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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Analysis of EWB-UW Water and Renewable
Energy Projects in Muramba, Rwanda

July 2005
Students from the University of Wisconsin - Madison chapter of Engineers Without Borders
(EWB-UW) returned to Muramba, Rwanda, in July 2005 to continue developing sustainable water
and energy infrastructure. Civil, geological, and chemical engineering students, an economics student,
two journalists from the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, and faculty advisor Peter Bosscher collaborated
with students from the University of Surrey in the United Kingdom, the University of Butare in
Rwanda, and the community of Muramba on several initiatives including solar cooking and water
pasteurization, fuel briquetting, and expansion of the community’s water supply.
In past trips to the community in April 2004 and July 2004, EWB-UW teams identified the
lack of potable water as the community’s greatest need. The team found the current water distribution
system to be seriously inadequate with deficiencies in system operation and maintenance, water
quality and water quantity. Broken tap stands and a damaged piping network were in critical need of
repair and posed a public health threat. The team provided local technicians with logistical and
technical support during the construction of a system expansion that added two water sources and
increased total flow from 37 liters per minute to 83.8 liters per minute. However, the team estimated
system losses at 50% or more. The team identified several items that require maintenance and
proposed a maintenance schedule to reduce system losses. Finally, the team discussed with
community leaders future work on the village water supply and the formation of a Water Board to
establish and govern system water usage, oversee maintenance, and acquire funds for maintenance
and future system expansion.
To address Muramba’s energy shortage, teams worked with community members to
investigate alternative fuels. The shortage of fuel wood and a country-wide ordinance limiting wood
harvesting has jeopardized the community’s ability to cook and boil water. A solar cooking project
involving a women’s cooperative group and the vocational school encouraged villagers to build, test
and market a device that harnesses solar energy to purify drinking water and to cook food. To further
address energy needs, teams implemented a fuel briquetting process with local leaders and carpentry
students. Contributors identified local biomass sources, built wooden presses, and began creating
briquettes suitable for cooking fuel.
These efforts require follow-up and additional work in several areas to ensure long-term
project sustainability. Future teams will need to observe the condition of the implemented water
system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed maintenance schedule and Water Board.
Further assessment may reveal additional potable water sources critical to the community’s long-term
needs. The solar cooking and fuel briquetting projects necessitate additional EWB-UW and
community involvement for complete project implementation. Most critical is the establishment of
local entrepreneurs willing to invest, market, and distribute the technology throughout the community.
EWB-UW will need to assist local leaders and interested community members in creating effective
briquette mix designs and determining appropriate composting times. Information collected in the
Health Assessment Survey will help subsequent EWB-UW teams identify future community needs.
Finally, EWB-UW will identify and contact interested distributors to market handcrafts made by the
Muramban women’s cooperative.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page i
Contents
1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................1
1.1 Background ................................................................................................................................................ 1

1.2 Participants ................................................................................................................................................ 1
1.2.1 Engineers Without Borders Involvement............................................................................................... 1
1.2.2 Community Involvement........................................................................................................................ 1

1.3 Community................................................................................................................................................. 3

2 WATER PROJECT ...............................................................................................3
2.1 Project Description.................................................................................................................................... 4
2.1.1 Description and Route of Pipeline ......................................................................................................... 4
2.1.2 Source Development............................................................................................................................... 5
2.1.2.1 Source 1......................................................................................................................................... 5
2.1.2.2 Source 2......................................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.3 Spring Box design .................................................................................................................................. 7
2.1.4 Source Protection.................................................................................................................................... 8
2.1.5 Local Supply ........................................................................................................................................... 9
2.1.6 Connection of Source to Pipeline.........................................................................................................11

2.2 Discussion .................................................................................................................................................11
2.2.1 Status on Leaving .................................................................................................................................11
2.2.2 Use of New Supply...............................................................................................................................12
2.2.3 Maintenance Schedule..........................................................................................................................12
2.2.4 Role of EWB-UW in the Project..........................................................................................................13
2.2.5 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................14

3 VILLAGE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ASSESSMENT........................................14
3.1 Description of System..............................................................................................................................15

3.2 Methodology.............................................................................................................................................17
3.2.1.1 Walkover.....................................................................................................................................17
3.2.1.2 Flow measurement ......................................................................................................................17
3.2.1.3 Water Testing..............................................................................................................................17

3.3 Results of Methodology...........................................................................................................................17
3.3.1 Infrastructure.........................................................................................................................................17
3.3.1.1 Pipelines ......................................................................................................................................17
3.3.1.2 Reservoirs and Junction Boxes...................................................................................................18
3.3.1.3 Tap Stands...................................................................................................................................19
3.3.2 Water Quantity......................................................................................................................................20
3.3.3 Water Quality........................................................................................................................................21

3.4 Current Maintenance Practices .............................................................................................................22

3.5 Recommendations....................................................................................................................................23
3.5.1 Required Maintenance Work................................................................................................................23
3.5.1.1 Infrastructure...............................................................................................................................23
3.5.1.2 Leakage and Exposed Pipe .........................................................................................................24
3.5.1.3 Water Flow..................................................................................................................................25
3.5.2 Future Sustainability of System ...........................................................................................................25

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page ii
4 SOLAR PASTEURIZING & COOKING PROJECT ...........................................27
4.1 Background ..............................................................................................................................................27

4.2 Testing the Water Quality in Muramba ...............................................................................................28

4.3 Solar Cooker Preparation in Wisconsin ...............................................................................................29

4.4 Solar Cooker Implementation................................................................................................................30
4.4.1 General Strategy ...................................................................................................................................30
4.4.2 Workshops ............................................................................................................................................31
4.4.3 Microbusiness .......................................................................................................................................32
4.4.4 Design Testing ......................................................................................................................................32
4.4.5 Outcomes ..............................................................................................................................................33

4.5 Further Work in Muramba....................................................................................................................33

5 FUEL BRIQUETTE INITIATIVE .........................................................................34
5.1 Project Background.................................................................................................................................34
5.1.1 Overview of the Fuel Briquette Process ..............................................................................................34

5.2 Biomass Availability................................................................................................................................35

5.3 Preparing Biomass for Composting ......................................................................................................36

5.4 Press Construction...................................................................................................................................37

5.5 Pressing Briquettes..................................................................................................................................38

5.6 Appropriate Burning Techniques..........................................................................................................39

5.7 Further Project Work in Muramba ......................................................................................................40

6 WOMEN’S CRAFT GROUP OVERVIEW ..........................................................41

7 DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY ........................................................42

8 FUTURE PLANS FOR UW-MADISON EWB INVOLVEMENT .........................50

9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................................50

10 APPENDICES .................................................................................................51
10.1 A: Flow Measurements for New Source ...............................................................................................51

10.2 B: Observations and Flow Measurements For Village Survey ..........................................................52

10.3 C: Water Testing Results........................................................................................................................56

10.4 D: Site Assessment Sketches...................................................................................................................57

10.5 E: English-Kinyarwanda Field Dictionary...........................................................................................60

10.6 F: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Articles from Summer, 2005 Trip...................................................69

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page iii
A way to save trees, and improve villagers' lives................................................................................................69
UW students hope briquettes can become a sustainable fuel.......................................................................69
Tricky business ..................................................................................................................................................71

Beyond help in Rwanda.........................................................................................................................................71
Geography puts AIDS treatment just out of reach for most........................................................................71
'Land of a thousand problems' ........................................................................................................................75
Transforming a village......................................................................................................................................76

Bringing water to Rwanda ....................................................................................................................................77
UW team works to ease town's thirst..............................................................................................................77
The challenge begins .........................................................................................................................................79
A meeting of the minds .....................................................................................................................................82

Ugandan priest answers call to help ease suffering in Rwanda........................................................................83

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page iv
1 Introduction
1.1 Background

The community of Muramba lies in the province of Gisenyi in northwestern Rwanda, bordering
the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Muramba refers to the geographical area under the
influence of the local Catholic Deanery, including four parish churches. The village encompasses
several primary schools and three nationally-renowned secondary schools. A vocational school
teaches community members, many of whom cannot afford tuition at the secondary schools, basic
vocational skills.
In July 2005, members of EWB-UW, EWB-UK, and the University of Butare - Rwanda
partnered with the community of Muramba, Rwanda to implement water supply infrastructure.
Members also assessed the community’s existing water supply, provided technical support and
recommended improvements to local technicians. The assessment focused on weaknesses in the tap
stands and piping networks and identified sources of leakage. EWB-UW coordinated with local
leaders about the formation of a water board to govern water usage throughout the community

1.2 Participants

1.2.1 Engineers Without Borders Involvement

The July 2005 trip to Muramba involved two teams from the University of Wisconsin -
Madison and one participant from the United Kingdom. They worked in Muramba for a total of one
month, with Team 1 arriving at the beginning of July and leaving mid-July; Team 2 arrived one week
after Team 1 and stayed until the end of July. The teams worked together for five days. The EWB-UK
student stayed for the duration of the trip to provide continuity to the project work undertaken by both
teams. In addition, two journalists from the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel embraced the opportunity to
travel with EWB-UW in an effort to increase awareness of the plight of the Rwandan people, and
Africa as a whole, in their struggle to develop. Table 1.1 lists the individuals who participated.

Table 1.1: Participants in the July 2005 trip
Team Name Project Organization
Team 1 Megan Bender Solar Cooking EWB-UW
Prof. Peter Bosscher Water EWB-UW faculty advisor
David Joles Photo Journalist Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Susanne Quick Journalist Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Evan Parks Fuel Briquetting EWB-UW
Ryan Wilson Fuel Briquetting EWB-UW
Team 2 Jon Armah Community Survey EWB-UW
Bill Brower Solar Cooking EWB-UW
Sam Jorgensen Fuel Briquetting EWB-UW
Adrienne Kuehl Solar Cooking EWB-UW
Tim Miller Water EWB-UW
Ryu Suzuki Fuel Briquetting EWB-UW
Others Andre Steele Water EWB-UK
Emmanuel Tuombe Water University of Rwanda - Butare

1.2.2 Community Involvement

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 1
Community members played a crucial role in the development and implementation of the
water project. Village leadership provided direction and supervision during the design and
construction of key water infrastructure. During project implementation, leaders of Muramba Parish
and the College of Muramba worked with EWB-UW members on the design of the system. Project
leaders are depicted in Figure 1.1. Community members volunteered many hours to dig the pipeline
trench. Involving community volunteers ensured that Muramba would have a significant stake in the
project and furthered the long-term sustainability of the project.

Figure 1.2: Project leadership (l-r) included Frederick, Saïdi, Jean Paul Basansanga, Innocent
Kabande, Peter Bosscher, and Louis

Saïdi and Frederick represented the community in the water project. As former sector chief,
Saïdi was responsible for day-to-day digging operations. He personally directed volunteer personnel
and provided some technical input into project design. While Saïdi supervised daily trenching,
Frederick assumed responsibility for the long-term maintenance of the system. He will continue to
work with Innocent, Louis, and Saïdi on system operation and maintenance.

1.2.2 Parish Involvement
Individuals from Muramba Parish contributed significantly to the water project as well. Father
John Bosco Musinguzi, Innocent Kabande, and Louis spearheaded Parish efforts. While Father Bosco
provides spiritual leadership to Muramba, he also contributed logistical support to the water project.
He helped locate tools for the EWB-UW team and frequently shuttled the team to the site.
Innocent Kabande, the resident technician for the parish, has extensive knowledge of the
existing water system in Muramba. Innocent is the resident engineer for the water project, having the
final say on the construction process. He is a capable, friendly man who was more than willing to
listen to suggestions made by EWB-UW. He ably responded to issues posed by EWB-UW with
practical solutions. He is the most qualified technician in Muramba, though employed by the parish.
Hence, his primary concern lies with the infrastructure directly affecting the Parish.
Louis is the primary technician for the College of Muramba. Like Innocent, he maintains a key
component of the water system, but does not have the same technical competence as Innocent and
refers to him frequently in decision making. Louis is also employed by The College of Muramba, so
his primary concern is the operation and maintenance of the College infrastructure.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 2
1.3 Community

The community of Muramba is approximately 12,000 strong. The community is in a low state
of development as evident in deteriorating water infrastructure and few commercial or industrial
activities. There is evidence of textile manufacturing and carpentry, and a few private establishments
service the community with grocery shops and bars. However, subsistence farmers comprise the
majority of the community.
Community members regularly volunteered intervals of time to assist in the water project.
Each sector committed a number of volunteers daily to help dig, flag the pipeline route and transport
pipe; most of the volunteers were women. While volunteers contributed significantly, skilled laborers
also provided invaluable help in mixing concrete, building masonry junction boxes, and connecting
hydraulic elements. These people, mostly men, were paid for their efforts.
President Paul Kagame recently institutionalized a community work day throughout Rwanda.
One day each month, able-bodied community members commit a half day’s work to collectively
improving local infrastructure. In Muramba, the community work day focused on the water project.
Over 1000 people volunteered to dig pipeline trench. The community turned out in full force to
support the water project, as pictured in Figure 1.3.

Figure 1.3: Nearly 1000 community members turned out to help dig pipeline trench.

2 Water Project
The existing water infrastructure in Muramba is in poor condition and is currently failing to meet
international World Health Organization standards for quality and quantity. While past EWB-UW
projects have focused on improving water infrastructure for the Parish and College, expanding the
system to increase quantity available to the community is the primary objective of this project. It is
estimated that the new source will double the quantity of water entering the village system.
Approximately 10,000 individuals will ultimately benefit from this project, including students,
widows, orphans and villagers. EWB-UW worked with the community to facilitate construction of the
system addition and to impart skills and knowledge regarding system maintenance and operation.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 3
2.1 Project Description

2.1.1 Description and Route of Pipeline

The system is comprised of two main collection areas that are connected to a pipeline
approximately 5 km in length. The pipeline connects the new sources to the uppermost village
collection box; the elevation drop accounts for nearly 100 m of head. A cross-sectional depiction of
the land where the pipeline is trenched is represented in Figure 2.1. The local geology is primarily
clay topsoil underlain by fine sandstone and interspersed with deposits of kaolinite and mica. The land
immediately surrounding the sources is highly cultivated as the local population is primarily
subsistence farmers. Tile workshops are located near each of the sources to make use of the abundant
wet clay deposits. Severe deforestation is prevalent as the needs for fuel and farmland compromise
remaining timber stands. The government, in an effort to halt this process, has introduced measures to
stop timber harvesting and the use of wood as a fuel.
The pipeline parallels the main road leading to Muramba for much of its length. Based on
design calculations, the necessary pipe diameter needed to carry flows from the two collection areas
was 63 mm. Roughly 5 km of PVC pipe transports water from the two sources to the village. Pipe was
laid in 6 m lengths at a trench depth of roughly 1 m and connected using ordinary pipe epoxy. In
several instances, the pipeline crosses small ravines and gorges in which the pipe is precariously
exposed and open to the effects of weathering. To bridge these gaps, technicians constructed steel-
trussed encasings to protect the line.

Figure 2.1: New supply cross-sectional schematic

The two sources are situated by each other to the south west of the community. The first
source is located above the main road leading to Kabaya and just off a smaller road that leads to a tea
plantation. The pipeline begins at Source 1 and travels down a small valley to meet the tea road. It
crosses the road and runs parallel to it before traversing a steep forested slope before crossing beneath
the main road. The pipeline then runs parallel to the road until it reaches the junction box between
Source 1 and Source 2. Figure 2.2 illustrates the sources in relation to the village.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 4
Ridge Line
Road
River
Pipeline

SOURCE 1
SOURCE 2

Gitarama

Entry Junction
Box Kabaya
Source Junction
Muramba Box

Figure 2.2: Schematic of New Water Source for Village

2.1.2 Source Development
2.1.2.1 Source 1

Source 1 is comprised of two subsidiary sources referenced as Source 1A and 1B. They issue
from the ground as natural seeps and result from the high water table within the area. Source 1A
yields nearly double the flow of Source 1B. Initially, only Source 1A was to be developed, but
project leadership excavated source 1B with little notice. Source 1 is depicted below in Figure 2.3.
Both sources were found to be contaminated with Coliform, as indicated by a positive result in the
Colilert ONPG test, though there was no indication of either being contaminated with E.Coli, as
indicated by a positive result in the Colilert MUG test.

Table 2.1: Source 1 Flowrates and Water Quality Results
Flow Rate Quality
Source L/s L/min Colilert ONP G Colilert MUG
(yellow) (UV)
1A 0.35 20.88 + -
1B 0.19 11.28 + -

Source 1A

River
Local Tap Stand

Pipeline to Muramba
Junction Box

Source 1B
SOURCE 1

Figure 2.3: Source 1 schematic

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 5
The local community relies on
Source 1 as their primary water source.
To accommodate the needs of these
people, it was agreed that a tap would be
provided at this source to allow the
community to continue to collect water.
Installing a tap at the source would also
eliminate any incentive for vandalism or
sabotage as the local supply would be
jeopardized as well. Source 1A is
depicted in Figure 2.4 before
development.

F
igure 2.4: Source 1A in use before development

2.1.2.2 Source 2

Three seepages flow into the Source 2 collection box. Each site was excavated in a manner
similar to that of Source 1, with volunteers doing much of the physical labor and technicians
conducting most of the skilled labor. As with Source 1, water seeps to the surface at a number of
places in the hillside; the three sources issuing the most water were subsequently tapped. Water
collected from each source contained Coliform; source 2D also registered E.Coli in a
presence/absence test. However, a later Colilert test for a fecal Coliform count yielded no presence.
Further investigation of this source may be necessary if a treatment system is to be considered. Flow
rates and water quality results are listed in Table 2.2. The sources are also shown in Figure 2.5 and
Figure 2.6.

Table 2.2: Source 2 Flowrates and Water Quality Results
Flow Rate Quality
Source L/s L/min Colilert ONP G Colilert MUG
(yellow) (UV)
2B 0.10 5.94 + -
2C 0.08 5.05 + -
2D 0.06 3.60 + +
Source 2B

Source 2D
Source 2C

Junction Box

SOURCE 2

Figure 2.5: Source 2 Schematic

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 6
2B

2C

2D

Junction Box

Figure 2.6: Sources 2D, 2C, and 2B (l-r)

2.1.3 Spring Box design

Each spring box was crafted to fit the specific location. Similar boxes have been replicated
many times in Muramba as technicians are skilled at masonry and understand basic fluid dynamics.
Once the seepage site had been located, excavation to expose the source commenced. Once exposed,
the source was dammed with local clays and filled with washed gravel as pictured in Figure 2.7. An
exit pipe embedded in the clay and gravel
served as the outflow pipe. The source is
covered with plastic to prevent
contamination and then sealed with more
clay and backfilled with gravel. In the case
of Source 1A, a concrete cover was placed
over this second layer of gravel and sloped
down to further drainage points in the
wall. Gravel and soil serve as the drainage
bed and will effectively filter surface
runoff.

Figure 2.7: Spring box construction

Protecting the source from overflow is a concern as surface runoff could undermine the
integrity of the entire spring box structure. To remedy this, technicians constructed a concrete apron
around the base of the retaining wall to channel the drainage water away from the foundation and
limit potential erosion. The source pipe exited below the apron directly into the trench. This design
was implemented on Source 1A, 2B, 2C and 2D and possibly Source 1B. Source 1A is illustrated
below in Figure 2.8 and Figure 2.9.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 7
Connecting Pipeline
Clay enclosures
Grass

Masonry Soil
Drainage Apron Retaining Wall

Pipeline Gravel Concrete cover
Drainage

PLAN Gravel
Clean Gravel

Drainage Apron
Source

Pipeline Clay Layer
ELEVATION

Figure 2.8: Schematic of Source 1A spring box

Drainage Pipes

Source Outflow

Figure 2.9: Emmanuel Tuombe inspects the spring box at Source 1A.

