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EE3092 -Laboratory Practice V



: Mr. A.P.A. Perera Name : H.K.C.O. Dayarathne

Index Number: 090081D Department : Electrical Group : 03

Submission date: 30/01/2012

rms = 21. rms kW/Km/phase . E0. Ev.979 E0.05cm* loge (0.Calculation Theoretical values Assuming conductor to be smooth and polished one Pressure: 760Hgmm Temp: 27C0 Disruptive critical voltage. rms =21.979*1*0.945kV Power loss due to corona. rms = * ( √ )+ ( ) kV * ( √ )+ ( ) Ev. rms =13. rms =5. rms = Irregularity factor=mV=1 Ev.15m/0.2*0.2 δ m0 r loge kV The correction factor = Irregularity factor =m0=1 = =0. PC = Phase Voltage (L-N) = E=100kV PC = PC =95 kW/Km/phase √ kW/Km/phase √ 0.0005m)kV E0.91kV Visual critical voltage.

Practical 01 Corona characteristics of conductors: 1. Final breakdown of the medium : . Visual critical voltage : 3. Formation of visible corona throughout the conductor wire: 4. The disruptive critical voltage: 2.

Breakdown of non-uniform field 30 25 Breakdown Voltage (kV) 20 15 10 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Rod – Plate Gap Distance (cm) Breakdown Voltage (kV) .

36 27.5 2.91 14.72 22.0 2.73 23.82 19.09 10.5 5 5.00 25.55 16.86 25.5 7 7.5 4 4..5 9.09 22.Practical 02 Breakdown of non-uniform field: Rod – Plate Gap Distance (cm) Breakdown Voltage (kV) 1 1.91 26.86 30.27 28.5 6 6.5 3 3.23 .

develops from an electrode with a high potential in a neutral fluid. the ionization may not extend past this local region.Discussion 1. the air around that point will be at a much higher gradient than elsewhere. the fluid at that point ionizes and it becomes conductive. and temperature and line voltage. Air near the electrode can become ionized (partially conductive). Effects of Corona Discharge Effect constitute power loss in the transmission lines popularly called as corona loss. The importance of the liquid resistor used in this experiment setup. phase spacing. production of ozone gas. weather. conductor surface condition. by ionizing that fluid so as to create a plasma around the electrode. we must make sure each and every equipment’s safety as well. . When the air near the point becomes conductive. When the potential gradient is large enough at a point in the fluid. The ions generated eventually pass charge to nearby areas of lower potential. it has the effect of increasing the apparent size of the conductor. altitude. Corona Discharge Effect is defined as Self Sustained Electric Discharge in which the field Intensified Ionization is localized only over the portion of the distance between the electrodes. while regions more distant do not. 2. We use liquid resistor as it gives an acceptable protection to the reverse direction elements of the circuit. Since the new conductive region is less sharp. Corona Discharge Effect is affected by many things such as Conductor Diameter. and interference with the neighboring Radio and Television communication lines. perhaps sustained. And also accuracy of the resistance is not in our interest we can go for this liquid resistor. Since we are dealing with high voltage. number of conductors per phase. If a charged object has a sharp point. The phenomenon of corona formation and what is the impact of this phenomenon for high voltage overhead transmission lines? A corona is a process by which a current. the charged particles slowly find their way to an oppositely charged object and are neutralized. Outside this region of ionization and conductivity. usually air. or recombine to form neutral gas molecules. On the other hand it is very cheap.

nitrkl. Also Knobs and other parts of this equipments cannot rotate smoothly due to this we couldn’t get values with high accuracy[accessed online] . As we know. Due to this practical values can differ from theoretical values (though we use correction factor temperature of the atmosphere does not remain as constant during this practical). Then irregularity factor is not equal to one. an increase in voltage will first cause a localized discharge in the gas to appear at points with the highest electric field intensity. How to differentiate breakdown of non uniform field from uniform fields? In a uniform electric field. if the field is non-uniform. Since we are doing this practical several time. Air density in the laboratory area is not what we are expected. We know that corona has inverse relationship between air 4.wikipedia.wseas. formation of corona produces ozone and the surrounding air composition might[accessed online]  http://www. the ionization may easier than before. Once it ionizes the surrounding air and the time gap between observations gets lesser. we cannot expect the environmental conditions to be the same throughout all the time. The instruments use for this practical were analog therefore we not able to get highly accurate answers. Due to this. On the other hand. a gradual increase in voltage across a gap produces a breakdown of the gap in the form of a spark without any preliminary [accessed online]  Impact of coronas on transmission line//http://ethesis. namely at sharp points or where the electrodes are curved or on transmission line conductors. Furthermore we can not obtain smooth and polished surface[accessed online]  http://en. And also the ionization characteristics may also changes.wordpress. This form of discharge is called a corona discharge and can be observed as a bluish luminance accompanied by a hissing sound. References  Corona discharge/http://electricalnotes. The reasons for difference between theoretical values and practical values obtaining from the experiment (for corona characteristics) The copper rod that we are use in this practical hasn’t uniform cross section.3. practical values can be differing from theoretical values.