are local. In Tanzanian villages in the Mkuranga
area, tanks were constructed using a mixture of cement, local sand and local clay
(AMREF, 2002). The sand and clay were harvested by the villagers themselves, so the
only expense was the cement and chicken wire used to reinforce the tank walls. A
similar design and construction could be used in Muramba.

Parish Area
The Parish area is an attractive initial location because it already has a gutter system in
place and therefore only storage tanks would be needed. In total the Parish area could
collect 1.2 million L of water a year. A tank could be built between the Parish Center
and the Parish Community Center to collect water from both buildings.

Muramba College
Muramba College has a large roof area that could catch up to 4.2 million L of water a
year. It is also the only location in Muramba that currently collects and uses rainwater.
Gutters extend over about ¼ the length of the roof of a dormitory. The gutters lead to an
elliptical, metal tank with a volume of 9,060 L. The tank was at one time attached to a
truck chassis and formerly used by the rebel soldiers for water storage at a nearby camp.
After the genocide the rebels abandoned their camp and the school transported the tank
for their own use. At the time of the investigation the tank was full of water. One of the
maintenance employees at the school stated that water is used from the tank, but it must
be rationed because the tank can only supply the school of 600 students for one or two
days. However, there is no planned rationing schedule and the tank could be better
utilized. For example, the tank was full of water but students were not allowed to take
water from the tank. The following day it rained, but water could not be collected by the
tank because it was full. If students are allowed to use the water, especially during the

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 26 -
rainy season, the tank could be refilled nearly every time it rained. This would prevent
unnecessary trips by the students to a standpipe more than a kilometer from the school.

Tanks could be built in many locations around Muramba College to collect water. Three
main locations include near the twelve dormitories located just downhill from the
cafeteria, near the assembly/performance hall and near the classrooms and chapel.
Rainwater could be especially beneficial near the dormitories for use in the bathrooms
that are now seriously under-served. Every toilet was clogged and less than 10% of the
showers and faucets were working. It is still uncertain whether these problems are
because of a lack of water or poor infrastructure or both, but in any case rainwater could
be used to supply bathrooms and meet basic hygiene needs.

The Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST) completed a
rainwater catchment study at Muramba School in 2003. Their figures are somewhat
different than the ones presented in this paper, however the methods of measurement of
roofs may be different. KIST has experience throughout Rwanda installing successful
rainwater catchment systems and would be an important partner if such a scheme were
initiated in Muramba.

In conclusion, rainwater catchment has the potential to help solve water quality and
quantity problems in Muramba. With proper planning, initial pilot systems and use of
local materials and labor the systems could be installed with only a minor investment.
Villagers or even a rainwater catchment group endowed with the responsibility to
maintain and promote such systems could easily handle the maintenance and operation of
such a system.

6.2 Lighting

The goal of this project was to develop three solar powered lighting systems and install
them in school and community buildings in Muramba, Rwanda. Elliot Goldman prepared
a report available online at the EWB-USA Muramba, Rwanda project website.

6.3 Drip Irrigation

Drip irrigation systems are a relatively simple technology that allows irrigation of crops
and gardens with minimal manual labor. They have obvious application in developing
nations where there are no irrigation systems in place. Often in these countries, people
spend hours daily watering the crops they use for subsistence.

Bucket irrigation systems include a bucket placed approximately one meter above the
group. Two 15-meter hoses are attached to the bottom of the bucket. Each of these
hoses has small holes every 20 centimeters. The hoses can either be closed at the end or
attached to another hose to create a longer system. The bucket is filled, and water slowly
drips out of each hole. The bucket needs to be filled only twice a day.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 27 -
In Muramba, Rwanda, people rely solely on produce raised on small, hillside plots for
subsistence. However, lack of an irrigation system coupled with poor soil conditions has
resulted in meager crops and inadequate food for the community. A current 14-month
drought has far worsened the situation. Women and children spend hours daily hauling
water to irrigate their crops. In many ways, bucket drip irrigation systems are a possible
solution to this problem in Muramba.

