Program Solving For Better Health

2010
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine. Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad

HEALTH STATUS OF FACTORY WORKERS
Aaron Desai (22) Varun Desai (23) Nidhi Dhamecha (24) Namrata Dosapaty (26) Roma Gandhi (28)

*DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE* *SMT. N.H.L. MUNICIPAL MEDICAL COLLEGE AHMEDABAD*

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that below mentioned students of 3rd M.B.B.S. Part 1 have satisfactorily completed the PSBH project on “STUDY OF HEALTH STATUS OF FACTORY WORKERS” under the guidance of Dr. Aparajita Shukla. Aaron Desai (22) Varun Desai (23) Nidhi Dhamecha (24) Namrata Dosapaty (26) Roma Gandhi (28)

Head of Department

Teacher In-charge

Date

Acknowledgements
We would like to express the deepest appreciation to our Professor In-Charge, Dr. Aparajita Shukla, who continually and convincingly conveyed a spirit of adventure in regard to research, and an excitement in regard to teaching. Without her guidance and persistent help this project would not have been possible. We would also like to thank, Dr. D. V. Bala, Head of Department, Preventive and Social Medicine whose guidance has been of great help to our project work. We would also like to thank the factory owners, Mr Shamik Dalal, Anupam silktex and Mr Brijmohan Chiripal, Shanti Textiles and all the workers of the respective factories without whose help this project would not have been possible.

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Index
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. Introduction Research Question Aims and Objectives Review of Literature Study Design Observations and Discussion Recommendations Summary Bibliography Annexure 3 4 5 6 17 19 40 42 43 44

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Introduction
Textiles account for 14 per cent of India's industrial production and around 27 per cent of its export earnings. From growing its own raw material (cotton, jute, silk and wool) to providing value added products to consumers (fabrics and garments), the textile industry covers a wide range of economic activities, including employment generation in both organised and unorganised sectors. Manmade fibres account for around 40 per cent share in a cotton-dominated Indian textile industry. India accounts for 15% of world's total cotton crop production and records largest producer of silk. It is the second largest employer after the agriculture sector in both rural and urban areas. India has a large pool of skilled low-cost textile workers, experienced in technology skills. Almost all sectors of the textile industry have shown significant achievement. The sector has shown a 3.66 per cent CAGR over the last five years. India's cotton textile industry has a high export potential. Cost competitiveness is driving the penetration of Indian basic yarns and grey fabrics in international commodity markets. Besides natural fibres such as cotton, jute and silk, synthetic raw material products such as polyester staple fibre, polyester filament yarn, acrylic fibre and viscose fibre are produced in India. One of the oldest industries, textile industries comprises many diverse operations mainly including fibre synthesis, weaving, manufacturing, dyeing and finishing., There are numerous health and safety issues associated with the textile industry. They include: chemical exposure from the processing and dyeing of materials, exposures to various solvents, exposure to cotton and other organic dusts, musculoskeletal stresses, and noise exposure.

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Research Question:
What is the status of health of 100 factory workers employed at 2 different factories and their level of knowledge about the prevention of health hazards and use of protective devices?

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Aims and Objectives
1. To study the profile of health of factory workers. 2. To assess the level of knowledge and practice about the use of protective devices and measures to prevent occupational hazards. 3. To investigate the factors effecting occupational health and safety in textile industry 4. To study the correlation among different factors. 5. To make appropriate recommendations to the factory owners and the workers.

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Review of Literature
Occupational Hazards in textile industries
Small- and medium-scale enterprises constitute 70 - 80 % of India’s industry. improvement of prevailing working conditions receives particular attention in For this purpose, a systematic and comprehensive assessment of workers’ exposure was carried out. This is specifically the case in the textile which is highly export-oriented. The the context of rising awareness towards corporate social accountability trends.