The spring box at Source 1B was likely completed in a similar fashion. However, the
structure was completed and buried before EWB-UW could view the construction. From discussion
with the construction manager, the spring box consisted of a gravel body overlying the source, which
was encased in an impermeable clay layer. A masonry box covered the source, with the catchment
pipe running from the center of the dammed seep into the Source 1 junction box.

2.1.4 Source Protection

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 8
Protecting the sources from potential sources of contamination will improve the overall water
quality. Ensuring that the sources are adequately protected from human interference and surface run-
off will help extend the life of the system as well. The protection methods discussed included drainage
ditches, fences and planting vegetation; all were designed to prevent erosion and source
contamination. Each site was discussed individually, and a general path for the drainage ditch was
indicated. Though the sources are mostly invulnerable due to the nature of construction, they are
located in agricultural areas and near local tile industries. While plans for protection were discussed,
leaders took no immediate action.
Two options for diverting surface runoff included a clay ditch and a dry stone channel. While
EWB-UW felt that a simple clay ditch would be sufficient, local technicians believed that a dry stone
channel would be more durable and effective at deterring farmers from encroaching too closely to the
source. Despite the initial capital cost, a dry stone channel would also require less long-term
maintenance. The final decision was left in the hands of the local community, which they agreed
would also depend on the remaining funding. It was agreed that regular maintenance would be
required to maintain the integrity of the drainage channels. Clearing the channels after the rainy
season and regularly removing overgrown vegetation are two primary maintenance tasks.
Slope stabilization and cultivation of a grass slope will provide additional protection to the
source. Large trees with deep root structures are not desirable near the source, as the roots may
interfere with infiltration into the spring box. However, it is important above steep slopes that the
slope face is stabilized to prevent erosion above the source and to keep top soil from being deposited
on the spring box. Cultivating grass on the slope and surrounding the area with a wood lattice fence is
one to curb erosion. Rather than acting as a prevention of entry, the fence will more likely notify
people of the location of the springs and indicate that they are not to use the area for crop production.
Future EWB-UW teams should check to see if villagers completed source protection schemes.

2.1.5 Local Supply

At Source 1 and Source 2, local populations use the seeps as a primary water source. It was
agreed that the local community should continue to have access to this water after the addition of the
new sources. To provide water to both Muramba and local farmers, a tap stand was to be constructed
on the side of the junction box that combined Source 1A and 1B, but had not been constructed by the
time of EWB-UW’s departure. While both sources empty into the junction box, only the smaller of
the two flows (from Source 1B) was to be tapped. A portion of this flow is redirected to the
communal tap stand through a T-junction fitted with a restrictor valve. The remaining water flows
into the junction box and feeds the new line. This design ensures minimal water is lost if the tap is left
open or is broken as the flow to Muramba will not be affected by damages to this tap stand. The tap
stand is pictured in Figure 2.10.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 9
From Source
Junction Box 1A
From Source
1B
Restrictor
Valve
T Junction

Tap Stand

River

To Muramba

Figure 2.10: Source 1 tap stand schematic

Two issues arose concerning the use of the tap stand. The first issue concerned how much
water should be available to the local population. Jordan (2000) recommends a flow rate of 13.5 l/min
to serve a population of about 200 people; the local population was estimated to be less than half that
number. Therefore, it was agreed that a flow rate of approximately 6 l/min would be adequate, but this
amount can be adjusted as leaders see fit. With a combined flow of 32 l/min from Source 1A and 1B,
roughly 26 l/min would pass on Muramba with the tap was in use. A tear-drop tap will be installed so
that when it is not in use, the tap will automatically turn off and allow the full flow to pass to
Muramba. It is recommended that the flow at the Source 1 tap is measured by a future EWB-UW
team and adjusted to ensure satisfactory flow if necessary.
The second issue of concern was the location of the junction box and tap stand with respect to
the river. EWB-UW believed that the tap stand could be flooded during high flow of the stream
during the rainy season. The local inhabitants indicated that the box was situated above the high flow
of the river. At present the base of the junction box is approximately 30 – 40 cm above the dry flow
conditions. Construction had commenced on the junction box
before EWB-UW discussed the issue with the project leaders,
making it difficult to question the location. If high flow
conditions do pose a threat to the integrity of the junction box
and tap stand, the stream could be dredged along a 3 m
section as it runs past the tap stand. This would pass water
through the area faster, and provide a greater height between
Junction Box the wet season flow and the tap stand. The Source 1 junction
box is pictured in Figure 2.11 under construction. A future
teams should check the condition of the tap stand to ensure
that it is accessible to locals and that drainage and flow are
adequate.
Tap stand

Figure 2.11: Source 1 junction box and tap stand

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 10
2.1.6 Connection of Source to Pipeline

Flows from Source 1 and 2 connect to the main pipeline at the junction boxes. Individual
flows from Source 1A and 1B and Sources independently of each other. One advantage of this design
is that it combines the individual flows without requiring complicated piping. A major disadvantage,
however, is that a larger junction box effectively lowers the source head. This was not an issue at
Source 2 but did pose a problem as Source 1.
The pipeline from Source 1 travels down a small valley before crossing the tea road. The
pipeline then rises to a height only 15m below source 1A. There was concern over whether sufficient
head existed to pass water over the hill even without the construction of the junction box. To examine
the potential, pipes were connected temporarily and, as expected, the water did not flow over the rise.
Consequently, laborers decided to re-dig a portion of the trench at a lower elevation rather than adjust
the junction box design.
Because Source 2 is situated high above the road leading to Muramba, the lowering of the
effective head with the introduction of the junction box was not an issue. The pipe from Source 2
travels down the valley and joins the road just prior to the junction box. The two sources combine in
the junction box, pictured in Figure 2.12, which acts as a break-pressure tank. Upon exiting this
junction box, water flows to the village in a single pipe. The new source will enter the village at the
entry junction box. The village system is described in further detail in Section 3.

Figure 2.12: Water from Sources 1 and 2 enter this junction box before flowing to the village.

2.2 Discussion

2.2.1 Status on Leaving

Upon EWB-UW’s departure, an estimated 2 to 3 months of work remained. Source 1 was
nearly complete, with only the junction box between A and B requiring completion. The foundations
and walls of the box had been completed, but the tap stand and the roof of the box still needed more
work. The pipeline from Source 1 to the junction box pictured in Figure 2.12 also neared completion.
Laborers had begun laying pipe and connecting joints, and the entire distance could be laid within a
matter of days. More substantially, a number of special crossings requiring iron trussing and
protection pipes still needed to be fabricated. Material availability and need for additional funding
may hinder completion on these lengths. (Additional monies are being sent to continue this work.)

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 11
Source 2 was in a similar state of completion. At the source, only the junction box required
finishing work. The trench from Source 2 to the junction box, however, had not been dug. The
steepness of the slope on which the trench was to be dug could limit the effectiveness of the labor
force in laying and connecting pipe.
An additional 200 m stretch of trench was to be dug from the source junction box and the
entry junction box to the village. Due to the extremely tough rock and soil layer, digging the
remaining trench length could take several days to complete.
The remaining work lies in the connecting the system addition to the existing village system.
Once the system addition is connected, project managers plan to walk the route of the water from the
entry junction box to Esecom Reservoir and check for signs of leakage. After assessing the existing
system, the new source will be disconnected so that repairs to the main line can be undertaken. Once
completed, the new source will be reconnected directly to the Esecom reservoir and the renovated
Clinic reservoir.

2.2.2 Use of New Supply

The community plans to use the new supply to enhance flow to the village and to ensure that
the clinic always has a constant supply of water. Community members plan to renovate the clinic
reservoir and use it as storage as needed. It is predicted that there will be abundant supply, and that the
clinic will not need all the water. To this end, technicians will install three additional lines to the
Parish, the Muramba College and the Maria Goretti school. A restrictor valve will be placed on each
of these lines to restrict flow while bolstering current supplies.
While the use of the water was not discussed in depth, EWB-UW was concerned about the
parish and the two schools receiving additional water when clearly the village could benefit from the
full supply. Though there was assurance by parish and college leaders that the additional water would
only be dispersed if needed, the design was open to abuse or neglect. It is predictable that an opened
valve leading to one of the schools could easily drain the clinic reservoir, leaving no water for the
clinic. There appeared to be very little that the remaining EWB-UW students could do to influence
this decision. It was felt that someone with more influence in the community needed to broach the
concern with the community leaders.

2.2.3 Maintenance Schedule

It is important that source technicians institute a maintenance schedule. Establishing a regular
routine before the system begins to visibly degrade will facilitate long-term system sustainability. The
schedule has been divided into required regularity and is laid out in Table 2.3. System maintenance
should be carried out under the supervision of Frederick and may entail hiring additional laborers to
effectively maintain the system.

Table 2.3: Recommended system maintenance
Regularity Task Description
Acquire flow rates at all community tap stands.
Tap Stand Flow Measurement Reductions in flow will indicate problems requiring
immediate attention.
Weekly
Test water being supplied to the community at tap stands.
Water Testing Contamination as one tap stand will indicate more
significant quality issues.
Monthly Visual review of system, taking note of saturated soils
System Walk-Over near the pipeline and degrading tap stands and reservoir
sedimentation levels.
Bi-annual Clear vegetation, clear drainage channels and repair
Renovation of source protection
fences.
System Flush Flush all pipes and shock entire system.
Annual Rapid drawdown of all reservoirs for detailed inspection
Reservoir Flush
and cleaning of interior walls.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 12
2.2.4 Role of EWB-UW in the Project

EWB-UW and Muramba each contributed significantly in bringing the water project to
fruition. EWB-UW supported the project by financing the material cost, providing technical support
to project managers, and supervising the design and construction of key structural and hydrologic
infrastructure. Muramba provided skilled laborers, knowledge of local natural systems, and ‘sweat-
equity.’ The community assumed responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the system,
which will help give the community a sense of ownership and responsibility. For the most part, the
individuals in charge of the project were very capable and able in their work, working efficiently and
effectively. Work progressed rapidly throughout EWB-UW’s time in the community; at one time it
was even thought that the project may be completed prior to EWB-UW’s departure. On more than a
few occasions, the presence of EWB-UW was apparent in the project progress.
The community expected that all people involved would be paid for their work. It was agreed,
however, by the project managers – both from EWB-UW and the community – that this was a
community development project and that only skilled laborers would be paid. Skilled laborers would
not be able to earn wages for the duration of the project as their skills would only be needed for
certain intervals. Consequently, all masonry work and construction was paid, but digging was not.
Insufficient funding in the original budget to pay for unskilled labor gangs encouraged volunteer
labor. More significantly, this project is a community development project, and as such, it was hoped
that a sense of village ownership could be achieved through volunteer labor.
EWB-UW’s presence can be viewed from multiple viewpoints. From one perspective, the
project was being pushed forward by foreigners who were also volunteering their time to help the
community. From another perspective, these were ‘rich’ foreigners who had brought a substantial
amount of money into the community and could afford to pay for the work they were asking of the
community. The predominant perception was that the project was an overwhelming success and that
much less would have been accomplished without EWB-UW’s presence and the community’s
determination to better the villagers’ livelihoods. On a number of occasions the entire community
worked together. The EWB-UW team members joined in these community dig days, and were
received well, even if their presence often slowed the digging process.
One issue that challenged EWB-UW and village leadership to reach consensus concerned
getting water from Source 1 over the high point on the tea road. It was apparent to EWB-UW that this
was going to be a difficult task, and some time was taken to ensure that there was enough head from
the source to the high point to drive the water. There was great concern when the issue was discussed
and it was discovered that the project managers planned to lower the effective head of the sources by
using a junction box. It became apparent that further discussion would not change the plan proposed
by village leadership. The only way to demonstrate this issue was to connect the source to the high
point and show that the water would not flow over the hill. Once the problem was illustrated, there
was a good understanding and alternatives were discussed. However, the situation highlighted a
reluctance to seriously consider what EWB-UW said when it involved changing the design of the
system. Though complications with communication existed, this situation highlighted potential
complications future EWB-UW teams should be aware of.
One such complication arose over the proposed use of the new source. After supplying village
tap stands with additional water, the water was to supply the clinic, which currently has no water.
Everyone agreed that this was very important. The dispute arose from the plan to link the new source,
stored in the renovated reservoir, to the parish, the college and the Maria Goretti School. EWB-UW
felt that any water not used by the clinic should be made available to the community who currently
lack a satisfactory supply. Throughout this discussion, the community representative was silent,
allowing the individuals who worked for the parish and college to voice the needs of these facilities.
This situation illustrated the allegiance of the educated technicians in the community to their
employers and the reluctance of the community to challenge their wants. Furthermore, it illustrated
EWB-UW’s impotence in helping determine the eventual use of the water. Project managers
maintained that the best use for the water was to help boost the supply for the parish and college.

These points highlight a number of issues that future EWB teams may wish to consider:

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 13
• A villager’s main concern is to be able to work to earn money to support themselves and their
families, and any proposed volunteer work must take this into account,
• Problems based on theory may be difficult to explain, but practical examples and illustrations
help in gaining understanding.
• It is important to discuss potential problems as soon as possible, as the project leaders had the
habit of completing work before EWB-UW was aware of it.
• The individuals EWB may be working with will be affiliated with the parish or the schools.
This could lead to a conflict in ideas and objectives, and result in difficult situations where
EWB is unable to influence decisions made by the project managers despite being financers
for the project. One potential outcome is that large community projects require a direct benefit
to the parish or the college, with the community being a secondary consideration.

These are purely discussion points, based on dealings with the local community. It must be
stressed that the parish is instrumental in the community development, and the enthusiasm of the
parish leaders, namely Father Bosco, are precisely what the community needs. However, future EWB
teams may find it beneficial to consider the points made if only to prepare themselves for all
eventualities.

2.2.5 Recommendations

The water project was progressing well as EWB-UW departed from Muramba, but a few
concerns still remained. These included:

• Tap stand at Source 1: A brief assessment of the tap stand at Source 1 is needed to ensure it
is sanitary and structurally sound, with easy accessibility and good drainage. Flow
measurements need to be taken to ensure the flow is adequate. The apron should rise above
the stream so it is not flooded during the wet season.
• Tap stand at Source 2: Some confusion existed at Source 2 as to whether a tap stand was to
be built. The outcome should be checked and, if necessary, the supply may be tapped
depending on the funding and materials.
• Protection of Sources: A brief assessment of the protection of each source is needed to
ensure they are adequately protected. No surface runoff should wash over the infrastructure
and local inhabitants should not be farming within the source area. Above each source the
slope stability needs to be assessed and vegetation within the source area needs to be checked.
• Water Testing: An accurate water testing regime is needed once the system has been
completed to ascertain the cleanliness of the supply and the potential need for a central water
treatment facility. Current testing showed contamination of Coliform, and an absence E.Coli.
• Maintenance: A maintenance schedule needs to be drafted and refined with the community
to ensure there is constant observation of flow and the condition of infrastructure. A
preliminary maintenance schedule is given in Table 2.3.
• Use of Additional Supply: There is a need for discussion between EWB and the community
leaders about the proposed use of the new supply. This should be between someone of
leadership within EWB – for instance Peter Bosscher – and the village leaders, including the
Sector Chief and the parish leaders.

3 Village Distribution System Assessment
In addition to working with village leadership to implement new infrastructure, EWB worked
to assess current infrastructure. After assessing the community’s current infrastructure, EWB-UW will
provide recommendations to village leaders in an effort to better maintain and operate the system. A
full assessment of the village distribution system was carried out on 20 July 2005 by EWB members
Tim Miller and Andre Steele and University of Butare student Emmanuel Tuombe. The assessment

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 14
was an effort to gauge the condition of the village system and its ability to cope with the introduction
of the new source, which is estimated to more than double the current water entering the system.

3.1 Description of System

While components of the current system vary in age, the oldest infrastructure dates back over
75 years. With the exception of Muramba Parish, the College of Muramba and the Maria Goretti
School – all three of which have alternative water sources – the community is home to approximately
7,000 individuals. Many households rely on alternative sources that result from a locally high water
table to meet their individual needs.
Currently, three major sources feed the Muramba area. One source directly feeds the College
Of Muramba, and then links to the village primary school. The primary school currently has no water
because the tap stand situated in the school has been sealed off. The tap was most likely sealed due to
leakage or a broken tap. This leaves about 500 primary school students without any source of water
throughout the day. The closest tap stand to the primary school is within the parish compound, an area
where children are not allowed. The closest water source is a large leak in the parish line near the
Esecom reservoir. The leak pools in a hole in which the children play in and almost certainly drink
from.
The second source feeds the parish, with a subsequent line leading to the Maria Goretti
School. This subsidiary line has recently been turned off. Students from the Maria Goretti School
collect their water from the parish, evident in the long lines of school girls queuing every morning to
fill their water containers. Another line runs from the parish to the vocational school where three
additional taps are located. None of these taps are in a usable condition. Technicians have
permanently sealed two taps by clamping the pipe. The third tap is broken, but is still used by
unscrewing the tap.
The third source feeds into the village system and is the focus of this investigation. The origin
of this source is discussed in Section 2; the village system is depicted in Figure 3.1. Water is collected
several kilometers away and enters the village at the entry junction box (J01). From this point the flow
is divided with a subsidiary line running to the village reservoir (R01) to feed a total of three taps.
Only one of these taps now functions (T01). The main line runs from the entry junction box to the
Esecom junction box (J05). From here the flow is divided with the majority of water flowing into the
Esecom Reservoir (R02). The remaining flow is diverted to two Esecom tap stands (T06 and T07).
The Esecom reservoir represents the main storage point for the village. Three lines issue from
the reservoir. One line runs back into the village center to feed four taps (T02 – T05). The second line
feeds water to the pre-Esecom tap (T08) and the clinic taps. The third line runs directly to the parish
system and is stored in the parish water tower.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 15
Source A

Reservoir 1 (R01)
Entry Junction Box
Over Flow 1 (J01)

(J02)
Road

Pipe
Village Tap 1
(J03)
(T01)

Washout
(J04)
Village Tap 2
(T02)

Mosque Tap
(T03)
Mosque

Sector HQ

Village Tap 3
(T04)

Esecom School Carpentry Guild Tap (T05)
(Private)
Esecom Junction Box (J05)
Esecom Tap 2 (T07)
Esecom Tap 1 (T06)
Esecom Reservoir PreEsecom Tap (T08)
(R02)
Reservoir 2 (R03)
(disused) Cinic Taps (T09)

Nurses Tap (T10)

Village Tap 4 (T11)
(unused)

Store Room Tap (T13)
Primary Scool Tap (T12)
(Cut Off)

Vocational School

Vocational School Tap (T14)
(Cut Off)

Parish Source B & C
Toilet Block Tap (T19)
Parish Tap 2 (T18) (Cut Off)
Parish Tap 1 (T15)
Pastoral Tap (T16)
Goretti School Reservoir
Parish Water Tower (Disconnected)
Reservoir 3 Goretti
(Unused) School

Teachers Quarters

College of
Muramba

College Reservoir
Alternative Distribution Sand Filter
Line College Water Tower

Figure 3.1: Schematic diagram of the village system

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 16
Buried PVC pipe constitutes much of the system. Metal casing shields the pipe in areas where
additional protection is required. Junction boxes and access boxes are constructed of masonry and
mortar, and the reservoirs tend to be constructed of dry stone masonry. The only exception is the
metal parish water tower. The system is maintained by the combined efforts of Innocent and Louis,
who are employed respectively by the Parish and the College of Muramba. Frederick will assume
responsibility for the system when the new addition is completed.

3.2 Methodology

The assessment included a walkover and visual inspection, flow measurements and water
testing.

3.2.1.1 Walkover

The walkover followed the line of the pipes from their entry into the village. It began at the
entry junction box (J01) and followed the main pipelines, picking up the infrastructure as it
progressed through the village towards the main reservoir at Esecom School. From here the line led to
the parish. A superficial survey examined the alternative sources used by the parish and the college.
As these two systems were not the main focus of the assessment, they are not mentioned here in great
detail but have been discussed in previous summary reports.