Engineers Without Borders brought 15 bucket irrigation systems to Muramba, with plans
to give 5 each to Kopling Vocational School, Muramba College, and Goretti School.
However, almost all of the land is already cultivated, and therefore are few places
available to install the irrigation systems. Unplanted plots are important for the success
of the system since seeds must be planted where the water drips out of the hose. Most of
the irrigation systems will be in storage until there is a place where they can be used.

Professor Peter Bosscher led a demonstration for approximately 50 vocational school
students on the installation of the bucket irrigation systems. This demonstration was
done on uncultivated land being prepared for a house foundation. The demonstration
was mostly successful, but due to lack of time, there remained misunderstandings
regarding the usage of the system. Peter attempted to clarify these misunderstandings.

CU student Laura Richards also led a demonstration of these systems for approximately
20 students at Muramba College. The students readily grasped the idea and actually
installed two drip irrigation systems and planted beans on an empty plot of land behind
Muramba College. After asking several clarification questions, the students did the work
completely independently. Several teachers from the school and the “agricultural expert”
were present during the process.

The sustainability of this project will be assessed during the return trip to Muramba in
July, however several concerns were voiced. The problem of theft is prevalent in
Muramba, and Sister Donata expressed her opinion that the buckets and hoses would be
quickly stolen. Security measures seem unfeasible. Also, if something gets stolen or
broken, replacement materials are only available from the other kits that are in storage.
Hoses or tape are not available locally except in Kigali.

Future needs for drip irrigation will also be assessed during the return trip. The lack of
available space and the concerns voiced make the success of drip irrigation in Muramba
unlikely, yet still possible.

6.4 Digital Divide

At the Muramba College, the headmistress Sister Donata expressed interest in expanding
their existing computer education program to include access to the Internet. After
discussions with President Paul Kagame and the Minister of Infrastructure
Ntawukuliryayo, EWB-USA Digital Divide Project Coordinator Evan Thomas has begun
to develop Digital Divide projects in the Muramba area.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 28 -
6.5 Vocational School

The Muramba Vocational school has tremendous potential in assisting future EWB-USA
projects. The students are eager to be taught skills to maintain their water system, as well
as help develop their community in other ways.

6.6 Orphan Assistance

EWB-UW student Andrea Khosropour documented over 300 orphans of the more than
3,000 in the area. She and Denver Nurse Frances Feeney are developing a sponsorship
program for these children.

Fr. John Bosco provided the following information. The costs to start/keep an orphan in
school, including school fees, costs of uniforms and school materials, is $5/month,
$60/year. The costs to have a single mother prepare a daily meal for an orphan or orphan
family and tend the orphan’s garden so the child/children can all go to school is
$10/month, $120/year. This will provide work for a single mother and money for food for
her children.

The team discussed the idea of setting up a web site including photographs and brief
information about 300 orphans from Muramba. The idea was that people interested in
helping one or more orphans could consult the web site and pick a child/children to
support.

Fr. Bosco already has an account set up for the orphans in Muramba. If we decide to
proceed with the plan originally discussed the following logistics will have to be well
defined:

1. How will the program and web site be publicized?
2. Who will develop the web site?
3. Who will manage and coordinate the program including collecting money from
interested parties, communicating with Bosco to insure that money is used for
specified orphans and transmitting donations to Bosco?
4. Who will maintain accounting records?

On the basis of the above listed questions, it seems that this is far too complicated a
system for us to realistically set up. Perhaps it would make more sense to set up a web
site about the EWB-USA-Muramba Project as we have discussed. This would be one of
the best ways to publicize the Muramba Project. There could be a link on the EWB-USA
web page to the Muramba Project page and a link on the project page to a page with
information about the orphans in Muramba. The group photo that Peter developed could
be used as well as individual pictures with the personal information that Andrea collected
about the children photographed. The options for supporting one or more orphans could
be explained and a mailing address given for sending donations of any amount directly to
Bosco or to the Orphan fund that he has set up. In that case, we would only have to get
the mailing information from Bosco.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 29 -
A further complication is that mailing checks or anything to Rwanda is a very risky
business. Perhaps there is a way to set up an account in the U.S. from which funds
collected could be transferred to Bosco’s fund.