Diseases and accidents in the work place are an appalling tragedy. The incidence of occupational diseases and injuries are very high in India because thousands of workers are routinely exposed to hazardous chemicals. It is well known that healthy workers are most productive. The introduction of hazardous technologies in industry has resulted in high accident rates, are illiterate and do not know what protective measures should be adopted for their jobs. Most of the workforce is not prepared to cope with the hazards posed by manufacturing and industrial processes. Thus, a huge number of workers will be at risk if no future attempts are made to improve.

occupational diseases, and unhealthy working environments. Most workers

Under-diagnosis and under-reporting of occupational diseases lead to the belief that these are minor problems. Hazards in the workplace are often caused by the use of materials, tools, machinery and chemicals. The present study is oriented to explore problems, needs and the factors which are responsible to maintain occupational health and safety of the workers in textile industry. It can be helpful in formulating programme and policy to solve the problems related to the health and safety of textile workers. Based upon the above discussion and facts, the following objectives have been formulated for the present research: (1) to detect the work hazards related to the working environment, (2) and (3) to identify the major causes of industrial accidents.
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Hazards and risks in the textiles sector The textiles sector contains many hazards and risks to workers, ranging from exposure to noise and dangerous substances, to manual handling and working with dangerous machinery. Each processing stage — from the production of materials to the manufacturing, finishing, colouring and packaging —poses risks for workers, and some of these are particularly dangerous for health. This short document cannot cover all the hazards and risks in all the parts of the textiles sector, but highlights some of the key issues, particularly to workers, and how worker safety and health can be managed. 1. Exposure to chemical agents Many different groups of chemical substances are used in the textiles sector, including dyes, solvents, optical brighteners, crease-resistance agents, flame retardants, heavy metals, pesticides, and antimicrobic agents. The textile industry has been evaluated as a sector with an increased carcinogenic risk. Several studies have showed an increased risk of nasal, laryngeal and bladder cancer in men. 2. Exposure to dusts and fibres The exposure of workers to dusts from material such as silk, cotton, wool, flax, hemp, sisal, and jute can occur during weaving, spinning, cutting, ginning, and packaging. Division of tasks along gender lines may mean that women are exposed to organic dusts more than men, with respiratory diseases being diagnosed more often in women than men. Exposure to fibres and yarns may cause nasal or bladder cancer.
3.

Exposure to biological agents

In some activities, such as carding and willowing, workers may be exposed to biological agents such as anthrax, clostridium tetani (the causative agent for tetanus), and coxiella burnetti (which causes Q fever). Exposure to biological agents can result in allergies and respiratory disorders.

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Workers may be exposed to noise and vibrations, for example during weaving, spinning, sewing, twisting, and cutting. Exposure to loud noise can result in permanent hearing damage such as noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus. Exposure to vibration, particularly together with risk factors for MSDs, can lead to long-term harm. Electromagnetic fields may also be found in some workplaces in the textiles sector. Heat stress may be dangerous in it and may also predispose workers to other conditions. In hot environments it may be impossible to wear protective clothing, and consequently exposure to other hazards may occur. Accidents in the textiles sector The textiles sector has many hazards that can cause injury to workers, from
5.

4.

Exposure to physical agents

transport in the workplace (lift truck), dangerous large work equipment and plant, to the risk of slips from a wet working environment. Workers being struck by objects, such as moving machinery parts and vehicles are a significant cause of injury in the sector. There also exists the risks of fire and explosions, for example from heating plants used for vapour generation. Work-related stress has been defined as being experienced when the demands of the work environment exceed the workers’ ability to cope with or control them. Work-related stress may be an issue in some areas of the textiles sector, being associated for example with repetitive and fast paced work, and where the worker has no influence on how the job is done. 6. Psychosocial issues in the textiles sector

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HEALTH PROBLEMS DUE TO INDUSTRIALISATION 1) Environmental Sanitation Problems.
a) Housing. b) Sewage Disposal c) Water Pollution.
d) Air Pollution.

2) Food Sanitation Problems. 3) Communicable Diseases.
a) TB, Malaria, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Water & Food Borne Diseases

4) Mental Problems.
a) Behavior Disorders, Psychoneuroses.

5) Social Problems.
a) Drug Addiction, Alcoholism, Prostitution, Gambling, Increased Crime Rate.