3.2.1.2 Flow measurement

Where possible, flow measurements were taken to gain an idea of the flow quantity through
the system. The flows were measured using a basic stopwatch, a wide mouth bottle with 100 mL
markings, and coordinated recording. Multiple flows were measured in an effort to achieve a more
accurate average. In instances of low flow, fewer measurements were necessary. Flow measurements
are listed in Appendix 8.2 B.

3.2.1.3 Water Testing

Water testing was carried out in two phases. Initially, a basic presence/absence test was used to
ascertain the presence of contamination from Coliform and E.Coli. If the sample tested positive, the
sample was re-tested for the concentration of Coliform and E.Coli.

3.3 Results of Methodology

Overall, the system was in poor condition. Recommendations for immediate maintenance work
are described in subsequent sections. The system will be described in terms of infrastructure, tap
stands and water quality.

3.3.1 Infrastructure

There appears to be a lack of maintenance throughout the system. In general, the
infrastructure that is located in the village was in a worse condition than the more remote
infrastructure.

3.3.1.1 Pipelines

In many instances, pipes throughout the village were exposed and leaking. It was not possible
to make an accurate estimation of the extent of water loss throughout the system; however, total water

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 17
loss could be as high as 50-75 %. The most significant losses occurred in subsidiary lines and along
the length of the Esecom line. The subsidiary line feeding Reservoir 1, for example, had a break
which lost nearly 100% of the flow when exposed. Obviously, breaking the line was deemed
appropriate at this location in order to make clay bricks. This break requires immediate attention, as
the subsidiary line was calculated to carry 0.2 l/s, roughly one third of the water entering the village
through the entry junction box (J01). The leak is depicted in Figure 3.2.

Water pools for
making clay bricks

Uncovered pipe

Figure 3.2: Leak (L01) in subsidiary line to Reservoir 1 (R01)

The Esecom Line had numerous leaks, referenced as L02 – L08. The major breaks are located
just south of the village center (L05) and at the road junction in the middle of the village (L07). These
leaks result from exposed pipes that are deteriorating from sun exposure and human activity. As the
majority of these pipes are PVC, the pipeline is susceptible to damage if not sufficiently protected.
Direct sunlight will reduce the lifespan of the PVC pipe and will exacerbate the damage caused by
human traffic.

3.3.1.2 Reservoirs and Junction Boxes

The reservoirs generally appeared to be in good condition from the exterior. However, the
only accessible reservoir required internal resurfacing. This was Reservoir 1 (R01) located at the top
of the village. Structurally the reservoir was in good condition, but the internal waterproofing layer
had developed cracks which could be seen externally in seepage through the masonry.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 18
Figure 3.3: Cracking in internal surface of Reservoir 1 (R01)
Of the remaining reservoirs, the Esecom Reservoir (R02) was inaccessible as the incorrect
key was supplied during the survey. No obvious leaks were visible from the exterior. There was also
an unused reservoir (R03) that was being renovated for storage of the new source.
A brief overview of the college and parish reservoirs showed that though structurally sound,
basic maintenance work would be a beneficial. Clearing sediment and scrubbing the biological growth
from the walls would extend the lifespan of the reservoirs and the quality of the water. All the
reservoirs had access boxes covering the exit pipes, but none of these access boxes were locked. None
of the exit pipe valves included taps that could be easily adjusted.
Other than the entry junction box and the box at Esecom, none of the junction boxes were
locked. The general public could easily access these junction boxes, and there was often rubbish
deposited in the boxes. None of the valves housed by the boxes had usable taps, though this may have
been a method of preventing interference by local residents. Each of the locked boxes acted as
breakwater pressure tanks; therefore, it is important that these boxes stay locked. They were in good
condition with little sediment and no visible cracking.

3.3.1.3 Tap Stands

There were no satisfactory taps stands being used within the village. Faults fell into one of
three areas: protection, taps and drainage.
The ideal tap stand design provides a good drainage channel for excess water and a relatively
high support post for the pipe. Most tap stands within the village lacked a sufficiently wide apron and
an adequate support for the tap itself. In most cases, the width of the stand is not large enough to
prevent water spilling over the sides and causing pools of standing water, erosion and churned mud,
all of which pose a public health and safety risk. The ideal width should be approximately 1 m,
allowing for access to the tap from the side while users stand on a designed drainage surface. A
typical tap stand is shown in Figure 3.4. Note the spray of water and the erosion undermining the
apron. Because the pipe is unprotected and unsupported, the tap could easily be broken.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 19
Figure 3.4: Erosion around the apron and spraying water are exhibited in Village Tap 1 (T01).

Future maintenance schedules should include replacing all village tap stands with tear drop
taps provided by EWB-UW. A future EWB project could involve the detailed design and construction
of an ideal tap stand within Muramba, which could then be copied replicated throughout the village.
This could be done in conjunction with the Vocational School. Much of the water from the new
source will not reach its destination unless tap stands are improved.

3.3.2 Water Quantity

Flow measurements were taken at key points throughout the village system. Some of the
results are displayed in Table 3.1. About one third of the total flow is presently routed from the Entry
Junction Box to Reservoir 1 for use in the upper village. Originally Reservoir 1 was designed to feed
three tap stands, though currently only one exists: the second tap has been removed and the third was
never constructed.

Table 3.1: System flow rates at key points.
Site Flow Rate
L/s L/min
Entry Junction Box (J01) 0.62 37.2
Reservoir 1 (R01) 0.22 13.4
Esecom Junction Box (J05) 0.30 17.9
Village Tap 1 (T01) 0.30 17.8

The remaining flow is transported directly to the Esecom reservoir (R02). It was not possible to
estimate the loss of flow through this pipeline because the reservoir was locked. It was, however,
noted that only two of the public tap stands being fed from the Esecom reservoir had any flow at all,
both of which were too low to measure. The other remaining three taps had no observable flow on the
day of the assessment. Later observation showed a similar poor flow from these taps, resulting in
some innovative catchment systems utilized by villagers to ensure minimal water collection time. One
method is pictured in Figure 3.5.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 20
Figure 3.5: Villagers often use banana leaves to collect water at Village Tap 2 (T02).

Three lines exit the Esecom reservoir, of which two supplied public tap stands and the village
clinic. The third conveyed water directly to the parish. It was obvious that the parish had ample water
on the day of the assessment, as the parish gardener was busy watering the grass during the hottest
part of the day. It was not possible to say how much water was entering the parish system from the
Esecom reservoir, as the point of entry was unknown. A flow of approximately 0.22 l/s entered the
Esecom reservoir, and a combined flow of 0.08 l/s was routed from the Esecom reservoir. This would
suggest an inflow of roughly 0.14 l/s into the parish system.
It is apparent that the current water distribution in Muramba does not ensure the village
always has an adequate supply of water. There appears to be a high water table in the area, and many
of the households situated off the ridge line of the village, away from village system, use natural
springs. These are not satisfactory water collection points for the villagers however, due to the
distance they are required to walk. Thus, it is imperative that the system continues to supply constant
quantity of water to the village.
From the brief investigation undertaken by EWB-UW, it would appear that the water
distribution currently favors the parish. The only village tap to receive an adequate water supply was
Village Tap 1 (T01), which was the only tap not connected to the Esecom reservoir. This indicates
that the valves controlling flow to the village need to be adjusted to ensure adequate water reaches the
village tap stands.

3.3.3 Water Quality

Water testing showed the water entering the system to be contaminated with Coliform
bacteria, a bacterial contaminant that is not necessarily harmful but is used as an indicator of other
potentially harmful bacteria. E. coli presence is more serious as it indicates fecal contamination.
While samples collected in the village system were contaminated with Coliform, none of the water
sampling areas returned consistent E. Coli contamination and most showed no contamination
whatsoever. This would suggest that the village system is not part of a fecal-oral route. Therefore, it is
logical to assume that there is no water entry into the system outside of the main supply. The water
from the village supply cannot be deemed safe though, as high concentrations of Coliform do exist.
Currently the water being supplied does not conform to WHO guidelines of 0 Coliform per 100 mL.
This would suggest that preliminary treatment is required to treat the water prior to being supplied to
the community or after it is dispersed to individuals.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 21
Samples were taken from jerry cans at several sources. In most cases, there was an increase in
the number of bacteria compared to the water sampled directly from the source. For example, water
from the tap in the parish courtyard used by the kitchen contained no E. coli; water from the tap
collected first in a jerry can had 3 E. coli per mL, or equivalently 300 E. coli per 100 mL. This
highlights a common problem in village water supply: despite the quality of the water supplied, the
water containers used result in the spread of disease. One advantage of a centralized treatment facility
is that residual chlorine content would remain in the water until consumption or use in the home.

Figure 3.5: Dirty water containers contribute to the spread of disease.

Current practices in the village indicate that the villagers are aware of the need to treat the
water they consume. Home chlorination kits are available for purchase at local pharmacies, though
they are too expensive for most villagers to afford. The individuals surveyed mentioned a lack of time
and fuel to disinfect water through boiling; during EWB-UW’s stay, neither of the two village
pharmacies had chlorination kits in stock. This is an aspect of the water supply that has been
recognized by EWB-UW and is currently being addressed by the Solar Pasteurization project1. On
days with good to excellent amounts of sun, there was sufficient energy to effectively pasteurize water
within a few hours. However, many of the days were overcast and not suitable for water
pasteurization. The water within the system should not be trusted for drinking or cooking purposes,
unless boiled, chlorinated or pasteurized first.

3.4 Current Maintenance Practices

The current maintenance regimen is not adequate if the distribution system is to be sustainable.
Under the current system, the community has responsibility for monitoring the system and identifying
problems. Once a problem as been identified, village leadership is notified and generally contacts the
parish to request assistance. Thus, the village relies on parish technicians to maintain their
infrastructure. This may change as the new system is completed and Frederick is assigned
responsibility for the village system. Since the parish benefits from the same water line as the village,
the parish and village have agreed that the parish will help maintain the village system without
requiring payment, provided the identified problem is not a result of vandalism. For example, if the

1
reference to solar cooking summary

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 22
problem is a broken tap, then the families who directly use that tap are required to raise the funding
required to purchase a replacement tap. The repairs are then carried out by a parish technician.
Practice has shown that maintenance does not get done. In many instances, problems are either
problems not reported, or reported problems are left unattended. There may also be a reluctance to
report broken taps, as the users must pay for a new tap. Most often, it is easier to walk a greater
distance to fetch water than raise money for a new tap.
Some problems that are reported do get dealt with rapidly, but often in a non-sustainable
manner. When it was noticed that the toilet block tap (T19) was broken, the tap was removed, and the
pipe sealed by clamping it shut with a pair of pliers. No attempt was made to repair the tap. EWB-UW
had recently brought 40 tear-drop taps into the community, but these were not considered, despite
having been purchased to replace faulty taps in the village. Once a pipe has been sealed, it is difficult
to affix other fixtures to the pipe.
No community organization holds responsibility for the water system, and it appears that
maintenance work is done when it affects the water supply for any organized body of the community.
As a result, the system directly supplying the community does not get repaired, and is only dealt with
when a substantial loss occurs. Generally the responses in these cases are terminal. The exception is
when the problem relates to faults in a private system: when the Mosque tap was sealed, it was done
using a screw cap until a replacement tap could be bought. Likewise, a faulty tap in the carpentry
guild was replaced by the users at a price of 3000 FRW.

3.5 Recommendations

At present the village system and the parish and college systems are in grave disrepair. They
suffer from an extended period of lack of maintenance and provide a poor service to the community as
a whole. Often, local women queued early in the morning at the parish gate to be allowed access to
the internal parish taps. In long term, a shift in operational and maintenance behavior is needed. Even
with the addition of a new source, the functionality of the community water supply is not guaranteed,
with current losses amounting to at least 50% of the total inflow volume throughout the system.

3.5.1 Required Maintenance Work

The following is a list of recommended maintenance work needed to bring the village system
up to a good working standard.

3.5.1.1 Infrastructure

R01: Top Village Reservoir
The internal surface of the reservoir is cracking, and loss of water is visible as leaks in the masonry
wall on the exterior surface of the tank. It is recommended that the reservoir is resurfaced on the
inside to extend the life of the tank.

J02: Junction Box
This junction box had no means of locking, required to prevent public access. Providing a locking
mechanism will allow only maintenance personnel to check flows and discourage tampering.

T01: Village Tap 1
The tap stand is inadequate. The tap valve is poorly adjusted and sprays water in a large radius. As a
result, the soil around the apron has eroded, causing pools of standing water and churned mud. The
drainage for the tap stand is also inadequate. The tap should be replaced with a tear drop tap and the
apron should be extended on each side. The drainage channel could be extended with dry masonry for
2-3 m beyond the current apron.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 23
J03 and J04: Junction box
This junction box had no means of locking. Installing a locking mechanism would prevent
unauthorized public access.

T02: Village Tap 2
The tap stand is currently performing well, but due to insufficient flow there is a collection of debris
in the apron’s main drainage channel. The stand does not extend far enough laterally and results in
standing water. Replacing the current tap with a tear drop tap and extending the apron laterally will
improve the long-term durability. The apron drainage channel should be cleared as well.

T03: Mosque Tap
This tap has no stand or protection. The tap is broken and shut off. It is recommended the tap is
replaced with a tear drop tap and a complete tap stand is constructed around the tap.

T04: Sector Headquarter Tap
The apron is sufficient for the flow observed at the tap. The extended drainage is inadequate and the
mud pool used for water collection poses a public health risk. It is recommended that the apron is
extended laterally on either side and a dry stone masonry channel is constructed to a point beyond the
immediate area. The current tap should also be replaced with a tear drop tap.

T06 – T07: Esecom Taps 1 & 2
These taps supply water to the Esecom School. They currently have very low flow. They are
structurally sound, but require extended drainage channels to prevent further erosion of the slope.

T08: PreEsecom Tap
The tap has no protection around the pipe and though a steeply sloping apron is present it is
insufficient for the usage of the tap. The earth drainage channel conveys water down the road through
the village, and has been damned to pool water for brick making. The tap stand would benefit from a
new apron. Furthermore, a dry masonry drainage channel is needed to channel the water away from
the village down slope. The tap needs to be replaced with a tear drop tap.

T10: Nurses Tap
The nurses tap was not designed for public use, but the local community still uses it. It has insufficient
drainage, as the main sink drain has been broken. The apron channels water to the side of the building.
Water was added to the building after construction was completed and the feeder pipe ran over the
apron. The sink is elevated, putting it beyond the reach of children. The drainage pipe for the sink
should be fixed, and a tear drop tap used to replace the current tap. If the tap is not to be a public tap
then an alternative public tap should be constructed nearby to provide water for residents in the
immediate area.

3.5.1.2 Leakage and Exposed Pipe

There were many instances of leaking and exposed pipes in the community system. A
description and location of each recorded leak is listed in the Appendix. In almost all instances leaks
have developed at poorly connected joints. Either a previous repair was incorrectly finished, or a
poorly finished joint at the time of construction was not noticed. At no location was a leak noticed
from a cracked or broken pipe. Some leaks were only evident in the dampness on the ground surface
above the pipe. It would be logical to assume that these leaks also result from poor joints. It is critical
that maintenance is conducted to fix these joints using proper cementing techniques. Observation of
joint cementing techniques during the new pipeline construction indicated that technicians possessed

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 24
sufficient technical aptitude to join pipes; however the pipe ends were not roughed before application
of the glue.
In many cases the leaks had developed at locations where the pipe was exposed to the surface.
Exposure of the pipe will increase the degradation of the pipe line, as sunlight degrades PVC and the
pipe will be subjected to increased human traffic. In all instances of leaks, the pipe needs to be cut and
refitted with good joints. The pipe must remain dry during this operation, so the water supply will
need to be cut briefly. This may pose problems, and it might be wise to ensure reservoirs are full prior
to interrupting supply, especially if the repair is being undertaken on the main Esecom line.
All exposed pipe and repaired leaks should be reburied to a depth of at least 60 cm below the
ground surface. The depth may need to be deeper for leaks L04, L05 and L07, where the pipes run
along a main thoroughfare. If this depth is not achievable, it may be necessary to encase the pipe in a
metal cover pipe to ensure protection. The PVC pipe should enter and exit the metal cover pipe below
ground to prevent accelerated fatigue from sunlight exposure and human activity.

3.5.1.3 Water Flow

From the survey undertaken, it appears that there is insufficient water reaching the village
taps. A total flow of 0.62 l/s enters the system from the current village source, while only a flow of
0.32 l/s is seen in the actual village taps. The remaining 0.3 l/s is fed to the parish and lost through
leaks. It is recommended that on completion of maintenance work required in the village system, a
comprehensive water balance is undertaken to assess the distribution of water resources. Depending
on the results of that balance, the appropriate valves should be adjusted to ensure there is an adequate
supply to all village taps.
Repairing the system could take months to complete, as financial support will most likely be
the limiting factor. It may be wise for an EWB team to carry out the water balance and then makes
recommendations to the community. From recent experience, any recommendations that involve
reducing the water supply to the parish may require the support of both the parish leadership and a
senior member of the EWB team.

3.5.2 Future Sustainability of System

The maintenance and operation of the village system is currently not sustainable. Specifically:
• A comprehensive assessment of the village system is rarely undertaken, and maintenance is
performed sporadically as funding permits.
• Water is currently free to users of public facilities, so the cost of repairs and maintenance is
not equally distributed amongst those using the system.
• The community currently lacks an entity to govern the use of the water system and to take
responsibility for repairs and maintenance.
In response to these issues, a water board could be institutionalized to encourage sustainability and
promote responsible use of the system. The conceptual organization of the water board is illustrated in
Figure 3.7. Elements of this system may already exist, but currently the system is disjointed and lacks
holistic integration.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 25
Source of Funding: Taxes

Parish College Goretti Esecom Vocational Other:
Village
Teachers
Nurses
Mosque

Board of Governors
Sector Chiefs
Parish
Schools: Goretti, Esecom, College, Vocational, Primary
Women’s Guild
Other: Carpentry Guild

Financial Manager Technical Manager
Collector Operators

Purchasing of Materials and
Labor

Maintenance and Expansion of
System

Figure 3.6: Muramba Water Board Organization

In this system, entities using the village water supply are responsible for the maintenance and
operation of the system. Currently, the parish, College of Muramba, Maria Goretti School, Esecom,
and the Vocational School all use portions of the village water supply. In some instances, the supply
for the schools is routed through the parish reservoir, though these schools also have additional water
sources. In addition, smaller entities like the clinic, the Mosque, and the carpentry guild use the
village supply. Taxing the water supply based on usage will ensure that the water is equitably
distributed to those who need it. As it currently stands, taxes are levied one time for the installation of
a private tap, as in the case of the carpentry guild tap.
Each entity being taxed would be represented on a Board of Governors. Sector chiefs, parish
leaders, school representatives, the women’s cooperative, and the carpentry guild, among others,
would represent their respective entities and be responsible for guaranteeing a portion of the water
supply for the body they represent. Ensuring that women are allowed on this board is critical in
achieving mutual consensus. From this board, a financial manager and a technical manager could be
elected.
The financial manager could act as the liaison between the board and the labor force. In
managing the finances and taxes related to the water system, the financial manager would be in charge
of hiring a labor force as public works projects develop. For example, the financial manager could
have hired the skilled laborers (carpenters, masons, etc.) for the water expansion project. Additional

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 26
responsibilities could include purchasing materials needed for maintenance and basic upkeep of the
system.
The financial manager would work closely with the technical manager, another board
appointee. The technical manager would be responsible for the technical design of the current system
and would have the final say in all expansion projects. Communication between the financial manager
and the technical manager is critical, as the technical manager will undoubtedly need skilled laborers
(hired by the financial manager) to complete public works projects. System maintenance and
operation would be overseen by the technical manager as well.
These remarks are made with the best intentions of helping Muramba maintain and operate
the water system. Granted, Muramba’s political situation is not fully understood and these
recommendations must be seen from the perspective of an outsider to the community. Expanding the
system to include new sources will do little good if the system is not properly maintained and
operated, and establishing a water board could promote community and responsibility and individual
accountability. The system is doomed to fail unless the community takes collective responsibility for
the system and is proactive in seeking equitable distribution of the current water resources.