There is much to work out about this but linking the orphans with the EWB-USA-
Muramba Project is, for now, the greatest opportunity for publicizing the children’s plight
and raising money for them.

Many of the orphans Andrea photographed were already in school. Fr. Bosco explained
that school fees for those children are being paid from the orphan fund or with other
donated money. He said that as the children photographed receive sponsors, fund money
will be freed up to help other orphans. He stressed that older children who are
responsible for siblings cannot go to school because they have to work the family garden
to raise food. That is why he suggested the idea of having single mothers do the garden
work. Orphans and single parent families both benefit under the second plan.

6.7 AIDS Testing

During the reception for President Kagame at the University of Denver on April 14,
2004, we met with the Minister of Health/HIV/AIDS and the Columbia University
Country Director, who is assisting the Rwanda Ministry of Health in developing a
country-wide HIV/AIDS program. She is also responsible for the distribution of World
Bank and of Bush administration AIDS funding for Rwanda. Amazingly the area that
she will work with directly is Gisenyi Province.
We briefly discussed the increasing number of orphans in the area and the need for HIV
testing and counseling. The Minister of Infrastructure assured her that the road to
Muramba will be repaired by July 2004. She then committed to establish the first
HIV/AIDS testing and counseling program in Muramba during the summer of 2004.
David Bosscher, M.D. and I will be communicating with the Columbia Director and with
the newly appointed regional medical officer for Gisenyi Province to make sure the
testing and counseling is set up.
Fr. Bosco and Msgr. Kevin Randall were informed about this opportunity. Bosco fully
supports the program being set up in Muramba.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 30 -
7.0 PARTNERS
7.1 Rotary International / Kigali / Denver

Rotary Clubs in the Denver area as well as Kigali are actively participating in the EWB-
USA Muramba Project. Partnerships are being coordinated by CU Professor Bernard
Amadei.

7.2 Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST)

A partnership with locally trained engineers and students offers invaluable assistance to
the EWB Rwanda project. A partnership offers the possibility of design, maintenance,
and sustainability assistance. Such a partnership also will help with finding local
engineering information, materials, and ideas. Kigali Institute of Science, Technology
and Management (KIST) has agreed to a partnership with EWB in Muramba.

The EWB Rwanda project team met with several leaders from KIST on 28 March 2004.
KIST was enthusiastic to join EWB in their endeavor. KIST has done a lot of work
designing water systems and energy sources for local use. KIST also offers a
“Community Attachment” program for its students. Students involved in this program
spend 4 weeks in a Rwandan community applying the engineering knowledge they have
learned in the classroom.

There is interest in collaboration between EWB and KIST’s Community Attachment
program. It would be invaluable, for both parties, for students from KIST to work with
EWB in Muramba. The students could not only share their engineering ideas, but also
help with translation and other cultural issues. Many of the students and officials at
KIST speak English.

Communication between EWB and KIST will continue as the project further develops.
KIST has agreed to read and contribute to the Assessment Report created. Plans have
been made to determine a specific role for KIST once EWB’s plans have solidified.

7.3 Community and Government Leaders

Communication and partnership with local and national leaders in Rwanda are also
crucial to the success of this project. Close relationships were developed with local
leaders Father Bosco and Sister Donata, and members of the EWB Rwanda team met
with national leaders Mayor Evariste, Minister Ntawukuliryayo, and President Kagame.

Father Bosco and Sister Donata are local leaders in Muramba. Father Bosco hosted the
men from the EWB team in the Parish where he lives. Most meals were eaten with
Father Bosco in the Parish. He has started many programs for the people and children in
Muramba, and has high hopes for a very positive future. Sister Donata hosted the women
in the convent at Muramba College, and is a religious and educational leader. Both of
these people and our relationships formed with them are described in more detail in
Section 2.2 of this report.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 31 -
Peter Bosscher and Evan Thomas met with Mayor Evariste, who is the mayor of the
district around Muramba. He offered his support for the EWB project and said that EWB
can work with him in the future.