6) Accidents. 7) Morbidity & Mortality. Prevention: Proper Town Planning & Zoning

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SICKNESS ABSENTEEISM
It is a useful index in industry to assess the health of the workers. CAUSES: 1. Economic causes. 2. Social causes. 3. Non- occupational causes. 4. Medical causes. PREVENTION:
1. Good factory management practices.

2. Good human relationship.

3. Application of ergonomics.

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PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES
 MEASURES FOR HEALTH PROTECTION OF WORKERS. 1. Nutrition. 2. Communicable disease control. 3. Environmental sanitation. • Water supply • Food. • Toilet. • Proper garbage & waste disposal. • General plant cleanliness. • Sufficient space. • Lighting. • Ventilation. • Protection against hazards. 4. Mental health: GOALS: • To promote health and happiness of workers. • To detect signs of stress and strain and take necessary measures. • Treatment of employees suffering from mental illnesses. • Rehabilitation of those who become ill. 5. Measures for women and children. 6. Family planning services

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7. Health education.

 MEDICAL MEASURES:
1. Pre –placement examination. 2. Periodic health check up. 3. Medical and health care facilities. 4. Supervision of work environment. • Water supply , food, general plant cleanliness • Toilet. Proper garbage & waste disposal. • Sufficient space. • Lighting. • Ventilation. • Protection against hazards. 5. Notification 6. Maintenance and analysis of records. 7. Health education and counseling.

 ENGINEERING MEASURES
1) Design of building. 2) Good housekeeping. 3) General ventilation. 4) Dust & fume control. a. Local exhaust ventilation. b. Enclosures. 5) Mechanization. 6) Substitution. 7) Protective devices. c. Isolation.

8) Environmental monitoring & research.

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Laws
THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948
INTRODUCTION In India the first Factories Act was passed in 1881. This Act was basically
[Act No. 63 of 1948] As amended by the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987

designed to protect children and to provide few measures for health and safety of the workers. This law was applicable to only those factories, which which extended to the factories employing 50 or more workers. Definition of a Factory:employed 100 or more workers. In 1891 another factories Act was passed

“Factory” is defined in Section 2(m) of the Act. It means any premises including working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which

the precincts thereof- Whereon ten or more workers are working, or were a manufacturing process is being carried on with the aid of power, or is

ordinarily so carried on; or Whereon twenty or more workers are working, or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on without the aid of power, or is ordinarily so carried on.

HIGHLIGHTS: The Factories Act, 1948 came into force on the 1st day of April, 1949 and extends to the whole of India. It was, in fact, extended to Dadra & Nagar Kashmir in 1970. Haveli, Pondicherry in 1963, to Goa in 1965 and to the State of Jammu &

SOME OF THE CRUCIAL SECTIONS:  Registration & Renewal of Factories- To be granted by Chief Inspector of  Employer to ensure health of workers pertaining to  Ventilation and temperature dust and fume -Sec 13  Overcrowding Artificial humidification Lighting – Sec. 14  Drinking water Spittoons - Sec. 18 Disposal of wastes and effluents -Sec 12 Factories on submission of prescribed form, fee and plan. Sec. 6 Cleanliness

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SAFETY MEASURES  Fencing of machinery – Sec. 21

 Work on near machinery in motion. – Sec 22 Sec 23

 Employment prohibition of young person’s on dangerous machines. –  Striking gear and devices for cutting off power – Sec 24  Self-acting machines - Sec 25 ·  Casing of new machinery - Sec 26 · - Sec 27 ·

 Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton-openers  Hoists and lifts. - Sec 28. WELFARE MEASURES  Washing facilities – Sec 42

 Facilities for storing and drying clothing – Sec 43  Facilities for sitting – Sec 44  First-aid appliances – one first aid box not less than one for every 150 46

workers– Sec 45 Canteens when there are 250 or more workers. – Sec

 Shelters, rest rooms and lunch rooms when there are 150 or more – Sec 48

workers. – Sec 47 Crèches when there are 30 or more women workers.