4 Solar Pasteurizing & Cooking Project

4.1 Background

Much of Rwanda is heavily deforested (Figure
4.1). Its population density of 320 people per square
kilometer puts a tremendous strain on what little energy
supplies are available. In Muramba and the surrounding
regions, families rely on the firewood they collect or
purchase for cooking. Collecting firewood requires a
significant amount of time; buying firewood puts an
added strain on families’ already limited budgets. Also,
local leaders indicated that theft of firewood is a
problem in the community. Simple devices that use
solar energy in lieu of firewood for cooking food have
been successfully implemented in similar areas around
the world (including neighboring Kenya on a large
scale) and were chosen as a EWB-UW project in hopes
of diminishing the area’s dependence on firewood.
These “solar cookers” can also be used for
pasteurizing water, which we felt was likely to be the
primary use in an area where people are aware that they
Figure 4.1: Example of deforestation in should be heating their water to make it safe to drink but
Muramba are unable to purchase the extra firewood. Preliminary
water tests performed on earlier trips indicated the presence of harmful pathogens. In order to
determine the extent of contamination, further testing was performed this summer throughout the area
using tests that provide quantifiable results.
Water in Muramba is generally available in one of four forms: from the river, tap stands
throughout the community, leaks in the ageing pipeline and rainfall. Although it does not appear
many people collect their daily drinking water from the river, Muramban children were found to drink
the water without hesitation when crossing it. Not surprisingly, this was found to be one of the most
contaminated sources of water, showing E. coli presence each of the three times it was tested with up
to 12 E. coli per milliliter.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 27
4.2 Testing the Water Quality in Muramba

The primary source for water is the various tap stands located throughout the area. There are
a few public taps located along the roadside (Figure 4.2) and in the hills and others located outside on
the property of Esecom school, the vocational school, the parish, the nurses’ station and the

Figure 4.2: Roadside tap stand, common throughout the region
and a frequent source of disease
Figure 4.3: Inside of a typical jerry can
carpenters’ guild building which are used by the general
public. The parish, college, convent, AIDS clinic and at least one private home also have taps for
private use. There is one tap in the courtyard behind a building in the town center that apparently is
for the use of students living in an adjoining building but which had minimal flow while we were
there. This is not an exhaustive list but serves to provide a general idea of where people are (or
supposed to be) getting water.
Only one of the tests from the taps came up positive for the presence of E. coli bacteria. The
positive sample came from the nurses’ station tap which was retested twice and in those tests the
water tested negative for E. coli presence. Improper testing procedure could attribute for this
discrepancy but it is equally feasible that temporary contamination of the water supply is possible in

Figure 4.4: Smoke particulate coating the walls
above a traditional three-stone fire Figure 4.5: Wood-burning stove at Esecom school

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 28
the seriously dilapidated piping system. All of the taps came up positive for the presence of coliform
bacteria—a group of bacteria that aren’t necessarily harmful themselves but are used as indicators of
other potentially harmful bacteria. E. coli presence is more serious as it indicates fecal contamination.
Therefore the water coming from the taps is cleaner than expected but still not ideal for untreated
consumption.
The piping system is decades old and in dire need of repair. Exposed pipe is a common site
throughout the area and leaks can be large enough to create small streams of water down the hillside
that become a more convenient (if less sanitary) source for many people. The water from a puddle
from one such leak was tested and it showed the highest level of coliform contamination that we
tested at 420 bacteria per milliliter (though it was negative for E. coli). It was the dry season and
hence rained only once for about 20 minutes during our time in Muramba so this source of water was
not tested.
Regardless of the source, water is almost exclusively collected in jerry cans. These containers
often have no caps to prevent the inside from getting dirty and are never cleaned (to the best of our
knowledge) between their numerous reuses (Figure 4.3). They are a likely source of contamination
and one that could be eliminated if water was drank directly from the pot it was pasteurized in.
Samples were taken from jerry cans at several sources and in most cases there was an increase in the
number of bacteria compared to the water sampled directly from the source. For example, water from
the tap in the parish’s courtyard used by the kitchen contained no E. coli; water from the tap collected
first in a Muramban’s jerry can had 3 E. coli per milliliter.

Decreasing the dependence on firewood would also have the benefit of limiting the exposure to
indoor smoke inhalation—unavoidable with current cooking techniques. This is a problem both in
individuals’ homes (Figure 4.4) and in kitchens responsible for cooking for large numbers of people
(Figure 4.5).

4.3 Solar Cooker Preparation in Wisconsin

Before EWB-UW arrived in Rwanda,
much preparation was made to ensure the greatest
chance of success of the project. Studies on
material availability and lifestyle were completed
beforehand, as well as creating and testing solar
cookers based on these materials. Two designs
were decided upon, and both were brought to
Muramba. The first design is one using wood to
create a large box with a smaller insulating box
placed on the inside (Figure 4.6). Placed between
the two boxes is an insulation material, in
Muramba banana leaves were used. The bottom of
the box is ideally some sort of black metal, though
rocks painted black or if nothing else wood painted
black will suffice. The lid of the box has a rim of
wood that can fit snugly onto the top, with no Figure 4.6: Box type solar cooker
space between so as to not release any of the heat
while cooking. Inside the wooden rim of the lid is a sheet of glass, which allows in the sunlight. This
design is very sturdy and can ideally reach temperatures near 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The problems
with this design include the availability of wood for the box and glass for the lid.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 29
The second design is a panel style cooker
utilizing cardboard as the main material (Figure 4.7).
The cooker has three upright panels with two flaps to
connect it to the bottom flap, which also has a front
flap to maximize the sunlight entering the cooker.
The cardboard is then covered in tin foil or another
shiny malleable material to reflect the suns rays into
the center of the cooker where the pot will be
cooking the food/water. The pot is placed inside a
plastic bag to keep the heat in and placed on a metal
stand or rocks to keep just above the bottom panel,

Figure 4.8: Beatitude sisters with their solar CookIt

ensuring more sun rays will focus on the pot.
This style cooker can reach temperatures of
100º C in a matter of two hours if there are no
clouds blocking the sunlight.
Even on a cloudy day both cookers will
heat up, though not as efficiently as in direct
sunlight. The entire panel cooker can be made
from one piece of cardboard or many and is
much simpler in design than the box cooker.
This design is less sturdy and cannot withstand
inclement weather. Both designs utilize a black
or other dark color of pot to cook with. The
dark color is used because it will absorb more
heat.
A manual outline on how to build and
use each solar cooker was created in English
and French. Once in Rwanda the manual was
Figure 4.7: Panel style cooker translated to Kinyarwanda with the aid of
translators. Several commercially available
panel style solar cookers, SCI’s CookIt, were purchased and brought to Muramba in order to
demonstrate how to use and maintain these cookers. One CookIt model was brought to Muramba in
January by Peter Bosscher and given to a group of women called the Beatitude Sisters. They have
been using it over the past several months and can be very helpful with feedback (Figure 4.8).

4.4 Solar Cooker Implementation

4.4.1 General Strategy

A successful implementation of the solar cooker project in Muramba is one that will continue
to grow and develop with the community after we leave. This means that the way implementation is
approached must be carefully planned and yet easily adjusted. It seems appropriate that our role as
UW students is primarily to introduce the option of the solar cooking to Muramba with large-scale
community training to be carried out by local champions/experts. This includes three crucial aspects:
developing a solid fundamental understanding of the technology, stimulating an interest within the
community, and creating small enterprise opportunities. Once these aspects are achieved, the project
is primarily in the hands of the community.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 30
An understanding of the technology in the community is important in the sustainability of the
project because it ensures that maintenance and necessary adjustments over time will be more likely
successful. In approaching this aspect, we first needed to consider who should understand the
technology. A basic understanding of the technology is necessary for using the cooker: turning it to
the sun, adjusting the angle of the reflector, keeping the cooker closed until the food is done, etc. A
basic understanding of the technology is also necessary to specially produce the cookers: angles of
walls, materials used, etc. The technology is simple enough that most people in Muramba have the
capability of understanding it. Therefore, the introduction of the cookers should be based on the
fundamental technology involved in designing the solar cooker.
Stimulating interest within the community is essential because the people within the
community are whom this project will affect. Within the community, it was determined by
observation and feedback from Father John Bosco, women would be most directly affected. Women
currently do the preparation of the meals and the wood and fuel collecting. This statement, in most
cases, transcends the economic classes within rural Rwanda, which indicates that women in the
village and women on the hillsides could use the solar cooker. This meant that the target audience for
the implementation should primarily be women of a variety of economic statuses.
If Muramba adopts the solar cooker, then the women’s entire day will be different. A solar
cooker requires more planning, but less work. Recipes and cooking times and techniques are
different. This requires motivation for the women to change, and credibility of those teaching. Father
John Bosco helped us to choose five influential women in Muramba to introduce the solar cookers to.
We held a workshop and three of the women came for the duration. One woman, Mujawamariya
Dancille, brought the cooker home to test and use it herself. Then Dancille held her own workshop
with people in the community who were interested in attending. In this way, someone who is a part of
the community, who is trusted and who is familiar with the ways of the community, who has
credibility, was able to stimulate interest and motivate change.

4.4.2 Workshops

One of the second teams’ first days in Muramba, an informal informational session was held
with roughly 25 students from the vocational school (Figure 4.9). Bazansanga Jean Paul Eyadema,
who had previous experience with the cookers on ProfessorBosscher’s last trip to Muramba,
explained to the students how the cookers were made and how they worked. The students listened
attentively and asked many questions, which
we answered through Jean Paul. There were
few clouds that day and touching the dark
blue pots convinced many students of the
potential of solar heating. Others were later
convinced by properly cooked potatoes and
plantains.
The workshop held with the three
influential women was held the second week
we were in Muramba. It began with the
women coming to the Parish where there
were three cookers already set up. One
cooker had plantains, one had potatoes, and
one had just water. The cooker with water
had a thermocouple attached to give
temperature readings. The women were able
Figure 4.9: Solar cooker demonstration for vocational
to watch the temperature rise as the meeting school students
continued. They were also able to touch the
pots and feel how hot the sun was making them. We used a translator for the explanation portion of
the workshop. The basic structure of presentation was to present the problems including cost of fuel,
health, and deforestation leading to the erosion of crops, then explain why the solar cooker could be a

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 31
potential solution. We then explained how the cooker worked, the materials used, and the design
significance. We then asked for their concerns or questions.
In general, the women were intrigued. They openly acknowledged the problem, even brought
them up before we could. They understood the technology and asked questions for further
clarification. They were skeptical of things that we were ambiguous on such as material availability
and cost. Although we could alleviate the questions on material availability, we weren’t yet sure
about specific cost. We asked them for suggestions or comments and they suggested that they try it
out and then they could teach the rest of Muramba, which was our intention.
The workshop with the community was held a week later. There were close to twenty women
from school age up to elderly who attended. There was a panel cooker and a box cooker set up, and
one panel cooker that Dancille used as a prop. Unfortunately the weather was bad enough that during
the presentation, that there was very minimal noticeable temperature increase in the water. Also,
when people touched the pot, it was only slightly warmer, at temperature that clearly cannot cook
food. Dancille talked the entire time where we were available on the side or in the back for help if she
needed it. There were a couple questions that she was unable to answer without asking us. However,
from what was gathered from observing gestures and pointing, there were many similar questions
asked at this workshop as during the first. Cost came up right away again, a question that we were
still not able to specifically answer. People generally seemed interested, but were not as convinced as
the first group.

4.4.3 Microbusiness

The third crucial aspect of the introduction of solar cookers into Muramba is the generation of
a micro-business. The purpose of this is so that Muramba will have money going into the local
community. Also, maintenance or part replacement can also be done locally, which is quicker and
simpler. We talked to Father John Bosco about his ideas for approaching this aspect of the project.
He suggested finding someone in the vocational school to specialize in it. The students could also
build them for a class. Then the vocational school can sell them and make money. The cookers
would also be cheaper due to transportation costs. Also, the wood is already being bought for the
vocational school to practice different carpenter techniques. One carpenter at the vocational school
did make us the shell of a box cooker that we received within the last week of our visit. There was
one pseudo workshop held with students from the vocational school in the first week of our visit, but
we didn’t make any connections with the students. This workshop was similar to the first mentioned
above. People generally were really curious and asked some questions. After this day, the vocational
school went on holiday and many of the professors left Muramba.

4.4.4 Design Testing

Most days we set up cookers to test in Muramba. Our first tests consisted of just testing water
on a panel cooker in a dark blue pot. Then we tested the temperatures with different foods. We also
made our own panel cooker and tested the manufactured against our homemade cooker. When the
box cooker was finished, we tested it against the panel cookers. Also, we varied pot color in case
dark pots weren’t available to people. This testing was done within the Parish, where people who
worked for the Parish or coming to get water from the Parish tap would come and look at the cookers
and see increasing temperature. Fabian, the Parish cook, could soon set one up himself and would
turn them to follow the path of the sun if we were not around. We also took samples of the water
from several sources and from the pasteurized solar cooker water. These numbers provides number
evidence of the quality of the cooker in Muramba.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 32
4.4.5 Outcomes

We left in August satisfied that progress was made in each aspect of the project. There was
interest in the cookers within and around the Parish. At this point interest had not reached the hills.
Also, because of the workshops and the testing, most of these people exposed to the solar cookers
understood the simple technology. We also had become quite good friends with Dancille, who agreed
that she would like to lead another workshop after we were gone, and had received her contact
information in case she had questions or needed encouragement.
Although we made little progress in terms of generating a micro-business through the
vocational school, we left the cookers as models and translated manuals, as well as several other
unused items of supplied for manufacturing the cookers. Father John Bosco agreed, with a person in
mind, to find someone to lead this project within the vocational school.
We also completed several different tests with the cookers. These numbers will help us to
better understand best cooking times, amounts of water to cook with, efficiency of heating and
cooling of the pots, and what types of weather conditions will work. These tests will also help us and
the people in Muramba come up with some Rwanda specific recipes.
There were several things that were difficult in implementing solar cookers in Muramba. The
overall theme that took us a while to get used to was the plethora of time and lack of urgency in
getting things done. Nothing happened quickly. Things started late or not at all. It was difficult to
have one or two things to do each day and not be able to finish them. Also, due the holiday break, it
was difficult and frustrating not to get a connection with a teacher at the vocational school. Another
thing that we were unsure of is the cultural response to new things. For example, people will, out of
manners, act excited and interested in things your saying, but may not be. In the case of the solar
cookers, we were not confident in the level of excitement and eagerness we perceived during the
workshops. Also, while we were there, there were only a few days where the solar cookers would get
the water up to boiling. There were many days that became overcast which would cool the water.
One of the most difficult things was figuring out a concrete price for the cookers. There seemed to be
a lot of variables playing into this which were yet to be determined, specifically with the vocational
school.
There were many things that were easy about the implementation as well. There was an
obvious recognition of the problems mentioned and an eagerness to fix them. The people, for the
most part, were intelligent and able to understand the technology with ease. It was also very easy to
schedule workshops because few people are committed to things during the day. The ease of these
things was welcomed.

4.5 Further Work in Muramba

Follow-up is essential in these sorts of technology transfer projects where far too many
anecdotes from the well-intentioned past tell of suitable efforts failing not due to the actions while in-
country but to the inaction after departure. This is especially important given the implementation
strategy we chose for the solar pasteurizers which relies heavily on the sustained and persistent
commitment of specific individuals in the community. Therefore we must maintain sustained and
persistent contact with people like Dancille and Father John Bosco in order to ensure success of the
project. Continued dialogue will facilitate goals being met and will allow for joint resolution of
technical problems that arise.
All of the technical information is now available in Muramba (in English, French &
Kinyarwandan) for production and use of both panel and box style cookers; now we must ensure that
the implementation through the vocational school and potentially a private business venture are
realized. As the school's headmaster and primary contact of EWB-UW, Father John Bosco will be
vital to reaching both of these goals. E-mail communication has proved to be reliable with him.
Dancille will also be important to keep contact with via e-mail (which she said she checks every week
in a bigger city). Once the vocational school has started producing the pasteurizers, it would be a
good idea to hold another community informational meeting which she could again lead to inform

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 33
more people about the technology. It will also be valuable to continue to get updates from her and the
Beatitude sisters regarding their experience using SCI's CookIt.
On site follow-up would be valuable whenever possible to ensure that the implementation and
propagation are going as planned. For next summer, it is unlikely this will require the effort of a
normal full team project but it would be wise to spend a fair amount of time inspecting all aspects of
this project, assessing the progress and putting in added work where it's needed.
Solar pasteurization of water is also possible in larger units, though these systems are more
intricate and require more tailoring to the specific location. Large scale systems for potential use at
the schools were researched before the trip and site assessments were carried out to determine their
feasibility (see rough sketches in the Appendix). It was determined that all of the schools assessed
would have at least some area on their premises with an adequate "solar window"--essential to their
use. Nearly all of the supplies necessary were found in Kigali with limited searching so we believe
such a system could be option for a future EWB-UW project. In fact, a similar working device is on
display at the Kigali Institute for Science, Technology and Management (KIST). They have several
demonstrations set up around the grounds showing sustainable technologies including a solar water
heater--which has a similar design to what we had in mind for a solar water pasteurizer. We met
several KIST students interested in working with our group and with their help we believe we could
design a large scale water pasteurization unit appropriate for Muramba.

5 Fuel Briquette Initiative

5.1 Project Background
As detailed in section 4.1, Muramba is
experiencing extreme deforestation and the
effects are taxing the environment as well as
local community (Figure 5.1). People spend
an increasing amount of time collecting
firewood farther from their home or needlessly
spend money buying wood at local markets.
A locally produced, renewable, cooking fuel
alternative could reduce theft, decrease time
spent collecting firewood, and keep money
within the community instead of importing
firewood from other areas. At the request of
community leaders, EWB-UW investigated
methods for improving people’s access to a
sustainable, low-cost cooking fuel in
Figure 5.1: A near treeless hillside in Muramba. Note
Muramba. One possible technology is fuel
only the dark green areas are potential fuel sources. The
light green masses are agricultural crops or fields. briquetting, namely the process of turning
agricultural and commercial wastes into a fuel
source. The Legacy Foundation (www.legacyfound.org) produces four manuals that describe the fuel
briquette process and case studies, including successful implementation in Uganda, a country whose
people share a comparable environment and living situation to Rwanda. These manuals were a
starting point for the project team, provided valuable technological insight, acted as a guide for a
sample press constructed and tested at UW-Madison during the spring of 2005 and as a reference
during the implementation trip in July.