The entire EWB Rwanda team met with Minister Ntawukuliryayo, who is the Minister of
Infrastructure in Rwanda. He previously was the Minister of Education. He also offered
support for the project. Upon requesting assistance with the very poor road quality,
Ntawukuliryay gave us a commitment that the road would be fixed in the near future.

The EWB Rwanda team also met with Rwanda’s President Paul Kagame. He was quite
supportive of EWB’s endeavors and offered any kind of support needed. He offered
government Land Cruisers or a helicopter to assist with transportation needs. He stated
that the road to Muramba will get fixed, and told Minister Ntawukuliryay to begin that
project. Kagame also asked that the EWB team serve as Rwandan ambassadors in the
United States in order to give positive representation of his country.

7.4 Gates Foundation

A Letter of Interest has been sent to the Bill and Mellinda Gates Foundation (see
Appendix X). This letter primarily described the anticipated improvement of health that
would result from EWB efforts in Muramba. The letter elicited a response from the
Gates Foundation requesting a follow-up budget. This budget with a new revised Letter
of Interest (based on this report) will be forwarded to the Foundation as soon as this
report is complete. The main thrust of the new Letter of Interest will again be health,
though this will include as a minimum water quality/quantity, orphan assistance, AIDS
testing, family planning and hygiene, nutrition, and medical services/supplies/equipment.

7.5 USAID

United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent federal
agency committed to helping developing democratic countries or countries recovering
from disaster. In Rwanda, USAID is committed to: “Strengthen those institutions that
form the foundation of a sound political and judicial system and to assist Rwanda in its
transition to a full democracy in which ethnic tolerance, respect for human rights and the
rule of law are instituted.” The organization is also working to improving Rwanda’s
agricultural production. USAID in Rwanda is run by a staff of 69 Americans and
Rwandans.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 32 -
8.0 Appendices
8.1 Possible Additional Water Source Rough Location

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 33 -
8.2 Materials Costs

DESCRIPTION PRICE/ea PRICE/ea
franks dollars @ 500f/$

3/4" faucet 4,700.00 $ 9.40

PIPE PN 16 6 METER LENGTH
90 mm 33,751.00 $ 67.50
75mm 23,536.00 $ 47.07
63 mm 16,682.00 $ 33.36
50 mm 10,462.00 $ 20.92
40 mm 6,789.00 $ 13.58
32 mm 4,423.00 $ 8.85
25 mm 2,742.00 $ 5.48
20 mm 1,772.00 $ 3.54

90 degree bend

90 mm 5,540.00 $ 11.08
75mm 3,830.00 $ 7.66
63 mm 2,050.00 $ 4.10
50 mm 1,030.00 $ 2.06
40 mm 1,020.00 $ 2.04
32 mm 660.00 $ 1.32
25 mm 570.00 $ 1.14
20 mm 490.00 $ 0.98

45 degree bend

90 mm 8,200.00 $ 16.40
75mm 5,290.00 $ 10.58
63 mm 2,660.00 $ 5.32
50 mm 1,960.00 $ 3.92
40 mm 1,770.00 $ 3.54
32 mm 760.00 $ 1.52
25 mm 670.00 $ 1.34
20 mm 650.00 $ 1.30

Coupling

90 mm 3,580.00 $ 7.16
75mm 2,610.00 $ 5.22
63 mm 1,379.00 $ 2.76
50 mm 780.00 $ 1.56
40 mm 720.00 $ 1.44
32 mm 470.00 $ 0.94

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 34 -
25 mm 450.00 $ 0.90
20 mm 430.00 $ 0.86