 Welfare office when there are 500 or more workers. – Sec 49 more than 48 - Sec: 51

 Working Hours, Spread over & Overtime of Adults Weekly hours not  Daily hours, not more than 9 hours - Sec: 54

 Intervals for rest at least ½ hour on working for 5 hours - Sec: 55  Spread over not more than 10½ hours. - Sec: 56  Overlapping shifts prohibited. - Sec: 58

 Extra wages for overtime double than normal rate of wages - Sec: 59 Sec: 60

 Restrictions on employment of women before 6AM and beyond 7 PM.  Annual Leave with Wages a worker having worked for 240 days @ one day for every 20 days and for a child one day for working of 15 days. Accumulation of leave for 30 days -Sec. 79

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ESI ACT 1948
INTRODUCTION The Employee State Insurance Act, [ESIC] 1948, is a piece of social welfare legislation enacted primarily with the object of providing certain benefits to employees in case of sickness, maternity and employment injury and also to act concerns with the health, safety, welfare, leave etc of the workers employed

make provision for certain others matters incidental thereto. While the factory in the factory premises only, but the benefits of this act extend to employees whether working inside the factory or establishment or elsewhere or they are directly employed by the principal employee or through an intermediate agency, if the employment is incidental or in connection with the factory or establishment.

THE BEGINNING The Employee State Insurance act was promulgated by the Parliament of India in the year 1948. To begin with the ESIC scheme was initially launched on 2 February 1952 at just two industrial centres in the country namely Kanpur and Delhi with a total coverage of about 1.20 lac workers. There after the active involvement of the state government. scheme was implemented in a phased manner across the country with the

APPLICABILITY The ESIC Act applies to non-seasonal, power using factories or manufacturing employing twenty or more persons. Under the enabling provisions of the act, a implementation of the scheme, falls in the purview of the act. Employees of the to Rs 6,500 a month are entitled to health insurance cover under the ESI act.

units employing ten or more persons and non-power using establishments factory or establishment, located in a geographical area, notified for aforesaid categories of factories or establishments, but drawing wages only up

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WAGE CEILING FOR COVERAGE The monthly wage limit for coverage under the ESI act would be such as

prescribed by the central government in the ESI [central] rules, 1950. The

existing wage ceiling for coverage [excluding remuneration for over-time work] is Rs.6500 per month [rule 50 of ESI central rules, 1950]. Wage ceiling for purpose of coverage is revised from time to time by the central government on the specific recommendation of the corporation, at present the corporation has recommended for the increase of the wage limit to Rs 10,000 and its implementation is awaited.

SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS Quantum, scale and contributory conditions

Employees covered under the scheme are entitled to medical facilities for self and dependants. They are also entitled to cash benefits in the event of specified contingencies resulting in loss of wages or earning capacity. The insured women are entitled to maternity benefit for confinement. Where death of an the dependants are entitled to family pension. insured employee occurs due to employment injury or occupational disease, Various benefits that the insured employees and their dependants are entitled to, the duration of benefits and contributory conditions therefore are as under: 1) Medical benefit 2) Sickness benefit [cash]

3) Extended sickness benefit [cash] 5) Maternity benefit [cash]

4) Enhanced sickness benefit [cash] 6) Disablement benefit [cash] 8) Other benefits

7) Dependants benefits [cash] a. Funeral expenses

b. Vocational rehabilitation

c. Free supply of physical aids and appliances such as crutches, wheelchairs, spectacles and other such physical aids. welfare services, HIV/AIDS detection, treatment etc. d. Preventive health care’s services such as immunization, family

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Study Design
 Study Design:  Subjects:  Inclusion Criteria:  Exclusion Criteria:  Sampling Technique:  Ethical Consideration: Cross Sectional 100 Factory Workers Workers associated with production Office Staff Random Sampling Informed Verbal Consent of Workers

METHOD
After the completion of P.S.B.H workshop the project was selected considering its importance. Its format was discussed by our group and a relevant questionnaire was prepared and reviewed by our Facilitator. Then permission was obtained from the factory owners and the questionnaires were filled from workers. Then analysis of the data was done by using SPSS software and the results were obtained and reviewed by our facilitator. The appropriate recommendations have been made.