5.1.1 Overview of the Fuel Briquette Process

The Legacy Foundation outlines several steps to press fuel briquettes. Upon review, the project
team agreed to use the manuals as the main reference for biomass selection, composting and press

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 34
construction. The following report will include some strategies from the manuals but is not sufficient
as a stand-alone document for further briquette implementation. The project team recommends using
this report as a case study to supplement the general strategies, biomass collection procedures,
composting, press construction and pressing techniques outlined in the manuals.
The first step is to collect available biomass throughout the community. The goal is to collect
dry (brown) agricultural and commercial processing waste. Residues from natural forests may be
used but removing refuse from the forest seemed counterproductive. Living biomass (green in color)
is not suitable for briquettes because it contains soil nutrients that inhibit effective burning. Examples
of typical agricultural waste include banana peels and leaves, sorghum husks, tobacco husks, cassava
peels, maize cobs, leaves and stalks, coffee husks, wheat stems and husks, cassava peels, potato roots
and crushed sugar cane leaves. While the team acquired mostly agricultural biomass, it is important
to recognize other sources including waste paper and certain wood material such as eucalyptus leaves.
The second step requires breaking the biomass into small pieces for composting, a critical point that
requires ample time and effort to perfect. The next step is to construct the wooden press using a small
quantity of excess lumber. After completing the press and composting the biomass, the wooden press
compresses the biomass and water mixture into small donut shaped briquettes. After drying the sun,
the briquettes are ready to burn in a stove.
Producing briquettes that burn long and hot is dependent on source biomass selection, mix
design and proper composting. The source material needs to include only dead material. Creating
effective mix designs and establishing proper composting levels determine how well the material will
bond in the presence of water. An over-composted mix will begin to decompose and bond poorly in
water.

5.2 Biomass Availability

The production of briquettes requires an adequate supply of source material. The team
observed a wide array of available biomass that includes agricultural waste from maize, sorghum
(Figure 5.2), sugar cane, bananas and cassava, commercial waste in the form of saw dust, eucalyptus
leaves (Figure 5.3) and a significant amount of waste paper from the four local schools. Sorghum
chaff, husks and straw were available and collected in mass community from the local schools. The

Figure 5.2: Sorghum used as mulch at Figure 5.3: Leaves lie unused beneath a
the base of a banana tree eucalyptus tree
team collected biomass largely from the schools, parish kitchen and periodically from agricultural
fields (with permission). The community uses sorghum and bananas in small quantities as crop mulch
and animal feed, but often in excessive amounts. In general, agricultural biomass is wasted and has
little monetary value. The supply of agricultural and commercial waste from sustenance living is
nearly endless and sustainable because briquettes can be recycled back to the earth after use. The
team did not measure the quantity of paper waste generated at the local schools because paper’s
success as biomass is questionable due to secondary use as a wood fire starter.
Walking the streets of Muramba reveals how much biomass is available in substantial
quantities throughout the entire region. The people in Muramba drop banana leaves, maize and sugar

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 35
cane onto the streets and groups of local women spend hours sweeping the waste into piles on a
weekly basis (Figures 5.4 and 5.5). People often burn the piles instead of using them as fertilizer or
animal feed. In addition, an overabundance of agricultural waste lies at the base of crops. Collecting
a portion of the material for briquette use and saving the street waste would increase resource
productivity. Effectively mobilizing the women sweepers and informing local farmers about
collection techniques could produce the biomass necessary to sustain a long-term alternative energy
solution.

Figure 5.4: Women sweeping the streets at Figure 5.5: A swept pile of maize and banana
Gatega Market, near Muramba Parish agricultural waste

5.3 Preparing Biomass for Composting

Preparing the biomass for composting is the most difficult project task. Intensive trial and error
is necessary to find the right mix design and required composting time. Composting occurs or several
days or weeks, and testing several mixings can take several months time. Preparing biomass for
composting requires reducing the biomass to an approximate size of 1square cm. The correct particle
size is essential, as it contributes to speed of composting and efficient burning. Reducing the biomass
to the appropriate size was an unexpected challenge. Attempts to break-up the material with mortar
and pestle proved ineffective and time consuming with a
machete. The most appropriate sustainable solution,
especially if involved in mass production, would be a small
hand or generator operated grinder. Once the material is the
correct size, it is ready for composting under a dark tarp. The
team discovered after buying several tarps in Madison and
Kigali that the community already uses similar tarps for
drying cassava, shelling sorghum and collecting sawdust. The
composting process is equally challenging. Proper
composting allows the biomass fibers to interlock thus
facilitating the binding of the briquette during pressing.
Figure 5.6: EWB student Megan Bender
Insufficient composting will result in a non-binding mix,
stands next to composted sorghum
while over-composition will result in material decomposition
and briquettes that don’t burn. The biomass available in Muramba composts at varying degrees,
discussed further below. The project team did not initially compost waste paper because paper-based
briquettes burn quickly and smoke a lot. Most houses do not have chimneys and such briquettes
would prove undesirable.
The team discovered that the biggest composting factors were particle size, relative moisture
and amount of sunlight. Particles larger than 1 cm2, mixtures that lack moisture and insufficient direct
sunlight significantly increase composting time. Sorghum was the easiest material to compost

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 36
successfully (Figure 5.6). Sorghum waste is ready for composting and composts fully in
approximately 5-7 days. In contrast, banana and sugar cane waste took on average two weeks to
compost fully. Sugar cane leaves are worth the trouble because their fibrous structure acts as an
excellent binder. However, they were near impossible to break-up by hand. Banana leaves (Figure
5.7 are available in larger quantities and easier to break up, but lack strong binding capabilities. The
team found adding food waste to agricultural waste piles decreases overall composting time. Sawdust
was readily available and is an effective material that binds well and doesn’t require composting.
Sawdust was added to several mixtures at quantities up to 20%. The team found that adding a small
quantity of water daily across the mix and turning the
compost over to be a successful composting strategy.
Especially true on sunny days, it is crucial to attend the
compost regularly to ensure moisture content and even
composting is occurring. The location best suited for
composting biomass is under a dark tarp (example: brown
or black) in direct sunlight. Despite the trip occurring
during Muramba’s winter season, its location near the
equator and at a high elevation helped certain mixtures like
sorghum compost quickly. The team can logically assume
composting time would decrease even further during the
summer months.
Figure 5.7: Compost mix of banana peels
and eucalyptus leaves
5.4 Press Construction

Press construction is comparatively easy to composting because the construction manual
contains many photos and helpful descriptions. Therefore the actually construction steps will not be
covered in great detail. During the spring 2005 semester, Madison students built a sample press that
provided valuable experience. This activity was an important way to develop working knowledge of
press construction and allowed the team to take pictures of the press to use as visual aides in country.
It is important to remember that a field built press will not attain the precision of one built at a
university carpentry shop. The project team brought key construction tools such as drill bits, clamps
and PVC from Madison in case none were readily available in Rwanda. However, the team
discovered comparable tools already exist in Kigali and Muramba. The St. Charles Lwanga Kolping
Vocational Training Center supplied the wood and the project team bought bolts, nuts, and PVC in
Kigali. It was helpful to have extra tools but not critical to successful press completion.
Carpentry students at the vocational school constructed the first press while the project team
provided schematics and some technical assistance (Figures 5..8 and 5.9). The construction process
unexpectedly took 1.5 weeks due to short daily work sessions, the language barrier, the necessity to
plane the lumber to relative size, lack of power tools, student examinations and the fact that the
students are not yet skilled tradesmen. The carpentry students were only able to work on the press a
couple hours each day. However, their desire to sacrifice their Saturday morning to further press
construction demonstrates their enthusiasm towards the project. In this regard, the exercise was
beneficial to them because it provided a unique opportunity to build an unfamiliar device using
schematics (rarely used in Muramba). During construction Madison and vocational school students
exchanged the Kinyarwanda, French and English words of tools and supplies used throughout the
process. While this exchange initially slowed the process, it reduced the language barrier and
quickened the overall project pace... The English – Kinyarwanda Field dictionary, available in the
appendix, lists many of the words and phrases employed by the project team.
A PVC mold and cylindrical piston are required to form and press the briquettes. The
vocational school doesn’t have sufficient machine tools to construct a wooden piston and the project
team fabricated a concrete piston using a spare PVC form mold. The team also cast a smaller 1 ¼”
PVC guide into the concrete piston. Unfortunately the vocational school students had to file the
hardened concrete piston because the press PVC and form PVC had the same inside diameter. Future
efforts could eliminate this problem by casting the concrete piston in a 3-3/4 inch PVC form. The

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 37
team discovered a way to reuse the form by cutting twice along its length and holding it in place with
two series of circular nails. One set of nails encircles the outside of the PVC while the other set
encircles the inside of the PVC guide The efforts of fabricating concrete pistons will pay future
dividends because they have greater compressive strength than wood and are not subject to expansion
in the presence of water.
The carpentry students suggested they build additional presses for their final class project
without help from the project team after completing the first press. The teacher agreed and divided
the class into four groups of six students each. The students used the first press and the manual as
guidelines. The additional presses were completed in less than a week and of better quality. Their
success was due to familiarity with the construction process, several visual references and interest in
receiving a good grade. The final project indicated that the students have the ability produce quality
work with limited tools and machinery, are fast learners, and show significant interest in the briquette
technology.

Figure 5.8: Carpentry students Figure 5.9: Carpentry students with their
constructing the top team of the first completed press
wooden press

5.5 Pressing Briquettes

Compared to composting, pressing the briquettes is comparatively easy. The biomass is mixed
with water to form a slurry mix. The slurry is placed in the PVC mold and set onto the bottom beam
of the press. The press applies force to the concrete piston which compresses the biomass in a series
of steps (Figure 5.10). The carpentry students quickly learned the process and made briquettes
without help after only 10 minutes of training (Figure 5.11). Further involving the carpentry students
in this process was important because it kept them interested in the briquetting process and provided a
sense of accomplishment
for their hard work.
The team has several
recommendations based on
experience in Muramba.
The first is to only saturate
material needed in the next
20-30 minutes. It is
important to keep the mix
saturated and but doing so
excessively leads to
unnecessary evaporation in
warm climates. The team
and vocational students
used a 5 gallon bucket to
mix water and biomass.
This size bucket was
adequate for pressing
Figure 5.10: The pressing process (courtesy: The Legacy Foundation)

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 38
briquettes with one press, but would likely be too small if using multiple presses. Another important
reason to keep the mix saturated is for binding purposes. Properly composted material binds
successfully only in the presence of water. If the briquettes are too dry, they will fall apart upon
removal from the PVC mold. After making a couple dozen briquettes, the team believes that pressing
3 briquettes per time promote an adequate final briquette size of about 1.5 to 2 inches thick. Pressing
several briquettes is done by simply inserting small metal spaces at approximately 3-3.5 inch intervals
in the mold. The team also discovered that rotating the PVC mold approximately 90 degrees in place
between each step in Image 5.5.1 helps prevent lopsided
and therefore weak briquettes.
The team doesn’t have mix design information
available for this document. The team inadvertently left
behind mix design information, compost datasheets and
burning statistics when they handed over the manuals to
the local teachers. The team will acquire the information
and add it as an appendix. Generally, the team found
pressing like biomass together promotes stronger briquettes
that burn for longer time periods. The team had the most
success pressing 100% sorghum mixes and nearly equal
success pressing mixes of approximately 80% sorghum and Figure 5.11: Vocational school students
20% saw dust. At small quantities the saw dust takes up pressing the briquettes
volume, saves agricultural biomass and acts as a binder. In
either case it remains important to saturate the mix with water to ensure maximum compaction during
pressing.

5.6 Appropriate Burning Techniques

As mentioned, the team inadvertently left burning statistics in Muramba. In general, the team had
little success burning the fuel briquettes. There are a few reasons they did not burn as long or as hot
as desired. The team was unable to compost enough material because persistent cloudy weather
lengthened the process. Inability to efficiently break down materials into small enough pieces also
delayed the compost time and reduced the length of burn. By project’s end, the team was unable to
burn more than 20 briquettes. The briquettes could not sustain a flame for longer than a few minutes,
didn’t stay hot and too quickly burned to ashes. Three briquettes (mix: 100% sorghum) burned for 45
minutes in a small portable stove (Figure 5.12). The team placed one litre of water in a metal pot and
placed it over the briquettes. The water temperature averaged 150°F and varied between 140° and
153°F. However, the briquettes quit burning after a few minutes unless the team supplied constant
airflow via blowing or fanning... Towards the end of the project the team made a paper mix that

Figure 5.12: Three briquettes burning over the Figure 5.13: EWB student Sam Jorgensen
stove. These briquettes consisted of 100% taking notes while testing the briquettes. Note
sorghum mixes the horizontal airflow; this type of stove does
not maximize briquette potential

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 39
consisted of 50% waste paper and 50% dry banana leaves. Unfortunately, due to time constraints the
mix did not dry in time and the team was unable to burn the briquettes. The Legacy Manual states
that finding the right recipe with the local materials and composting time based on the varying local
weather is the toughest component of the briquette technology. It could take several additional weeks
of trial and error in order to find quality fuel briquettes recipes in Rwanda. As a result, several more
weeks of testing and burning briquettes will result in reliable mix designs that provide ample heat to
decrease wood use as cooking fuel.
One noticeable problem that team wishes to address is a more effective cooking stove. The donut
shape of the briquettes is most efficient when air funnels below the briquettes and forces heat through
the center holes. If they team could create a stove that maximizes vertical instead of horizontal
airflow, the briquettes will burn more effectively (Figure 5.13). The team plans to investigate a stove
that encloses the briquettes and only allows air to pass into the stove via a hole below the briquettes.
They believe this will be more effective than the open stove tested and used in many Muramba
homes.

5.7 Further Project Work in Muramba

The pressing and burning of briquettes in Muramba is a first step in increasing the availability
of cooking fuel. The people of Muramba have adequate skill, ambition, and organization to
manufacture fuel briquettes from agricultural and commercial biomass wastes. The team needs
further coordination with the students in Muramba to determine successful briquette recipes, length of
proper composting, and efficient burning techniques. Prior to the departure, EWB-UW members met
with vocational school teachers Theophilus Niyibaruta and Jean Paul Nzabamwita and handed them
copies of the original manual, the translated Ikinyarawandan version, and all extra tools brought from
Madison. These teachers showed great interest in the project and plan to help students continue the
necessary work. Madison team members will keep in contact with these teachers to ensure future
collaboration and continuation. Perhaps the most critical element of success is Father Musinguzi John
Bosco. Father Bosco is the unspoken leader in the Parish and a true advocate of improving the lives
of the community. He believes a sustainable fuel source will save the community time, money and
natural resources. He showed continued support throughout the project, promoted the project in front
of the community, motivated the vocational school students and made clear his desire to support the
project to its conclusion.
Two problem areas that require the most initiative are mix designs and shredding biomass.
Perfecting mix designs will prove difficult for two reasons. The first problem is Madison doesn’t
have a similar climate and can’t imitate the effect of equatorial sunshine. Second, Madison students
do not have access to the same biomass and therefore unable to test similar recipes. Developing a
new strategy that addresses these issues will be one of the biggest challenges this year. It will be
easier to develop a power shredder capable of breaking-up biomass into compost material. A human
powered shredder is the most sustainable solution and would not require expensive diesel fuel or the
labor of a person chopping the material with a machete. The EWB-UW team is planning to
investigate designs involving bicycle parts for future implementation. The team has not investigated
more efficient burning techniques, but plans to search out means to maximize briquette potential with
clay brick stoves.
Once the team finalizes the recipe, composting, and burning techniques, the final step is to
introduce the technology to a group cooperative in Muramba. Such a group could control briquette
manufacturing and create a sustainable business without further EWB-UW contribution. Father
Bosco readily offered his guidance in forming a cooperative and could provide money to facilitate a
small cooperative through his small loans program. He also suggested that the vocational school
initially be the focus of the fuel briquetting process. His idea is to have people from the community
collect agricultural, commercial and forest waste material and sell it to the school. The school would
construct additional presses as needed, break-up the biomass, compost it, press the mixes and dry the
briquettes. The school would sell the briquettes to the community or to a local businessman in bulk at

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 40
wholesale price. Since the initial price of the briquettes may only be economical in bulk, the schools
and parish will likely be the first consumers before expansion becomes economical.
The need for alternative cooking fuels is certainly not limited to Muramba. Much of the rural
Rwandan population collects wood for cooking. EWB-UW hopes to spread this technology to other
regions in Rwanda once it takes hold in Muramba. UW students discovered an opportunity to work
with students in Rwanda to better develop the technology. While in Muramba, the team worked with
Emanuel Tuombe, a top Civil Engineering Ph.D. student at the Rwanda National University in Butare.
Emanual was quite interested in briquette technology and his engineering and bilingual skills could
provide valuable connections to advanced education students throughout Rwanda. Their ability to
understand the importance of the project and convey the message to people throughout the country
will be invaluable to the future success of the project.

6 Women’s Craft Group Overview
Jyambere Mutegarugori Muramba (“Women in Development – Muramba”) is a handicraft
cooperative located in the countryside of Western Rwanda; a region greatly affected by the 1994
genocide and the subsequent economic hardships. Although much of the country is on route to
recovery after years of war, rural areas, such as Muramba, are often overlooked. In December 2002,
Jyambere Mutegarugori Muramba was formed in order to produce new employment opportunities for
the women in this impoverished agricultural community. The group, which now consists of 93
members, produces handicrafts for sale at local markets and shops. In addition to providing an
important source of income for its members and the community as a whole, the group is a major credit
provider of the region. Over the past couple of years, Jyambere Mutegarugori Muramba has become
a major component to economic and social development of Muramba.
Currently Jyambere Mutegarugori Muramba is only able to sell their products locally. The
majority of their products are sold to the few tourists that come to the village. The group is
desperately trying to expand to other markets both regionally and internationally. Jyambere
Mutegarugori Muramba and the community as a whole would greatly benefit from participation in
SERRV.
The group is governed by a democratically elected 6-member committee consisting of a
President, VP, Secretary, Treasurer, and two Advisors. All group decisions are open for discussion
and implemented only after reaching a group consensus. The one-time membership fee of 10,000Rfr,
paid by all members upon joining, is used to purchase materials, rent a workshop, and provide a line
of credit for individual projects.
Members interested in taking out a loan must first submit an application to the governing
committee, who then review the applications and consults the rest of the group. A consensus must be
reached before the loan is granted. Terms and conditions are as follow: all loans carry a 10% interest
charge and must be paid back in a 2 month period; no more than a total of 100,000Rfr is loaned out at
a time. As of July 2005, all loans have been repaid on time.

List of Loans to Date:
• February 20th, 2005, Uwambajiman Winifrida borrowed 40,000Rfr to buy a parcel of farm
land. She used her home as collateral (valued at 200,000). Loan was paid back in 2 months with a
10% interest charge.

• February 20th, 2005, Umamaliga Léoncie borrowed 60,000Rfr to purchase sweet potatoes for
resale in Muramba. She used her home as collateral (valued at 500,000). Loan was paid back in 2
months with a 10%interest charge.

Although the loan program is in its early stages of development, it has shown positive results and a
possibility of expansion. Next round of loan applications are due at the end of August 2005.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 41
During our time in Muramba, we met with group members on several occasions to present the
benefits to joining the SERRV organization and explain the application process and member
requirements. All of the women of Jyambere Mutegarugori Muramba were extremely enthusiastic
about the opportunity to expand their markets to consumers outside of Rwanda. In order to expedite
the application process, we spend our time gathering as much information as possible. We plan to
present the findings to the SERRV Board of Directors in order to facilitate a direct relationship
between the two organizations. In the event that Jyambere Mutegarugori Muramba fails to become a
SERRV producer group, EWB-UW will be able to sell their products elsewhere (local stores,
churches, and student organizations). Listed below is an itemized list of the group’s products and
their retail prices. Photos of items are available on a separate document.

Item Price (Rwf)
1. Large basket, blue 800
2. Small basket set (5) 1500
3. Woven Hat 500
4. Hot mat 400
5. Hot mat w/black inlay 400
6. Hot mat 500
7. Wall Hanging, purple 1000
8. Wall hanging, “new year” 500
9. wall hanging, “Kolping” 500
10. Wall hanging, b/w 500
11. Wall hanging, b/w 1000
12. Blue star hot mat, large 1000
13. Blue star hot mat, med 800
14. Blue star hot mat, small 600
15. Set of hot pads, 4 pieces 800
16. Heart checker hot mat 500
17. Beaded wands 1500
18. Bird, cup, shield 1000
19. Shield, small & large 500, 600
20. Wood spear 200
21. Open basket small 500
22. Open basket large 600
23. Wall banner, small 300
24. Wall banner Large 500
“Whoever come my way I will receive!”
25. Greeting Cards: 1 card 100
50 Cards 5000

7 DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY
Overview

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 42
One of the major barriers to successful project implementation is a general lack of data. All of the
projects were specifically designed for conditions found in Muramba, yet we found ourselves walking
into the community with many unanswered questions. As a result, a basic demographic and health
survey was conducted to try to answer some of these lingering issues. Although the survey was
limited in scope, it provided valuable information critical for our current and future involvement in
the community.