Union

90 mm 17,260.00 $ 34.52
75mm 14,010.00 $ 28.02
63 mm 4,280.00 $ 8.56
50 mm 2,980.00 $ 5.96
40 mm 2,179.00 $ 4.36
32 mm 2,080.00 $ 4.16
25 mm 1,720.00 $ 3.44
20 mm 1,690.00 $ 3.38

Valve

90 mm 94,970.00 $ 189.94
75mm 37,450.00 $ 74.90
63 mm 14,810.00 $ 29.62
50 mm 11,096.00 $ 22.19
40 mm 9,230.00 $ 18.46
32 mm 7,810.00 $ 15.62
25 mm 5,814.00 $ 11.63
20 mm 4,250.00 $ 8.50

Check Valve

63 mm 73,370.00 $ 146.74
50 mm 59,940.00 $ 119.88
40 mm 52,510.00 $ 105.02
32 mm 42,560.00 $ 85.12

Pressure reducing valve

1" 46,921.00 $ 93.84
3/4" 21,721.00 $ 43.44

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 35 -
8.3 Contact List

Kigali

President Paul Kagame
Davinah Milenge, Private Secretary
Private Cell: 011 250 08303526
E-mail: dmilenge@gov.rw

Minister of Infrastructure
Jean Damascene Ntawukuliryayo, Ph.D.
P.O. Box 24
KIGALI-RWANDA
Tel: 011 250 585505
Fax: 011 250 585755
Cell: 011 250 08301612
E-mail: ntdamas@yahoo.fr

Minister of Health/HIV/AIDS
Dr. Innocent Nyaruhirira
P.O. Box 84
Kigali
Tel: 011 250 502585
Fax: 011 250 502584
Cell: 011 250 08300408
E-mail: ms-aids@rwanda1.com

Celina Schocken, MPP, JD (Assistant to Minister of Health/HIV/AIDS)
Columbia University
Country Director
The Center for Global Health and Economic Development
Mailman School of Public Health and
The Earth Institute at Columbia University
Tel: 011 250 08306286
E-mail: cs2179@columbia.edu

Mayor of Kigali
Theoneste Mutsindashyaka
P.O. Box 3527
Kigali, Rwanda
Tel: 011 250 572225
Fax: 011 250 573684
E-mail: tmshyaka@hotmail.com

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 36 -
U.S. Embassy
Margaret K. McMillion
U.S. Ambassador
2210 Kigali Place
Dulles, VA 20189-2210
Main telephone: 011-250-505601
E-mail: McMillionMK1@state.gov

James David Kay
Vice Consul, Second Secretary
Tel: 011 250 505601
Fax: 011 250 572128
Cell: 011 250 0830 0538
E-mail: kigaliembassy@state.gov

Bryan Bachmann
Embassy Regional Security Officer
Robert Karpowski, Deputy RSO
Phone: 250-505601/2/3
E-mails: BachmannBT@state.gov
KarpowskiRK@state.gov

Rena Brescia
U.S. Embassy Health Clinic
Kigali, Rwanda
Ofc: 011-250-505601 (ext. 3219)
Fax: 011-250-576551
Home: 011-250-519068
Cell: 011-250-0830-5128

Jack Faircloth
USAID
Cell: 011-250-08300361

Peter (Driver for EWB team)
Peter Bosscher can supply his contact information

Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management

Eng. Albert Butare
Vice-Rector (Academic)
Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management
Avenue de l'Armée
B.P. 3900
Emails: vrec@kist.ac.rw
abutare@kist.ac.rw

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 37 -
albertbrw@yahoo.com
Tel: 011 250 574696 / 25
Fax: 011 250 571924 / 25
website: www.kist.ac.rw

Dr. Nelson Lujara
Director of the Centre for Continuing Studies
tel: 011 250 08305717,
E-mail: lujaran@kist.ac.rw.