RESOURCES
 Man Power o Volunteers: 5 o Teachers:  Materials Materials Pen Printout Laptop Photocopies Travel Charges Final Report Amount 5 50 3 150 7 Cost 50 50 150 400 500 2

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TIME FRAME
 Project selection and permission:  Preparation of Questionnaire:  Screening of Patients:  Evaluation:  TOTAL TIME TAKEN: 1 week 1 week 2 weeks 2 weeks 6 weeks

Evaluation Screening Questionnaire Permission

0

1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week 5th week 6th week

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Observation and Discussion
1. Distribution of Workers according to Residence

Residence
80 w o r k e r s 70 74

60
50 40 30 20 10 0 Rural Urban 26

The above chart shows that 74% of workers belong to the urban areas. 2. Distribution of Workers according to level of Education
Graduate, 6 Illiterate, 2 Just literate, 4

Higher secondary, 17

Primary, 28

Secondary, 43

Level Of Education
3. Working hours 85% workers are working for 12 hours a day.

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4. Frequency of Years of Experience of Workers

Statistics Years Of Experience Std Deviation Mean Median 1.32035 9.11 7.00

On average workers have an experience of about 10 years.

Years of experience
40 35 w o r k e r s 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1-5 6 - 10 11 - 15 Years 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 13 10 6 2 38 31

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5. Frequency of Age of Workers

Age
50 45 40 35 Age(Years) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Total Factory 1 Factory 2 15-24 27 18 25-34 43 28 35-44 20 15 45-54 8 8 55-64 2 0

9

15

5

0

2

Thus the above table indicates that majority of workers belong to 25-35 years of age. The mean age of workers is 30 years.

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6. Training of Workers

Special Training
80 70 w o r k e r s 60 50 76

40
30 20 10 0 No Yes 24

Only 24% of workers have taken special training for their work in institutions like ATIRA. Rest of workers have learned their work from senior workers. 7. Respiratory Problems in workers

Respiratory Problems
15

No Yes

85

15% workers have some kind of respiratory problems.

Even more than one complaint in one person was also present.

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8. Frequency of Individual Respiratory Complains in Workers Respiratory complains Cough Chest pain Cough and dyspnoea Dyspnoea and chest pain Frequency 5 2 5 3

9. Otological Problems in Factory Workers

Otological problems
Yes 15%

No 85%

15% workers have some kind of otological problems. 10. Status of Individual Otological Complains in Workers Otological complains Hearing loss Ear discharge and hearing loss Ear ache and hearing loss Ear ache, ear discharge and hearing loss Frequency 10 1 3 1

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11.
No Yes Total

History of Injury during work
Frequency 97 3 100 Percent 97.0 3.0 100.0

12.
Yes

Frequency of workers who are ESIS Beneficiary
Frequency 100 Percent 100.0

All workers are ESIS beneficiary.

13.

Status of workers using Protective Devices

Protective Devices
120 100 100 80 Workers 63 69

60
44 40 20 0 No Yes Total 37 25 19 12 31

total 63 37 100

Factory 1 44 25 69

Factory 2 19 12 31

Only 37% workers use protective devices during work hours. In factory 1 The statistical analysis of the above data shows the following: Standard Error of difference between two proportions=10.49 Z=0.236. Thus, as Z<2S.E. it implies that P>0.005 which means the above data is insignificant.

around 36.23% and factory 2 around 38.7 % workers use protective devices

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14.

Awareness regarding their rights among the workers

Right Awareness
120 100

100
80 Axis Title

93

65 60 40 20 7 0 No Yes Total total 93 7 100 4 Factory 1 65 4 69

69

28

31

3 Factory 2 28 3 31

Less than 10% workers are aware of their rights like duration of work per day, compensation in case of any injury, provision of leaves, provision of protective devices etc. In factory 1 around 5.8% and factory 2 around 9.7 % workers are aware about their rights. The statistical analysis of the above data shows the following: Standard Error of difference between two proportions=4.168 Z=0.931. Thus, as Z<2S.E. it implies that P>0.005 which means the above data is insignificant.

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15.