The survey consisted of a series of questions meant to assist all members of the EWB Rwanda team.
It contains five major sections. Section 1 (questions 1-5) dealt with the basic household facilities.
These questions, along with several photos, were intended to give an idea of the physical environment
in which the individuals live. Section 2 (questions 6-14) revolved around cooking facilities and
procedures. This section provided information critical to the design and implementation of the solar
cooking and briquetting projects, along with general information about the nutritional health of the
household. The third section (questions 15-21) posed questions dealing with the household’s water
supply and basic health issues. Section 4 (questions 22-26) gained information about the household’s
financial situation, source of income, major expenses, financial savings, and list of assets. The final
section (questions 27-37) asked a range of questions dealing with the problems of the community.
This section was geared towards identifying the most severe issues in Muramba in order to possibly
develop solutions in the future.

Due to time constraints, most respondents were not able to answer every single question. As a result,
the most critical questions in each section were asked to maximize the time spent with each
individual.

DIFFICULTIES WITH CONDUCTING THE SURVEY

The initial goal of the project was to survey a random sample of 30-50 households around Muramba
Parish and specifically those households with access to the public water supply. This task proved
nearly impossible for several reasons. First, a statistically random sampling was not feasible due to
the seemingly arbitrary distribution of homes. Upon arrival, a map illustrating all homes within range
of the community water supply was to be created along with a spreadsheet consisting of a pool of
potential survey candidates. Fifty candidates would then be randomly selected from this pool.
Identifying and mapping all of the homes within range of the community water supply alone would
have required weeks of work. Due to the lack of time this procedure was no longer an option.

Secondly, conducting 30-50 household surveys alone proved to be physically and mentally draining
and logistically impossible due to a limited number of translators. Due to the mental drain and high
demand for translators, there were several days that no surveys could be conducted.

Ultimately, only 10 household surveys were conducted. Since a statistically significant sampling
proved to be impossible, households were selected in different geographical areas throughout the
community. Despite these problems, information gathered from the 10 households proved to be
extremely beneficial and will hopefully assist with future involvement in the community. The
following section provides a summary of the findings.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 43
Survey Results
Section 1: Basic Household Facilities

1 House design (General description The majority of the homes surveyed were basic rectangular structures
and building material) with pitched tile roofs. 80% to 90% of the structures were located outside
of the commercial center of town, in the surrounding hills and valleys.
Most (6 homes) were constructed out of mud brick or clay fired bricks
produced in the area. Only 3 homes were constructed with cement or
industrial quality bricks. Refer to the photos at the end of the section.

2 Main material of floor:
7 homes had dirt floors
2 homes with concrete
Concrete? 1 with tile
Wood?
Dirt?
Other?

3 Main material of roof: 6 homes had roofs made of a combination of wood and clay tiles
4 homes had roofs wood and metal
Metal?
Clay Tiles?
Other?

4 Does your household have:
No household in the community had access to electricity. 1 home had a
diesel generator that was no longer operational. 5 households owned
Electricity?
battery powered radios that were in operation. The other 5 households
A radio? either did not own radios (or any other electrical appliance) or owned
A television? radios that were no longer operational.
A telephone?

Are they operational?
5 What kind of toilet facilities does your 9 households used outhouses located next to the residence. 1 household
house have? used indoor toilet facilities (Turkish-style toilet) located inside of the
housing compound.

This is an example of a typical
mud brick home located in the
countryside surrounding
Muramba Parish. Community
leaders estimate that 80% to
90% of households live in
similar conditions.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 44
Material used in constructing these homes may vary according to the financial well-being of the
household. The basic house design may be enhanced by incorporating plaster, better quality bricks,
glass windows, shutters, a metal roof, or stone/tile floors.

While the majority of the homes in Muramba are basic mud brick structures, there are is a small
percentage (10% to 20%) of more elaborate buildings. This home, located near the local market, is
often regarded as one of the more expensive homes in Muramba.

Section 2: Cooking Facilities and Procedures

What kind of cooking 50% of the respondents used rooms inside of the home for cooking activities. In
facilities does your house most cases, these rooms could not be described as definitive kitchens due to such
have? sparse amenities. Refer to the photos at the end of the section.

6
50% of the households used cooking facilities located in a separate structure
outside on the home.

*Refer to the pictures at the end of the section.

How many meals are 10% of the households prepared 1 (occasionally 2) meal per day.
prepared at the house on a 70% of the households prepared 2 meals per day.
7 daily basis?
20% of he households prepared 3 meals per day.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 45
Cooking is normally performed early morning (approx. 6am), midday (between
At what time is cooking 10am and noon), and afternoon/evening (between 4pm and 6pm). 70% of the
performed? households ate 2 meals a day; midday and evening, and 10% ate only one meal a
day during the evening hours. Only a minority of residents (20%) could afford to eat
3 meals a day on a consistent basis.

8 What is the average cooking Average cooking time per meal ranges from about 30 minutes to 3 hours,
time for meals? depending on the meals prepared. Potatoes normally require the shortest amount
of cooking time; 30-40 minutes, while beans generally require the longest period of
time; 3 hours.

Who does the cooking? The wife was solely responsible for cooking duties in all households except for ones
that hired domestic laborers (3 households).
Most meals consist of simple, often carbohydrate based, foods found in the region.
List meals prepared in the Due to such poor infrastructure in the region, most food is produced at individual
last week. farms or purchased at the local market. Typical meals include: Beans, cassava,
9
potatoes, bananas, and sweet potatoes. Cabbage and other leafy vegetables are
more common during the rainy seasons.

What types of containers 70% of the households exclusively used clay cooking containers. The other 30%
10
(pots) are used for used metal pots in addition to the traditional clay pots.
cooking?

What kind of fuel does your Wood, either purchased at the market or collected from nearby forests, was the
household typically use for main source of fuel used for cooking. A handful of wealthier families (2 households)
cooking? used coal in addition to wood. A more substantial number of households (often the
poorer echelon of the community) used leaves, sticks, and other forms of agro
waste to supplement their wood or coal usage.
11
Based on local market prices for wood, households spend between 100Rfr and
200Rfr per meal. Coal cost slightly more (approximately 150Rfr per meal). This
data provides a range at which to create retail price for fuel briquettes.

What food did you buy in This question received a large range of responses. In genera, households
12 the last week? purchase food items at the nearby market that they are not able to cultivate
themselves. Please refer the individual surveys for more information.

Do you or other members 80% of the households raised crops for personal consumption, while the other 20%
13 of your household raise raised a negligible amount or nothing at all.
crops for personal
consumption?

If so, which crops do you Once again, this question received a large number of responses. Often households
grow? grew bananas, cassava, beans, sweet potatoes, and cabbage. For more
information please refer to the individual surveys.
14
How much is harvested No household was able to provide an estimate of how much they cultivated per
during each growing year? year. Since most families engaged in subsistence farming, they merely harvested
the crops as they were ready to consume.

Traditional Cooking Facilities

These two photos illustrate the cooking facilities typically found in Muramba (and throughout the rest
of Rwanda). They normally consist of a small room with a “fire pit” and a few pots and pans. Up to
three meals a day are prepared in these smoke-filled cramped spaces. With cooking times ranging
from 30-minutes to 3 hours, the women of the household spend much of their day in this harsh
environment.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 46
Section 3: Household Water Supply and Basic Health Issues

50% of the respondents collected water from nearby springs.
Often these springs were nothing more than a pipe inserted into
the hillside by local residents.
30% of the respondents collected water from a nearby public
taps (part of the main community water system).
15 20% of the respondents collected water from private water taps
located within their person al residence. These lines were part
What is the main source of drinking water for
of the main community water system, but use was restricted to
members of your household?
the residents of the household. These households did not pay
a fee for the specialized service; rather a small fee for
maintenance.

All respondents could go to the water source, get water, and
How long does it take you to go there, get come back within 30 minutes.
16 water, and come back?

Plastic buckets and “jerry cans.” All 10 households
How is the water transported and/or stored?
17

9 out of 10 households visually evaluate the water to determine
if it is suitable for drinking. Water is deemed unsuitable when it
appears cloudy or dirty and if foreign particles are present.
How do you determine if the water is suitable for Only one household boiled all of there drinking water before
drinking? consumption. Most families are unable to purify their drinking
18 (Make a list of possible options) water due to the high cost of cooking fuel.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 47
Where do you normally wash your hands? 9 out of 10 households usually washed there hands in a plastic
bucket with only water. The high cost of soap and other
cleaning agents was the main reason why most households
Ask to see the place and observe if the following could only use water.
19 items are present:
Water/Tap?
Soap, ash, or other cleaning agent?
Basin?

Has anyone in the household required Every household had at least one individual require medical
Medical attention in the past year for any attention within the past year. Common ailments included, but
reason? were not limited to the following: Malaria, flu, “stomach
problems”-possibly water born illnesses, and simple colds.
If yes, what was the problem? Please refer to individual surveys for further details.

20
What was the total cost of medical treatment? The resulting medical costs were often cited as major financial
costs of the household.

All respondents used the medical facilities located in the center
of town; the pharmacy next to the parish and the dispensary
21 What is the distance to the closest medical near the market center. These facilities were within a 30
facilities? minute walking distance of the households surveyed. Two
households occasionally visited a traditional healer which was
located about hours from the center of town (by foot).

Section 4: Household Finances

Most of the households surveyed (9 out of 10) did not have any accumulated financial savings in the
conventional sense (i.e. checking or savings account at a local financial institution). These
households live from pay period to pay period. In the event that a household was able to accumulate a
small sum of money they would often purchase livestock instead of depositing the funds in a bank
account. Although most of the households were not able to accumulate financial savings, most
families owned at least one farm animal. Livestock typically provide an alternate source of income
from the sale of animal by products, such as milk, eggs, or fur, or through the direct sale of the
animals themselves (or their offspring). In addition to providing an additional source of income,
livestock provide valuable fertilizer for crops and insurance against events in the unforeseeable future
(in the event of an emergency, the sale of livestock may provide a quick source of money).

Income statistics for each household is difficult to estimate since most families engage in subsistence
farming as a primary occupation. In order to accurately determine a household’s income, one must
evaluate the dollar value of all crops produced in a single year for personal consumption or for sale at
the local market. Without an accurate account of household crop production, an estimation of total
income was not possible. 9 out of 10 households surveyed engaged in economic activities in addition
to farming. Only two household relied on a non-farming activities for 100% of their income. As a
result, the financial data from the survey only represents household incomes received from these non-
agricultural activities. Although the data is somewhat incomplete, it indicates the amount of money
households are able to spend on food, clothing, housing, transportation, school fees, and other. EWB
can use this data to determine prices for fuel briquettes, solar cookers, and a possible water tax.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 48
Section 5: Community Problems and Proposed Solutions

Questions in Section 5 ask the respondent to identify the most severe problems of the community,
explain how they deal with such issues, and list, if possible, viable solutions. Due to a limited amount
of time available for each survey, this section of was often trimmed to expedite the process. Despite
the limited number of responses, this section provides valuable information from the individual’s
perspective. In essence, the respondent was provided with an outlet in which to express their
concerns and needs. Since many development projects are donor driven (meaning that the planning
and implementation is carried out by “foreign” aid organizations), this was the most effective way to
include a community perspective in future EWB projects. Since most of the questions in this section
were somewhat broad (i.e. “What does poverty mean to you?”), the main themes expressed by the
respondents are briefly summarized.

Among all ten respondents, the most pressing issues were lack of land, no steady source of income,
and poor infrastructure (roads, electricity, telecommunications, etc.). Every person encountered
expressed the desire to improve the conditions themselves. No one searches for handouts. Rather,
they wanted the ability to work and create a steady source of income so that they may improve
themselves, their household, and the community.

Currently, the local Catholic Parish is the most influential organization in the community geared
towards dealing with the above problems. The church has created several associations and
cooperatives in an attempt to constructively find solutions to community issues. In addition, the
church encourages individuals to search for solutions to their own problems instead of waiting for
outside assistance. Unfortunately, the scope and scale of development in Muramba far surpasses the
abilities of the local parish.

When asked for possible solutions to the local problem, most respondents highlighted the need to
boost the local economy and increase the number of employment opportunities for residents.
Farmers, teachers, and merchants alike, voiced their inability to meet basic needs of their family; such
as providing food, clothing, and adequate shelter. Respondents stressed their desire to climb out of
poverty and earn a decent wage to support their families. In general, they wanted to earn a living
wage.

Section 6: Conclusion

Based on the responses, future EWB involvement in Muramba is crucial for the continued
development of the community. Although difficulties may arise in directly boosting the local
economy or promoting business development, EWB may assist in the development of infrastructure
necessary for Muramba to thrive. Providing a clean and reliable water source is the first critical step
towards improving the community and pulling people out of poverty. As the survey indicates,
medical costs stemming from water born illnesses add tremendous financial stress to already
impoverished families.

In the future, efforts could focus on improving the physical links between Muramba, the rest of
Rwanda, and the rest of the World (i.e. road, telecommunication, and internet). Our group may be
able to use our collective expertise to help improve Muramba’s infrastructure or petition other
groups/organizations, most notably the Rwandan Government, to proceed in our place. Together,
EWB and the residents of Muramba will be able to effectively deal with the issues expressed by these
10 survey participants.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 49
8 Future Plans for UW-Madison EWB Involvement
The UW-Madison EWB team has plans for continued involvement in the Muramba Parish within
Rwanda. Several proposals have already been submitted to the Madison Rotary as well as the World
Bank’s Global Development Marketplace program to support these efforts. The proposals required
partners within Rwanda. On most of the projects the partner was listed as KIST (specifically Ainea
Kimaro). The plans include the following projects:
In Muramba College and nearby vicinity: solar cooking facilities, briquetting facilities, biogas
facilities, and internet connection
In the resettlement village of Runayu: solar cooking facilities, briquetting facilities, biogas
facilities, and water supply. The resettlement village of Runayu is located in such a mountainous area
of Rwanda as to limit the amount of natural resources it has. Currently, grass is burned as the main
source of fuel; this is highly inefficient. Biogas, briquetting, and solar power can bring sources of
energy to a place where none exits through currently available resources. All two thousand residents
in the village are affected by the energy problem. Most land here is cultivated; deforestation is a huge
problem.
Copies of these proposals are available by request. Provided these granting agencies provide the
needed funding, we plan to return in the Summer 06 and Summer 07 to complete these projects.

9 Acknowledgements
The project team would like to acknowledge the following individuals for their contribution
and support throughout the project: Tim Miller and Andre Steele for their work in-country on the
water project and village distribution system assessment; Megan Bender, Adrienne Kuehl, and
William Brower for their work in-country on the solar cooking project; Sam Jorgensen, Ryu Suzuki,
Evan Parks and Ryan Wilson for their work in-country on fuel briquetting; other EWB-UW-Madison
students who helped make the trip a reality but were unable to travel to Muramba; Peter Bosscher for
his long-time commitment to Muramba and leadership as faculty advisor; Suzanne Quick and David
Joles for in-country support and tremendous newspaper articles; Muramba Parish and Muramba
College for food, shelter and conversation; Jean Paul Basansanga for heading English-Kinyarwanda
translation duties; Emmanuel Tuombe for translation and technical assistance; Peter Mulligo for
driving and country expertise; Father John Bosco Musinguzi for leadership, vision, conversation and
welcoming us as brothers and sisters; the vocational school for help on the solar cooker and fuel
briquetting projects, and finally the people of Muramba for welcoming the team with open arms and
assisting on all the projects. Final thanks are due to our sponsors: Downtown Madison Rotary Club,
the Morgridge Center for Public Service, DaimlerChrysler and UNESCO for sponsoring the
Mondialogo Engineering Award, various private donors and the University of Wisconsin Madison
and the College of Engineering for continued support.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 50
10 Appendices
10.1 A: Flow Measurements for New Source
Vol Time Flow
Source Trial
(ml) (s) (l/s) (l/min)
Source 1 Total 0.54 32.2
1 760 2.31
2 790 2.14
3 780 2.24
1A
4 830 2.34
5 860 2.52
Av. 804 2.31 0.35 20.88
1 930 5.17
2 930 5.01
3 900 4.49
4 950 4.97
1B
5 900 4.88
6 940 4.78
7 830 4.63
Av. 911 4.85 0.19 11.28
Source 2 Total 0.24 14.6
1 800 25.75
2 810 25.24
2A
3 800 25.38
Av. 803 25.46 0.03 1.89
1 880 8.64
2 880 8.79
2B
3 870 9.12
Av. 877 8.85 0.10 5.94
1 940 11.53
2 890 10.44
2C 3 1000 11.66
4 830 9.84
Av. 915 10.87 0.08 5.05
2D NO FLOW DATA 0.06 3.60
Total Source 0.78 46.76

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 51
10.2 B: Observations and Flow Measurements For Village Survey
Flow Rates
Ref Feature Location Condition and Observations Vol Time Vol Time
Trial A Trial B
(ml) (s)
J01 Entry Junction Box Entry to Village Lock Stuck 1 1000 1.57 1 900 1.66
(Impala Box) Box in good condition, little sediment 2 1000 1.64 2 750 1.59
Two exit pipes: 3 1000 1.62 3 880 1.60
1 to reservoir 1 4 1000 1.65 843 1.62
2 to Esecom Reservoir 1000 1.62
Flow 0.62 l/s Flow 0.52 l/s
37.04 l/min 31.30 l/min

L01 Leak Top of Village On line to Reservoir 1 from entry junction box
Adjacent to Major leak: 100 % loss when uncovered.
kindergarten Failure in repair of previous leak.
lost water collected for brick making,
pooled water health hazard

R01 Reservoir 1 Top of village Reservoir for top village taps 1 1000 4.44 1 850 4.01
(1.44x1.82m Dia.) Adjacent to substantial cracking, resulting in leakage when 2 1000 5.00 2 1000 4.86
kindergarten reservoir is full. Requires internal resurfacing 3 1000 5.20 3 980 4.04
3 exit pipes for 3 village taps 4 1000 5.23 943.3333 4.30
Only 1 tap still exists, 1 never built 5 1000 5.16
1 cut off. Inflow currently for 3 taps. 1000 5.01
When tap off, tank overflows and water lost. Flow 0.20 l/s Flow 0.22 l/s
11.99 l/min 13.15 l/min

J02 Access Box Below R1, Box not locked, through pipe with T for flush
North of Village Line to Esecom Reservoir
Road

L02 Leak North of J2 Sbstantial leakage seen on surface from
Third of Dist tra buried pipe. Probably failed joint.
J2 and J3 Has leaked for approx 5 months.