Ainea Kimaro
Director, Community Innovation and Technology Transfer (CITT)
Tel: 011 250 08562165

Thomas NIYONZIMA
Transport Officer
Mobile: 011 250 08522559
E-mail: niyonzimat@yahoo.fr

Apostolic Nunciature
Rev. Anselmo Pecorari
Papal Nuncio

Monseignor Kevin Randall
Apostolic Nunciature
Avenue Paul VI, 49
Kigali, Rwanda
Ofc: 011-250-575293
Fax: 011-250-575181
Cell: 011-250-08513265
Ksprandall@yahoo.com

Centre Christus Jesuit Retreat Center
Fr. Augustin P. Karekezi, S.J.
Tel: 011-250-08410496
E-mail: augustin.karekezi@jesuits.net

Maison de la Trinite
Fr. Steve Yavorsky, S.J.
Phone: 011-250-520650
Mobile: 011-250-0841 2581
E-mail: stephen.yavorsky@free.fr

Bernadette D’Souza
Director

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 38 -
COR UNUM
Office: 011 250 515017
Community tel: 011 250 516642
Fax/Second tel: 011 250 501375
Cell: 011 250 08458629
E-mail: berna16in@yahoo.co.in
fcmrwanda@rwanda1.com

ADAR Project
Anne D. Turney, Ph.D. (Horticultural Specialist)
Cell: 011 250 0830 5177
E-mail: aturner@chemonics.net

Jumelage Rhenanie-Palatinat/Rwanda

Natalie Vanneste
Coordinatrice
Bureau de partenariat
39, bd de la Revolution
B.P. 821 Kigali-Rwanda
Tel: 011 250 573618
Fax: 011 250 572475
E-mail: natalie.vanneste@rwanda1.com

Rotary Club of Kigali Virunga (District 9150)
Edson Mpyisi (Contact for EWB-USA-Muramba Project)
FEWS NET, Rwanda
Country Representative
P.O. Box 2848
Kigali, Rwanda
Tel: 011 250 517832/84044
Mobile: 011 250 08302101
Fax: 011 250 84044
E-mail: empyisi@fews.net

Sonja Hoekstra-Foss
President 2003-2004
Tel/Fax: 011 250 518360
Mobile: 011 250 0830 6464
E-mail: sonja914@compuserve.com

Raj (Chartered Engineer)
UTEXRWAS.A.
Tel: 011 250 0830 1107
E-mail: rotarianraj@yahoo.com

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 39 -
Equipment/Supply Companies

SONATUBES s.a.r.l.
B.P. 600 KIGALI Republique du RWANDA
Tel: 5 856 07 -5 860 37
Fax: 820 83
E-mail: snt@rwandatel1.rwanda1.com

Cimerwa (Concrete)
E-mail: cimerwa@rwanda1.com

Gisenyi Province
Monseignor Alexis Habiyambere
Bishop, Diocese of Nyundo, Gisenyi Province; Dean of Bishops, Rwanda
(Bosco’s Bishop)

Caleb K. King, M.D.
Shiryia Hospital
E-mail: calebkking@yahoo.com

Muramba
Fr. Musinguzi John Bosco
Muramba Deanery
Cell: 011-250-0841 3404
E-mail: musinguzijbosco@yahoo.com

Sr. Marie Speciose Donata Uwimanimpaye
Headmistress
Muramba College
E-mail: uwimanimpayedon@yahoo.fr

Ecole Secondaire Communale (ESECOM)

Tunezerwe Frederic
Headmaster
Cell: 011 250 0842 5559
E-mail: tunezerwef@yahoo.fr

Mujawamariya Dancille
Diciplin Perfect
E-mail: mujawamariyad@yahoo.fr

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 40 -
References

African Medical Research and Education Foundation (AMREF). 2002. Mkuranga
Sanitation and Health Project Quarterly Report. October, 2002.

Kigali Institute of Science and Technology (KIST). 2003. Collection and Storage of
Rainwater Green Hills Academy, Kigali.

Mbwette, T., Montgomery, M., Leshale, B. 2002. Maintenance, Operation, and Health
Effects of Mkuranga Well Project. Tanzanian Journal of Engineering. Fall 2003.

ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR MURAMBA, RWANDA - 41 -