Awareness about Health Hazards in Factory in workers

Awareness About Health Hazards
120 100 100 80 Workers 61 60 40 20 0 No 39 39 30 22 9 Total 61 39 100 Factory 1 39 30 69 Factory 2 22 9 31 31

69

Yes
Total

40% workers are aware about health hazards of their work. In factory 1 around 43.5% and factory 2 around 29 % workers are aware about health hazards. The statistical analysis of the above data shows the following: Standard Error of difference between two proportions=10.1 Z=1.43. Thus, as Z<2S.E. it implies that P>0.005 which means the above data is insignificant.

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16.

Awareness about protection against health hazards

Awareness-Preventive Measures
120 100 80 Axis Title 60 40 20

0
No Yes Total

Total

Factory 1

Factory 2

64
36 100

41
28 69

23
8 31

40% workers are aware about prevention techniques. In factory 1 around 40.6% and factory 2 around 25.8 % workers use protective devices. The statistical analysis of the above data shows the following: Standard Error of difference between two proportions=9.834 Z=1.502. Thus, as Z<2S.E. it implies that P>0.005 which means the above data is insignificant.

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17.

Status of Workers who use Mask

Mask Users
120 100 100

80 69

Axis Title

63 60 44 40 37

31
25 19 12

20

0 No Yes

Total
63 37 100

Factory 1
44 25 69

Factory 2
19 12 31

Total

The statistical analysis of the above data shows the following: Standard Error of difference between two proportions=10.49 Z=0.236. Thus, as Z<2S.E. it implies that P>0.005 which means the above data is insignificant.

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18.

Status of Workers who use Ear Plugs

Ear Plugs' Users
120

100 100 80 Axis Title 87 69 58 40 29 13 0 No Yes Total Total 87 13 100 11 Factory 1 58 11 69 2 Factory 2 29 2 31 31

60

20

The statistical analysis of the above data shows the following: Standard Error of difference between two proportions=10.49 Z=0.236. Thus, as Z<2S.E. it implies that P>0.005 which means the above data is insignificant.

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19.

Incidence of Respiratory Problems in urban and rural areas

Rural
5

RESP YES/NO No RESP YES/NO Yes

21

Urban
10

RESP YES/NO No RESP YES/NO Yes

64

At df=1 chi-square=0.493 thus P=0.482. Since p>0.05 it signifies that there is no statistically significant difference. Thus there is no relation between residence and respiratory problems. As most of the time is spent in factory there is no influence of residence on their health.

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20.

Incidence of Otological Problems amongst Workers living in rural and urban areas

Rural
5

OTO YES/NO No OTO YES/NO Yes

21

Urban
10

OTO YES/NO No OTO YES/NO Yes

64

At df=1 chi-square=0.493 and P=0.482 Since p>0.05 it signifies that there is no statistically significant difference. Thus there is no relation between residence and otological problems. As most of the time is spent in factory there is no influence of residence on their health.

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21.

Use of Protective Devices in Workers in relation to their Level of Education

Protective Devices
50 45 40 43

35
w o r k e r s 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Illiterate Just literate Primary Secondary Higher secondary Graduate 4 2 1 8 7 3 18 Yes 17 total 28

6

level of education

At df =5 chi-square=3.273 and P=0.658

P>0.05 so chances of occurring this event by chance is more. devices.

Thus there is no relation between level of education and use of protective

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22.

Awareness of Rights in Workers according to their Level of Education

Right Awareness
45 40 35 w o r k e r s 30 25 20 15 17 Yes total 6 0 Primary 2 2 2 43

28

10
5 0 Illiterate Just literate Secondary Higher secondary 1 2 4 0

Graduate

level of education

At df=5 chi-square=15.438 and P=0.009 increases at higher levels of education.

Thus the data is highly significant and shows that the awareness about rights

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23.

Comparison of Injury and training in workers

Comparison of Injury and training in workers
80 74

70
60 w o r k e r s 50 40 History Of Injury No 30 20 10 2 0 No training Yes 1 History Of Injury Yes

23

At df =1 chi-square=0.148 and P=0.701

P>0.05 so chances of occurring this event by chance is more. Thus there is no relationship between history of injury and training of workers as accidents occur due to negligence on the part of workers.