T01 Village Tap 1 Adjacent to J3 Fed by reservoir 1 1 800 2.76 1 510 2.38
Tap for Top of Poor valve spreads water horizontally 2 800 2.36 2 610 2.59
Village over sides of tapstand, errosion of ground 3 800 2.23 3 - ignored 700 12.66
around tap. Sitting water health hazard. 4 800 2.36 4 650 2.18
tap handle taken by local resident. 800 2.43 590 2.38
tap often left on and drains reservoir 1 Flow 0.33 l/s Flow 0.25 l/s
19.77 l/min 14.85 l/min

J03 Access Box Below R1,
North of Village
Road

L03 Leak At J3 Leak on Entry to J3.
Muddy ground around upslope side of box
in main thoroughfare, people walk in mud

L04 Leak Downslope Leak at joint in exposed pipe
towards village Line to Esecom Reservoir
centre

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 52
L05 Leak Downslope Major exposed length of pipe, leaks through
towards village exposed joints
centre Line to Esecom Reservoir

L06 Exposed pipe On road Major length of exposed pipe. Pipe sits in
approach to road drainage ditch. No leaks…yet
village centre Line to Esecom Reservoir

J04 Access Box Village Centre Box not locked, through pipe with T for flush
Line to Esecom Reservoir

T02 Village Tap 2 Village Centre On day of survey NO FLOW NO FLOW 1 260 23.5
Later observations show poor flow (<0.01l/s) 2 380 28.16
Tapstand apron needs cleaning 3 360 24.81
Wider Apron required, good drainage 333 25.49
Flow 0.01 l/s
L07 Exposed & Leak North of Main Length of exposed pipe; two lines, major leak. 0.78 l/min
Junction, towards Metal cover pipe also present
Market Failed joints in Esecom Line and return
village tap line
attempt to repair using rubber inner tube
failed

L08 Exposed & Leak Market Square, Exposed Esecom Line, subsurface leak
opposite adjacent
Mosque

T03 Mosque Tap Adjacent to Private tapstand for Mosque
Mosque no protection, no tap, recently broken.
No apron, No drainage,

T04 Sector HQ Tap Adjacent to On day of survey NO FLOW Flow too low to measure 1 220 30
Sector HQ Later observations show poor flow (<0.01l/s) 2 210 30
Same return line as T2 3 210 30
Ok apron, could be widened, poor drainage, 213 30.00
water intentionally pooled for brick making Flow 0.01 l/s
health hazard. 0.43 l/min

T05 Carpentry Guild Tap Inside Carpentry Private tap, dispute as to whether they pay Flow too low to measure 1 310 30
Guild possible annual fee of 3000 RFR (users complained flow always 2 300 30
Free standing pipe, no protection low) 3 310 29
no drainage, no apron 307 29.67
Flow 0.01 l/s
0.62 l/min

J05 Esecom Junction Box in Esecom Locked, good condition 1 1000 3.24
School Two exit pipes; 1 to reservoir, 1 to Esecom 2 1000 3.4
taps 3 1000 3.45
4 1000 3.34
1000 3.36
Flow 0.30 l/s
17.87 l/min

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 53
T06 Esecom Tap 1 Esecom Adequate drainage, though erosion towards, 1 1000 46.82 1 650 9.62
School discharge point. 2 1000 46.28 2 600 6.48
low flow, for many students 1000 46.55 625 8.05
apron needs to be wider Flow 0.02 l/s Flow 0.08 l/s
1.29 l/min 4.66 l/min

T07 Esecom Tap 2 Esecom Adequate drainage, though erosion towards, 1 1000 18.93 1 580 14.68
School discharge point. 2 1000 18.77 2 550 13.03
low flow, for many students 1000 18.85 3 500 12.27
apron needs to be wider 543 13.33
Flow 0.05 l/s Flow 0.04 l/s
3.18 l/min 2.45 l/min

R02 Esecom Reservoir Esecom Locked and unaccessible Flow 0.22 l/s
School no leaks visible from exterior 13.40 l/min
three exit pipes
1 to village centre T2,3, 4 and 5 Flow into Parish Tower
2 to T8 and clinic 0.17
3 to parish 0.05

L09 Exposed Uphill of Exposed and bent pipes, currently no
PreEsecom Tap leaks

T08 Presecom Tap Downhill & north Very small apron, no protection for tap 1 1000 17.58 1 450 13.49
of Esecom tap broken, tempermental flow 2 1000 18.4 2 470 12.22
No drainage, run-off collected for brick making 3 1000 19.06 3 450 11.72
Health hazard 1000 18.35 457 12.48
Flow 0.05 l/s Flow 0.04 l/s
3.27 l/min 2.20 l/min

R03 Reservoir 3 Downhill of T8, Unused, currently being refurbished for use
north of Esecom with new source.

L10 Leak At T junction for Leaking and exposed T junction for clinic
clinic Pipe not buried deep enough

T09 Clinic Taps Clinic: None of these taps had flow NO FLOW
Maternity Ward were told flow in afternoons
Aids Clinic Private Taps

T10 Nurses Tap Nurses Quarters Flow too low to measure (<0.01 l/s)
Flow increases in afternoon
public tap, esposed service pipe may get
damaged, metal pipe
drainage from sink poor, uses storm drain
channel.

T11 Multi Faucet Stand Nrth junction of Disconnected and unused
Esecom road and Good design, but no effective drainage
Main road

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 54
L11 Leak South of Primary Major leak from failed Repaired joint
School Primary children play in water and pooled
to collect for brick making. Unsure if water is
drunk by children
Parish line leak

T12 Primary School Tap North adjacent to Cut off, unused for sometime. Unsure which
Primary School line connected to - possibly College line
Standard Muramba design.
Poor drainage

T13 Storage Area Tap Vocational School Tap broken, water accessed by unscrewing
Storage Area tap, drainage good, but apron cracked
fed by return line from parish
no accessible to public

T14 Vocational School Tap North of VS Cut-off due to failed tap. No apron, no drainage
by Wood Store No protection to tap
adjacent to kindergarten

T15 Parish Tap 1 North west Inadequate Drainage 1 850 2.29
East facing wal Tap missing, leaks 2 690 1.88
of old church Lot of debis around base, high tap making 3 640 1.79
it difficult to fill large containers 4 1000 3.06
795 2.26
Flow 0.35 l/s
21.15 l/min

T16 Pastoral Centre Tap North east corner tap present, but broken, held off with weight
of courtyard inadequate drainage, standing water, health
hazard.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 55
10.3 C: Water Testing Results
Date Time 24 hr Colilert test 24 hr Petrifilm
Ref Sample
collected collected ONPG (yellow) MUG (UV) # red w/bubbles # blue w/bubbles
S01a Entry Junction Box (J01) 20-Jul + -
S01b Entry Junction Box (J01) 23-Jul 11:00 0 0
S02a Reservoir 1 (R01) 20-Jul + -
S02b Reservoir 1 (R01) 23-Jul 4 0
S03a Village Tap 1 (T01) 20-Jul + -
S03b Village Tap 1 (T01) 23-Jul 2 0
S03c Jerry-can (from 3) 23-Jul 0 0
S03d Village Tap 1 (T01) 30-Jul 0 0
S04a Sector Tap (T04) 20-Jul + -
S04b Sector Tap (T04) 23-Jul 0 0
S04c Sector Tap (T04) 30-Jul 0 0
S05a Carpentry Guild Tap (T05) 20-Jul + -
S05b Carpentry Guild Tap (T05) 23-Jul 4 0
S05c Carpentry Guild Tap (T05) 30-Jul 0 0
S06a Esecom Tap (T06 or T07) 20-Jul + -
S06b Esecom Tap 2 (T07) 23-Jul 1 0
S06c Esecom Tap 2 (T07) 30-Jul 0 0
S07a Pre-Esecom Tap (T08) 18-Jul + -
S07b Pre-Esecom Tap (T08) 20-Jul + -
S07c Pre-Esecom Tap (T08) 23-Jul 14:00 1 0
S08a Village Tap Stand 2 (T02) 30-Jul 1 0
S09a Nurse's Tap (T10) 18-Jul + -
S09b Nurse's Tap (T10) 30-Jul + +
S09c Nurse's Tap (T10) - Dripping 01-Aug + -
S10a AIDs Clinic Tap 01-Aug + -
S11a Voc. School drain behind adm. Building 30-Jul - -
S11b Voc. School drain behind adm. Building 01-Aug + -
S12a Parish kitchen courtyard tap w/hose 20-Jul 17:00 1 0
S12b Jerry-can (water from kitchen courtyard tap w/hose) 20-Jul 17:00 2 0
S12c Jerry-can from parish kitchen courtyard tap 30-Jul 212 3
S12d Parish kitchen courtyard tap 30-Jul + -
S12e Parish kitchen courtyard tap 01-Aug + -

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 56
10.4 D: Site Assessment Sketches
Esecom school

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 57
Primary school

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 58
College & convent

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 59
10.5 E: English-Kinyarwanda Field Dictionary

English – Kinyarwanda Field Dictionary

General Vocabulary
airplane indege
any bicye
bag igikapu
banana umuneke
banana umuneke
banana tree incina
beans nbishyimbo
beer inzoga
big kubyibuha
boiling aratogota
bottle ichupa
boy umuhungu
boy, child umwana
boys abahunga
bring zana
bring zana
briquette amakara
building inyubako
carpenter umubaji
chaos umuvundo
children abana
class shuri

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 60
clean water amazi meza
cold (weather) colo
come gueno
come gueno
conundrum iki bazomenawutwe
corn ichegore
cut in skin gutena
damp icyondo
dirt umucucu, ubutaka
doctor umuganga
down hasi
eat kurya
eggs amagi
finished, done kurangeza
fire iumuriro
firewood inkwi
fish amafi
flower indabu
flower indabo
food ibiryo (ibyo kurya)
friend nshuti
girl umukobwa
girlfriend umusore
give me ima
give me ima
glass ikirahuri
go gando
go gando
go to school jya ku ishuri
grass ibyatsi
happy arishimye
here hano
highway umuhanda
hill agasozi
hot igishushye
house inzu
lake ikiyaga
leaves amabovi
lightning umurabyo
lost yazimiye
love rukundo
man umugabo
market iseko
maybe ahali
money (ama)faranga

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 61
notepad karine
ok sawa (swahili)
paper urupapuro
parade akarasisi
peace amahoro
pen ikaramu
pen ikaramu
pens amakaramu
person abantu
plant gutera
quartz amasarabwayi
quickly vuba-vuba
river uruzi
rock urutare
rock(s) (ama) ibuye
roof urusenje
root/yam to eat amateke
saw dust umucucu, imbarizo
school amashali
shop iduka
sir bwana
sit down ichara
sit down ichara
small kumanuka
small road inzira
soap isabune
soil uburaka
solar cooker guteka ku zuba
igisheke ;
sugar cane agacantegane
sugarcane igisheke
sun izuba
sun izuba
table ameza
thunder inkuba
to be ku tuwa; kuba
to build kubaka
to buy kugura
to eat kurya
to grab gufata
to have kugira
to listen kumva
to put down kurambikahasi
to put slowly kurambikabuhoro
to see kureba
to throw kuritera
tomorrow ejo hazaza
tree avoka
up muka

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 62
very far effiriya
very far ipfiriya
wash koga
water amazi

wind umuyaga
without fire nta muriro
woman mubyeyi (umugore)
wood urubaho
wood shaving ibishanino
yesterday ejo hashize

Questions
Do you have [object]? ufite [object]
uvuga
Do you speak English? icyongereza
do you think this uti gutekerezako
I live - hi muri -
is broken? cyacitse
understand ? urumva
What is that object? kiriya bakita iki?
[object] biri he
Where are [objects] (he)
where are we going? tugiye he?
where are you going? ugiye he?
where do you live? iwanyu mi hehe?
Where is [object] kiri he (he)
Where is [person] ari he (he)
who? inde

Greetings / Closing
hello [ my friend] muraho [nSHOOti]
hello (informal) bi-te
murote imana (dream of
good night god)
good morning mwaramutse
good afternoon mwiriwe
good night maramuke
good bye murabeho
welcome murakaza neza
thank you murakoze
thanks a lot murakose chia-neh
you're welcome namwe
excuse me imababazi
please mubisholoye
what is your name? Wi-twa-nde
my name is jyewe ni-twa (your name)
how is your murugo muraho

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 63
family/home
how are you? amakuru ; Bi-te-se
very well Ni me -za
it's good Ni byiza

Common
Conversation
yes yego
no oya
maybe yenda
we hope to clean the
water turizera (kwizera)
gusukura amazi
we have done amwakoze akozi
something keze nice
it's not my decision siwo miwanzuro wanjye
Twahaye 'amafanga'
we give ' ' to the church kiriziya
iki gikoresho si
this tool is not good cyiza
please move away! mwigireyo
I would like to buy nshaka kugura
It has been wonderful nishimiye
to meet you kubonana nawe
nashimye
ubwenge bwawe,
I admire your skill

we are finished kurangeza
I'm tired da naniwe
I go to work njeyekukazi
I don't hear (you) ~ Ntabwo nKWUMva
understand Ndi Kumva
Please repeat Subira-mo
My Kinyarwanda is - mumbabarira -
very poor Ikinyarwanda
cyanjye ntabwo
ari kiza
God bless you Imana igufa - she
Good cook Uzi gu - teka
I admire your skill ubejenge bgawe
let's go tu gende
Come see twantano
Correct/It’s right nibyo [nipyo]
Leave umugozi
Many byinshi

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 64
Nowhere ntaho [silent t]
Thank you very much ubukenje
We go together turajyana
we are friends uri nshooti ange
you are my friend uri ishooti yanye
I love you nda gukunda
I'm tired ndananiwe
peace be with you mugire amahoro
God accompany you imana iguhilekeze
dream of God murote imana

Numbers
zero zeru
one rimwe
two kabili
three gatatu
four kane
five gatanu
six gatandatu
seven karimdwi
eight umunani
nine icyenda
ten icumi

Tools/Directions
below (elevation) munsi
brick itafari
broken yamenye
cement sima
chisel ipatasi
clamp Igifashi
drill gutofona
file umuseno
hammer inyundo
hoe isuka
inside imbere
level inivo
machete umuhoro
nail inzala
nail umusumari
oil amavuta
outside inyuma
over there haraguru
pencil plant imyenzi
pick ipichi

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 65
pipe itiyo
pipe wrench urfunguza
pipes amatiyo
plane imbazo
rope ikamba
sack umufuka
icyuma
saw [ichuma]
scribe agacanegane
shovel igitiyo
slowly buharo
small brick ikinombari
special nigitangaza
stone ibuye
stone ibuye
tamp gutsindagira
tape measure imetero
tile iteguru
to break kumena
to compact gikomeye
to dig gucukura
triangle mandeshatu
trowel umwiko
under hepfo
water amazi
I want n shaka
you want u shaka
they want ba shaka
we want du shaka

Body Parts / Accessories
arm amawoko
belt umukandara
button igipensi
chest agatuza
cloth igitendye
coat ikote
ears amatkwi
eyes amaso
eyes amaso
finger inboki
fingers urutoki
hair umusatzi
hand ichiganza
head amotwe

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 66
leg amaguru
mouth omunwa
mouth umunwa
necklace umadali
necklace ijasi; ishapure
nose izuru
shirt umupiya, ishanti
imkueto
shoes [imwhito]
skirt jupe
teeth amanyo
tongue orimi
watch isaha

Days of the Week
Sunday Kucyumweru
Monday Kuwambere
Tuesday Kuwakabili
Wednesday Kuwgatatu
Thursday Kuwakane
Friday Kuwagatanu
Saturday Kuwagatandatu

Simple Dialog
You: Amakuru how are you?
Other: Ni-meza very well
Other: Namwe And you?
You:Muraho hello
greetings /
Other: Mwiriwe-ho good day

(Do you have a
You: Ufite ikaramu pen?)
Other: Yego. Mfite ikaramu (Yes, I have a pen)

Other Phrases

Nta kibazo
no problem [nachebazo]
tuzabo nana ejo
we will see you tomorrow
we have chaos dufite umuvundo

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 67
they have choas bafite umuvundo
do not listen
intabwo wumvishije
that's life nibwo buzima
who is calling me?
ninde umpamagaye
are not here ariko ntarihaho
there is order hari gahunda
to go up kuzamuka
to go down kuma nuka
let us go up leka kudja muka
let us go down leka tuma nuka
I'm here ndahari
amafaranga angahe
how much does it cost?
what time is it? ni singahe?; ni ryari

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 68
10.6 F: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Articles from
Summer, 2005 Trip

A way to save trees, and improve villagers' lives
UW students hope briquettes can become a sustainable fuel
By SUSANNE QUICK
squick@journalsentinel.com

Posted: Sept. 17, 2005

Muramba, Rwanda - The classroom was packed. There were at least 75 students crammed into the small room,
with about 100 standing outside, draping their arms through the windows' metal bars, peering over each other's
heads, all trying to catch a glimpse of the spectacle within: two Americans playing charades.

Evan Parks and Ryan Wilson, two engineering undergraduates from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, flew
to Muramba earlier this summer to bring this village a new but simple technology to convert garbage into fuel
for heating and cooking.

To get their project going, the engineers needed to enlist help from the town's vocational school. They needed
equipment and manpower to build a press that would convert the garbage into compact, burnable briquettes.

The school agreed to help, but it soon became clear that the task was more formidable than anybody had
anticipated. The Americans spoke English, the students spoke Kinyarwanda. And while each party knew a
smattering of the other's language, there was no way a lecture format was going to work.

So, Parks and Wilson turned to pantomime: chopping, sawing and hacking at the air, as the students called out
the Kinyarwanda names of tools they guessed the engineers were imitating.

Luckily, the project's essentials didn't need too much in the way of language. The core lay in diagrammatic
sketches and numerical dimensions for the press parts.

And, according to Wilson, a 23-year old from Mendota Heights. Minn., "numbers cross all borders."

The Rwandans sketched the designs in their notebooks. The next morning, they met the two Americans at the
school's outdoor shop, this time ready to cut and hammer for real.

Rwanda is a nation nearly devoid of trees.

One of the most densely populated countries in Africa, with roughly 834 people per square mile, Rwanda has
little land that hasn't been cultivated. And despite a new law that makes it illegal to harvest trees, the days are
numbered for the few remaining stands of eucalyptus and cypress. People here need wood for fuel. If they can't
get it legally, they'll steal it.

Parks and Wilson believe this technology can prevent crime by offering Rwandans an alternative fuel source.
It's an idea they borrowed from the Legacy Foundation, an Oregon-based organization that promotes human
development and environmental sustainability via technology. And they hope that in so doing, they can bring a
sustainable form of fuel to this rural community; a technology that would not only provide an alternative to
wood, but possibly a small income for this impoverished community.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 69
© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 70
Tricky business
Parks and Wilson arrived in Muramba after having spent three sleepless days traveling. Yet, despite their bleary
eyes, they were up at 6 the next morning, itching to get things rolling.

As they walked along Muramba's main road, Wilson and Parks scanned the ground for good garbage. It wasn't
long before Wilson pointed to some ground-litter in a nearby banana grove and said "awesome." Smiling at
Parks he made a beeline off the path.

A group of women and children passing by stopped to gawk as Wilson darted around, snatching up dried and
rotting leaves.

"These'll work great," he called to Parks, a 23-year old engineering student from Slinger, as he jogged back to
the path.

The two proceeded up the road, nodding at the curious crowd gathering around them, as they discussed the ideal
recipe for a briquette. What would burn most efficiently, they wondered, banana with sawdust or eucalyptus
with paper? And which ingredients would burn the hottest with the least smoke?

Before arriving in Muramba, Parks, Wilson and about a dozen other students from UW had experimented with
the briquettes in Madison. They wanted to make sure it worked before they shipped it overseas.

They discovered it was tricky business. The briquettes wouldn't burn, or if they did, they'd produce enormous
amounts of smoke.

"We didn't have the right composition of compost," said Wilson.

They assumed the situation would be rectified in Muramba, where they could easily access the "right"
ingredients - banana tree leaves, sugar cane and dead eucalyptus.

They were wrong: The briquettes haven't burned as well as expected. But the students haven't lost hope.

"We don't know what makes for a briquette that holds together well, is easy to make and burns well," said Peter
Bosscher, a civil engineering professor at UW and the students' adviser. "We think we have lots of sugar cane
leaves available, but they need to be chopped into smaller pieces."

So, they now plan to build a bicycle-powered chopping machine to help shred these coarse leaves. They will
also look into something they call "smokeless" stoves that will burn the briquettes efficiently.

They hope the town will hold onto the presses - and not burn the wood for fuel - so they can try again next year.

Beyond help in Rwanda
Geography puts AIDS treatment just out of reach for most
By SUSANNE QUICK
squick@journalsentinel.com

Last Updated: Sep. 18, 2005

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 71
Shyira, Rwanda - At the age of 15, Good News weighed 50 pounds. Just four months ago, his bones were held
together only by the thin envelope of his bruised and fungus-infected brown skin.

He was dying of a disease that many Rwandans consider their new genocide: AIDS.

Ten miles away, in Muramba, another young boy, named Evariste, suffered from the same disease. Living with
his 14-year-old brother in his dead parents' home, this 7-year-old was too sick to make the half-mile walk to
town for food. He relies on his brother and social worker Caritas Nirere to help him.

Brothers Pascal Bazimaziki, 14, (left) and Evariste Ishimwe, 7, are AIDS orphans. Evariste has AIDS but
doesn't have access to treatment.

"His bones are too weak" for him to walk, said Nirere, who lives in Muramba. She predicted that he wouldn't
live another year.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 72
The comforts of home are few for AIDS orphans Pascal Bazimaziki, 14, and Evariste Ishimwe, 7.

But while the two boys suffer from the same disease, their fates couldn't be more disparate: Good News is
getting better; Evariste continues to decline.

The difference: geography.

Good News lives close to Caleb King, a Harvard-trained pediatrician who opened a clinic in Shyira, Rwanda, in
2003. King's clinic is funded in part by President Bush's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in Africa, as well as
by the Global Fund and Eastbrook Church in Glendale.

Good News was in the right place at the right time.

After three months of treatment with antiretroviral drugs, he now weighs 110 pounds and ranks sixth in his
fourth-grade class of 47 students.

"He's gone from looking like a corpse at 23 kilograms to now looking almost fat," King said with a smile.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 73
Harvard-trained pediatrician Caleb King reaches out to help in the Rwandan village of Shyira. Louise
King, Caleb’s wife, also is a doctor in the town.

But for Evariste, King and his drugs are out of reach. And while King can stand in the front yard of his hilltop
home and point to Muramba's church, the young orphan is not going to get those drugs.

The road from Muramba to Shyira is not paved. It is rutted, potholed and treacherous. Evariste doesn't have the
energy to walk the half-mile to town for food, much less the 10 miles to Shyira. He doesn't have the money to
hire someone to carry him or take him by motorbike - the only way to make it down this road.

So Evariste is doomed. As are the 97 other orphaned, HIV-positive children in Muramba.

"If someone could get them here, we could treat them," said King, who offers the drugs to anyone who comes to
him in need. But, at the moment, the orphans and many other sick people in Muramba are stranded.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 74
Physicians Caleb and Louise King have rebuilt the hospital in Shyira, Rwanda, where they operate an
AIDS clinic partially funded by Eastbrook Church in Glendale.

According to the World Health Organization, as of December 2004, while between 6,000 and 7,000 people in
Rwanda were receiving treatment for AIDS, there were 39,000 who needed it.

'Land of a thousand problems'
"They call Rwanda the land of a thousand hills," said Father Musinguzi John Bosco, Muramba's parish priest.
"But, really, it should be known as the land of a thousand problems."

He said that even if the church could pay to get Evariste to Shyira for an initial visit, it wouldn't be able to cover
the cost of transporting him for follow-up visits.

According to King, patients need to make three educational visits before they can start the drugs. After that,
they're required to come to Shyira once a week for two weeks, and then once a month, indefinitely.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 75
Caleb King, carrying his daughter, Lydia, 3, is trying to find ways to make AIDS treatment available to
all Rwandans.

The topography and broken-down infrastructure of this war-torn, brutalized Central African country can make
traveling 10 miles seem more like a million. But King and Bosco hope to change this.

They've asked the University of Wisconsin-Madison chapter of Engineers Without Borders to build a road.
However, that might not be possible, according to Peter Bosscher, a UW civil engineering professor and a board
member of the engineering group. The cost of such a project is more than his small organization can handle.

Bosscher thinks a church- sponsored house in Shyira, where patients can stay as they start treatment, makes
more sense. But a house would not fall under the mandate of Bosscher's group, which focuses on infrastructure
projects. Bosco doesn't have the resources to build one.

King is toying with the idea of a dirigible ambulance: a blimp that could fly from hilltop to hilltop.

"Wouldn't that be great?" he asked. "I mean, there's very little wind here," which would make a blimp a more
feasible mode of transportation than driving a vehicle over the dangerous roads.

Transforming a village
And while his idea of a benevolent blimp bobbing from mountain to mountain might sound a bit outlandish, it
really isn't for King. Since he arrived in Shyira - first for a visit in 2001, then permanently in 2003 - he has
turned this town upside down.

With help from family, churches and other charitable organizations, King and his wife, Louise - another
Harvard-trained physician - have rebuilt the village's war-destroyed hospital, built a new maternity ward and
added an AIDS clinic.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 76
They have housed, with help from Eastbrook Church, one of the few African residency programs on the
continent. And they have been on the receiving end of the President's Emergency Fund for AIDS, which has
provided their medical district with $150,000 worth of testing equipment and medication.

But that's just the beginning.

Caleb King, who spent part of his childhood in Madison, has also designed and constructed a biogas generator
for the home he and his wife share with their four children. It turns the family's sewage into energy that runs
their stove. And he's planning to build a larger hospital that includes a cafeteria - something almost unheard of
in a remote African hospital.

But even for someone as creative, innovative and daring as King, the challenge of how to get thousands of sick
people to his facility remains.

King estimates that 5% of the patients he sees for routine vaccinations, fungal infections and fevers have AIDS.
And while he can offer hope to these people, it's others, like Evariste, who can't be helped.

Until the roads are built or the dirigible flies, thousands will die, just out of reach.

Bringing water to Rwanda
UW team works to ease town's thirst
By SUSANNE QUICK
squick@journalsentinel.com

Last Updated: Sep. 17, 2005

Muramba, Rwanda - As a steady flow of women and children carrying empty straw satchels and jerrycans
made their way down the mountain road to the market below, a smaller, more determined stream worked its way
up against the current. Carrying hoes, picks, shovels and machetes, these women - many with infants swaddled
to their backs - were headed toward a potato field where Peter Bosscher, a civil engineering professor at the
University of Wisconsin-Madison, was waiting.

It was here, he had told them, that they'd find a new source of water.

So, up the hill they came. Nearly 100 women and a handful of men volunteered their time and muscle to dig a
trench: a three-mile-long dirt rivulet that, by the end of summer, would cradle PVC pipes designed to bring
spring water to their doors.

Invited to Muramba by Father Musinguzi John Bosco, the town's Ugandan-born priest, Bosscher and nine
undergraduates from the UW chapter of Engineers Without Borders-USA went to Muramba this summer to help
develop a water system that will bring desperately needed hydration to this rugged mountain town of more than
30,000.

They came to a country struggling to rebuild itself after years of disastrous fighting between its two major ethnic
groups, the Hutu and Tutsi; to a region that was home to Hutu hardliners who carried out the genocide of 1994;
to a community that witnessed one of the most tragic stands against that hatred and madness. In April 1997,
Hutu militia walked into a classroom at Muramba's St. Maria Goretti School for Girls and ordered the children
to separate: Hutu on one side, Tutsi on the other. The girls refused to divide, and all were gunned down, Hutu
and Tutsi together, their blood blending as it spilled.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 77
Their unassuming and modest hillside graves are marked by two white wooden crosses, one for the 17 girls, the
other for their Belgian-born headmistress.

It was by these crosses that Bosscher and his students worked, bringing water to a place stained by blood.

Muramba is so remote that if there are places in Rwanda that could be called "the sticks," Muramba, despite its
population, would be considered the twigs.

The one road that leads to Muramba isn't paved. There are no phone lines. And except for the local church and
secondary school, which both have their own gas- and solar-powered generators, there is no electricity.

But it is water that people need most.

A few taps exist: in the market, the church, and the schools. But they aren't dependable. And it isn't at all
uncommon to see a parade of uniformed schoolgirls - wearing khaki or navy blue skirts with white shirts -
working their way up the road from their school to the church, balancing five-gallon cans on their heads, in
hopes that the water that wasn't making it to their taps might be found on higher, and holier, ground.

Students from St. Maria Goretti School in Muramba make their way back to school after attending
morning Mass. The school was the scene of a massacre during the country’s genocide in the 1990s, when
Hutu rebels killed both Tutsis and the Hutu students who disobeyed an order to separate.

"Sometimes, if we're using the water up here, the taps dry up down there," said Bosco, shaking his head.

The new water source, identified by Bosscher and a different team of students last summer, promises to bring
the town twice its current flow, enabling the community to establish more taps.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 78
In order to get the water flowing - and the three miles of pipes laid down - Bosscher and his students would have
to motivate hundreds of people to volunteer their time and energy; a formidable task considering the degree of
hunger and poverty.

With what seems an almost burdensome sense of civic responsibility, Bosscher, 51, a mountain-climbing,
Scripture-quoting Calvinist, has thrown himself into this project with a rapturous zeal rivaled only by his
commitment to educate and guide his students into becoming responsible and ethical engineers.

For years, he had encouraged his students to join the Peace Corps. But in the late 1990s and early 2000s, he
noticed that many were returning deflated.

"They'd come home saying that their engineering skills and talents hadn't been used," he said. "That didn't seem
right."

So, he went searching for an organization that was similar to the Peace Corps, but more engineering-oriented.
He found the Web site of Engineers Without Borders-USA, a non-profit organization started in 2001, and gave
them a call to find out more.

Checking the Web site a few days later, he discovered there was an active UW-Madison chapter - but no contact
number or name.

"I thought I had just missed it the last time I checked," he said. "So, I called them again to find out who I should
contact about that UW group. They then told me it was me. We both laughed."

Motivated, instead of piqued, by the organization's presumptuous move, he organized a student meeting during
the spring of 2003. Today, the Madison chapter has more than 100 members and Bosscher is now a board
member.

For Bosscher, the organization's mission - to help disadvantaged communities improve their quality of life via
sustainable engineering projects - was like a religious calling. And his work in partnership with young
engineering students to bring water to Muramba was the fulfillment of a dream.

The challenge begins
The first team of engineers arrived in Kigali on July 4, Independence Day in Rwanda as well as the United
States. A second team, with six students, would come a few weeks later.

Having traveled for more than 50 hours, the three sleepy students and Bosscher stumbled out of the plane, where
they were greeted by Bosco and Peter Muligo, a friend of Bosscher's and the maintenance foreman at the U.S.
Agency for International Development in Rwanda.

They piled into two trucks, and for the next 2 1/2 hours, motored up and down paved mountain roads, passing
fields of sorghum, banana and sweet potato.

Despite being located two degrees south of the equator, Rwanda, a country roughly the size of Maryland, is
surprisingly cool and dry. With an average elevation of about 4,800 feet in the east and closer to 7,000 feet in
the west, the temperature rarely exceeds 75 degrees.

And because it is one of the poorest, most densely populated countries in Africa (at 834 people per square mile,
it's nine times more dense than Wisconsin), every last inch of usable land is cultivated. This makes Rwanda look
more like the Scottish Highlands than a typical, forested Central African nation.

As the trucks motored along, children rushed out yelling, "Amuzungus!"

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 79
"That means white people with deep pockets," said Bosco, swerving his car a little to discourage the dozens of
little hands reaching for the rear bumper of his truck. The children laughed at the NASCAR-like maneuverings
of the priest at the wheel - "a regular Jehu," remarked Bosscher, referring to a biblical character noted for his
crazy chariot driving - and the faces they have begun to associate with money, development and hope. Since the
1994 genocide, Rwanda has received from $200 million to $300 million per year in foreign aid.

Rwandan children greet a truck carrying members of Engineers Without Borders-USA from the
University of Wisconsin-Madison. The UW students and their professor were en route to the remote but
densely populated village of Muramba to help establish reliable sources of water and fuel.

But the Amuzungu presence in the northwestern part of the country, particularly in the provinces of Gisenyi and
Ruhengeri, has been minimal. This became strikingly apparent as the caravan decelerated from 70 mph to 5 mph
at the border of Gisenyi.

Here the pavement stopped, and a rutted, pot-holed, dirt road began; a road that finally delivered the four
engineers to Muramba, two hours later, and after dark. With Bosscher were Evan Parks, 23, of Slinger, Megan
Bender, 21, of Prairie du Chien and Ryan Wilson, 23, of Mendota Heights, Minn.

As they drove through the gates into the church complex, Bosscher inhaled deeply, and smiled: This was his
fourth visit to Muramba.

As adviser to both the UW and University of Colorado chapters, Bosscher has found himself on Rwandan soil
frequently over the past two years.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 80
Peter Bosscher, a professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and adviser to Engineers Without
Borders-USA, surveys the fields near a water source in Muramba, Rwanda.

He's planning another visit in January - a visit he hopes will be in the company of Rwanda's president, Paul
Kagame, a Tutsi.

That Kagame might accompany Bosscher is a point worth noting. Muramba is in a region of Rwanda considered
to be the home of Kagame's former enemies. It is populated primarily by Rwanda's majority ethnic group, the
Hutu, and associated with former Rwandan president Juvenal Habyarimana, and his hard-line supporters.

The tension between the Hutus and Rwanda's other major ethnic group, the Tutsis, came to a head in 1994 when
Habyarimana was assassinated, unleashing a 100-day genocidal sweep of Tutsis and moderate Hutus. By the
time Kagame's army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, took control of the country and squelched the genocide,
800,000 Rwandans had been killed.

If Bosscher can get Kagame to come to this region - on a mission of good faith - it will be a major coup for both
Engineers Without Borders-USA and Muramba.

On this visit, however, Bosscher was focusing on water, not national politics. He immediately set up a meeting
with local leaders in order to build support for his project.

Said Akobabamfitiye, the chief of Muramba; Innocent Kambanda, the church's technician; the college's
engineer; and a translator looked over Bosscher's schematics. Kambanda had already contacted pipe dealers in
Kigali and secured a price for equipment and supplies that was half of what Bosscher had budgeted. Loud
whoops and claps followed that revelation. But things soon became a bit more subdued when the men started
talking about labor.

Who was going to dig the trench for the pipes and lay them down? While some of the work would be relatively
easy - digging in soft, tilled soil - other stretches would be more difficult: digging under bedrock or in the road.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 81
Bosscher was adamant that no one get paid. The work should be done by an all-volunteer force, he said. That
way, there would be a sense of ownership in the project.

"We can't just walk in, lay down a pipe and leave," he said. "We want to make sure this project is sustainable -
that the project becomes yours."

He also was concerned that given his limited budget, they wouldn't be able to afford a paid labor force.

A meeting of the minds
So Bosco, Akobabamfitiye and Kambanda arranged a public "pep rally" to get people motivated. Three dozen
people showed up, listened to the proposal and started asking questions.

Will we get paid? We are poor and hungry, so why should we volunteer our precious energy and time? Why
can't you do it?

Evan Parks, a skinny, eager undergraduate, shook his head. Having visited Muramba in 2004, he said the
response was not unexpected. "Motivating them," he said, "can be a challenge."

"When you grow up in a world where your family could be slaughtered by your neighbors, and you've seen the
mutilated bodies of friends and loved ones, trust can't be easy to come by," he said. "How can you be motivated
about the future?"

That's a question that's haunted him. But he thinks he has a solution.

"If we can provide a stable infrastructure, where people can depend upon getting water" and fuel, he said, maybe
then the prevailing mind-set can be shaken; and with that, a new era of hope and promise can begin.

It was this belief that motivated Parks not only to return this year, but also to set a new course for his own life.
Indeed, just two years ago, he had envisioned a future in which he'd build state-of-the-art landfills. Now he sees
a life involved in international development. Wednesday, he left for Germany, where he'll study for a year on a
Rotary Ambassadorial Scholarship.

In the end, Bosscher, Kambanda and Akobabamfitiye agreed to pay a handful of diggers - a small, labor-
intensive work force expected to take on the most physically difficult and technical work. Everybody else would
have to volunteer.

On the first morning of scheduled work, nearly a hundred people arrived, with tools in hands and babies on their
backs.

For the next five weeks, volunteers and students arrived daily to dig, side-by-side. Children ran through the
potato, sorghum and cabbage fields; posing and mugging for the Madison students' cameras; laughing at the
digital images displayed on the camera screens.

When Bosscher, Parks and the other students left on July 18, the first phase of pipes had been laid. And by the
time the second team of undergraduates left on Aug. 3, just 700 feet of piping remained to be laid.

By now, a steady, strong stream of hope and water should be coursing through the streets, churches and schools
of this remote, hilltop town.

"As engineers, we have the ability to make people's lives easier," said Bosscher. "An engineer is someone who
allows reality to happen faster or better" than it would without their help.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 82
Ugandan priest answers call to help ease suffering in
Rwanda
By SUSANNE QUICK
squick@journalsentinel.com

Last Updated: Sep. 18, 2005

Muramba, Rwanda - Since he was a boy, Musinguzi John Bosco knew he wanted to be priest. By the time he
was a young man, the call was so deafening, he said, he could barely function as a typical adolescent.

"I'd think, 'There's no way I can marry. It wouldn't be fair. My heart and mind would be unfaithful,' " he said
laughing. It's not that he was filled with lustful or adulterous thoughts. It's just that God and the Catholic Church
were his true loves.

Father Musinguzi John Bosco has sought help for the people of Muramba, Rwanda, from international
aid agencies, including Engineers Without Borders.

In the early 1990s, as a young seminarian in Uganda, he heard daily reports about the Hutu genocide against the
Tutsis in Rwanda. The stories of the anguish, pain and horror called to him. He knew that it was in Rwanda he'd
be able to serve his God and make a difference.

So, in 1999, he asked his bishop for a transfer. It was granted.

"Oh, dear, my family did not want me to go," he said, chuckling as he described his mother's pleas for him to
stay.

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 83
But he'd heard a story about a priest from the Rwandan diocese of Muramba who'd been killed by his
congregation for asking them to not participate in the genocide. Within three months of that man's death, 34 of
the 36 Muramban parish priests were killed.

Bosco, now 37, felt compelled to serve the people of this community.

So after he was ordained in 2000, he came to Muramba.

"They were without a church for seven years," he said. "They needed someone."

He was met by a community of 97,000 people scarred by war, poverty and disease. Within this community of
mostly subsistence farmers, there were 3,011 orphans: 2,494 left parentless by the war, 517 orphaned by AIDS.
And 97 of these children were themselves HIV-positive. Most of these children were still living in their parents'
homes - parents who were buried in front of their modest mud houses with only banana trees to mark their
graves.

"That's life here," said Bosco. "You die, and you feed the banana trees."

With no money, no food and little in the way of a stable infrastructure, Bosco reached out for help. With little
help from the government, he has reached outside of Rwanda and contacted international aid agencies, such as
the International Kolping Society in Germany and Engineers Without Borders in the United States.

Through these organizations' help, he has built a vocational school to teach the adolescents in town useful trades
such as carpentry, plumbing and construction. His invitation to Engineers Without Borders - and its University
of Wisconsin-Madison student chapter - has resulted in a secure source of water for the town. They also have
helped him organize a small income-generating market based on honey-farming and alternative fuel sources.

These projects have not been easy. And his deeds not always recognized: His calls for help from the Rwandan
government have largely gone unheeded. And he's had to counter people in his community who are threatened
by what they see as Bosco's power and influence.

But he's remained determined.

"In order to do the works of peace and justice, one needs to be ready to face harassment and humiliation," he
said.

"Being a Christian is not a party," he said. "It's a mission."

© Engineers Without Borders – USA. All Rights Reserved Page 84