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24.

Respiratory Problems in Workers who Smoke

Respiratory Complains in workers who Smoke
100% 90% 80% w o r k e r s 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% No Yes/No RESP YES/NO Yes RESP YES/NO No 9 76 6 9 Yes

At df=1 chi-square=8.651 and P=0.003 Thus the data is highly significant and shows that smoking definitely increases the risk of respiratory problems.

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25.

Respiratory Complains in Workers in relation to Years of Experience

Respiratory problems
40 35 30 30 w o r k e r s 25 20 No 15 10 5 1 0 1-5 6 - 10 11 - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 1 7 Yes 6 6 4 37

5 1 2 0

years of experience

At df=1 chi-square=8.651 and P=0.003 Thus the data is highly significant and shows that respiratory problems increase with increase in years of work.

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26.

Otological Complains in Workers in relation to Years of Experience

otologic problems
40 35 30 w o r k e r s 25 37

25
20 No 15 10 10 6 5 1 0 1-5 6 - 10 11 - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 3 7 5 3 1 1 1 Yes

years of experiance

At df =5 chi-square=9.385 and P=0.095

P>0.05 so chances of occurring this event by chance is more.

Thus there is no relation between otological problems and years of work.

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27.

Otological Complains in Workers VS use of Ear Plugs

Otologic Problems
80 73

70
w o r k e r s 60 50 40 No 30 20 10 1 0 No Ear Plugs Yes 14 12 Yes

At df =1 chi-square=0.626 and P=0.429

P>0.05 so chances of occurring this event by chance is more.

Thus there is no relation between Otological problems and use of ear plugs.

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28.

Respiratory Complains in Workers VS use of Mask

Respiratory Problems
100% 90% 80% w o r k e r s 70%

60%
50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% No Mask RESP YES/NO Yes RESP YES/NO No 7 56 8 29 Yes

At df =1 chi-square=2.020 and P=0.155

P>0.05 so chances of occurring this event by chance is more.

Thus there is no relation between respiratory problems and use of masks. As respiratory problems are multifactorial, use of a mask only may not sufficiently reduce the occurrence of a respiratory problem.

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Recommendations
1. The workers should receive training in specific institutions. The training sessions should include the following: a. Operating of machines. b. Knowledge about the controls of machines. c. Servicing and maintenance of machines. d. To avoid over heating of machines.

The training period should comprise a minimum 1 month duration. thorough training.

e. To protect themselves while operating the machine.

The workers should be allowed to operate machinery only after

2. Provision of Leaves as follows: No adult worker shall be required or allowed to work in a factory on first day of the week (hereinafter referred to as the said day), unless – immediately before or after the said day, and day under clause (a), whichever is earlier :a. he has or will have holiday for whole day on one of three days b. the manager of the factory has, before said day or the substituted i. delivered a notice at the office of the Inspector of his intention to require the worker to work on the said day and of the day which is to be substituted, and a notice to that effect in the

ii. displayed

Provided that no substitution shall be made which will consecutively without a holiday for a whole day.

factory

result in any worker working for more than ten days

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3. The periods of work of adult workers in a factory each day shall be so fixed that no period shall exceed five hours and that no worker shall work for more than five hours before he has had an interval for rest of at least half an hour.

4. Prohibition of overlapping shifts a. Work shall not be carried on in any factory by means of a system of shifts so arranged that more than one relay of workers is engaged in work of the same kind at the same time.

5. The duration of working hours should be reduced from 12 hrs to 8 hrs a day

6. There should be regular medical check up of workers as follows: a. The workers should be examined by qualified doctors and b. The factory owners should make provisions for regular medical c. Such health check up can be carried out at an interval of 3 months. d. the factory can maintain the data regarding their health check up. enquired about any health problems.

7. Protective devices like masks, gloves, aprons etc. provided to the workers

should be

8. The workers should be aware of their rights. The factory owners should conduct sessions regarding right awareness.

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Summary
The study carried amongst the factory workers of two different textiles showed the following results: Only 24% of workers have taken special training for their work in institutions like ATIRA. Rest of workers have learned their work from senior workers. 85% workers are working for 12 hours a day. 15% workers have some kind of respiratory problems. Even more than one complaint in one person was also present. 15% workers have some kind of otological problems. 3% workers have history of injury during work. All workers are ESIS beneficiary. Only 37% workers use protective devices during work hours. Less than 10% workers are aware of their rights like duration of work per day, compensation in case of any injury, provision of leaves, provision of protective devices etc. 40% workers are aware about health hazards of their work. 40% workers are aware about prevention techniques. On average workers have an experience of about 10 years. The awareness about rights increases at higher levels of education. Smoking definitely increases the risk of respiratory problems. Respiratory problems increase with increase in years of work.

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Bibliography
1. Kjellstrom, T., and L. Rosen stock. 1990. “The Role of Occupational and Environmental Hazards in the Adult Health Transition.” World Health Statistics Quarterly 43: 188-96. Lehtinen L. edt. (2002). Occupational Health and Safety. African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Vol. 12: 32-34. 2. Health and Safety Executive Health and safety in the textiles industries http://www.hse.gov.uk/textiles/index.htm ESIC Annual Report-2001-2002 Financial Statement and Performance Budget-2002-2003 ESIC Bare Act 1948 3. Buljan, J.; Sahasranaman, A. & Hannak, J. (1999): Occupational Safety and Health Aspects of Leather Manufacture – Guidelines and Recommendations for Managers and Effluent Treatment Plants. Regional Programme Office United Nations Industrial Development Organization and Council for Leather Exports, Chennai, India. 4. Park’s textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 5. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1996): National Occupation Research Agenda, morbidity and mortality weekly report 45: 445- 446. 6. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), (1999): 7. National institute of occupational health. 8. Factory act, http://www.labourandemployment.gov.in 9. ESI Act, http://www.ccsindia.org/ccsindia/interns2003/chap6.pdf 10. Hunters textbook of occupational hazards

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Annexure 1
HEALTH STATUS OF FACTORY WORKERS QUESTIONNAIRE 1. NAME 2. AGE 3. SEX 4. RESIDENCE RURAL 5. MARITAL STATUS SINGLE 6. LEVEL OF EDUCATION ILLITERATE JUST LITERATE PRIMARY SECONDARY HIGHER SECONDARY GRADUATE POST GRADUATE AND ABOVE 7. ANY SPECIAL TRAINING? YES IF YES THEN, URBAN

MARRIED

OTHER

NO

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DURATION

44

WHEN

8. YEARS OF EXPERIENCE 9. WORKING HOURS PER DAY 10. LEAVES PROVIDED PER MONTH YES NO FREQUENCY CHANGE IN SHIFT ROTATION IN OTHER SECTIONS 11. ANY COMPLAINS YES

NO

RESPIRATORY: COUGH YES/NO DURATION FREQUENCY PROGRESS NATURE DYSPNOEA CHEST PAIN 1 OTHER 2 3

OTOLOGY: EARACHE YES/ NO DURATION FREQUENCY PROGRESS NATURE EAR HEARING TINNITUS OTHER DISCHARGE LOSS

12.

ANY HISTORY OF INJURY DURING WORK? YES NO REGULAR HEALTH CHECK UP? YES

13.

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X-RAY

45

NO

PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AUDIOGRAM 14. CLINICAL EXAMINATION RESPITORY SYSTEM OTOLOGY 15. USE OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES YES MASK APRONS GLOVES EAR PLUGS OTHER NO

16.

ARE YOU AWARE OF YOUR RIGHTS? IF YES THEN,

17. ARE YOU AWARE ABOUT THE HEALTH HAZARDS DUE TO YOUR OCCUPATION? YES NO 18. ARE YOU AWARE ABOUT THEIR PREVENTION TECHNIQUES? YES NO 19. ESIS- BENEFICIERY YES INSURED IN OTHER WAY? 20. HISTORY OF SMOKING YES

NO

NO

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