Child care (or "childcare", "child minding", "daycare",or "preschool") is the caring for and supervision of a child or children, usually

from newborn to age thirteen. Child care is the action or skill of looking after children by a day-care day care center, babysitter, or other providers. Child care is a broad topic covering a wide spectrum of contexts, activities, social and cultural ultural conventions, and institutions. The majority of child care institutions that are available require that child care providers have extensive training in first aid and are CPR certified. In addition, background checks, drug testing, t and reference verification are normally a requirement. Child care can cost up to $15,000 for one year in the United States. Approximately six out of every ten children, children, or almost 12 million children, age five and younger, are being jointly cared for by parents and early childhood educators, relatives, or other child-care providers.[1]

Contents

   

  

1 Common types o 1.1 Western society o 1.2 Family child care o 1.3 Center-based based care o 1.4 Informal care o 1.5 England 2 Effects on child development 3 The value of unpaid d child care 4 Learning stories 5 History o 5.1 First child care in human prehistory o 5.2 Plato 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External links

Common types
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. removed (January 2010)

Western society
It is traditional in Western society for children to be taken care of by their parents or their legal guardians. . In families where children live with one or both of their parents, the childcare role may also be taken on by the child's extended family. . If a parent or extended family is unable nable to care for the children, orphanages and foster homes are a way of providing for children's care, housing, and nd schooling. The two main types of child care options for employed parents needing childcare are centre centrebased care (including creches, daycare, daycare and preschools) and home-based based care (also known as nanny or family daycare). As well as these licensed option's parents may also choose to find their own caregiver or arrange childcare exchanges/swaps with another family.[2]

making the atmosphere most similar to a child's home.[5] Family day homes offer group care to young children in another person's home. overnight. or friends and family. In addition. but the environment more closely resembles that of a family's home. forming a close bond. This means they are trained to create a safe and stimulating environment for your child to enjoy and thrive in. Nannycare is the most expensive form of childcare. These things should be taken in consideration when making a choice. reducing exposure to outside children and illnesses. and cleaning house. a nanny or au pair is not always the best methods of childcare. Some family child care providers may offer parents more flexibility with hours of operation such as evening. au pairs or nannies provide more than routine child care. As mentioned the caregivers do not need licenses or background checks so there is no way of telling if a person is really qualified or has a criminal background (unless you live in a country where there is an option of obtaining home-based care through a government licensed and funded agency). family care generally has a small ratio of children in care. The child is watched inside their own home or the caregiver's home. fixing meals. Providers care for multi-aged groups of children allowing children to remain with one caregiver for many years which helps children develop a sense of trust and security. weekend. At the same time. the children utilizing in-home care enjoy the greatest amount of interaction with their caregiver. Multiaged settings allow children to learn from one another and allow siblings to stay together.The providers are able to communicate each day with parents on a personal level and share information about the development of the child. They may also offer care for children with special needs. shopping. and before and after school care. or on finances.Family child care In home care is known as family child care it typically is provided by nannies. Any complaints against the caregiver will be documented and available for public record. There are no required licensing or background checks for in-home care. Weekly salaries for nannies are 2 to 3 times the cost of a week of daycare. including running errands.[4] State licensing requirements vary.[3] It confines the child into a world of their own. Recruiting a nanny can be costly when using a Nanny agency. Family child care is provided from a care giver's personal home.[6] . The adult-to-child ratio may be the same. since a family day home may not be as costly as a center-based program. Nanny and au pair services provide certified caregivers and the cost of in-home care is the highest of childcare options per child. Family care (depending upon the relative levels of state subsidy for centrebased care) is generally the most affordable childcare option. Family child care helps foster emotionally secure interpersonal relationships for everyone involved. as well as complete a background check on the caregiver's license. and offers often greater flexibility in hours available for care. doing laundry. so the parent should conduct careful interviews and home inspections. often assisting with daily household activities. Depending on the number of children in the home. Many nannies study towards childcare qualifications. making parental vigilance essential in choosing an appropriate caregiver. though a household with many children may find this the most convenient and affordable option. This is often a choice families make based on either the desire to keep their child in a more typical familyfriendly environment (compared to a child-care center). allowing for more interaction between child and provider than would be had at a commercial care center. It keeps them from interacting with other children a lot of the time. au pairs. Typically.

[8] The cost for the Head Start program is estimated at $9. physical and social development of kids. Some positives of commercial care are children gain independence. Similarly Early Head Start serves low income children birth to 3 years of age. learn new skills and do homework. a specialist in Infant Care.[1] Classes are usually largest in this type of care.000 per child. and school-age kids make friends.[7] Pre-school is often the term used to refer to child care centers that care primarily for 3 and 4year old children. government is responsible for monitoring the quality of care. but according to the National Center for Early Development and Learning. Head Start serves more than one million low-income children. a quality care provider should provide children with (a) light. In many locales. nutritional. and provide a standardized and regulated system of care for children. Active children may thrive in the educational activities provided by a quality commercial care center. There are buses that bring the child to the location. The YMCA aims to enable preschoolers to experience early literacy and learn about their world. bright and clean areas to play as well as separate sleeping and eating areas and (b) be the kind of person you can have confidence in leaving your child with. Head Start is a federally funded program for low income children ages 3 and 4 and their families. Preschool can be based in a center. the need children have to feel connected and supported in trying new things. founded by the late Magda Gerber. Resources for Infant Educarers is a non-profit world-wide organization. YMCA website claims that its programs are staffed with people who understand the cognitive. Head Start program provides federal grants directly to local agencies to provide comprehensive child development services for low-income children and families.[10] Regardless of type of care chosen. children from low quality centers may be significantly less advanced in terms of vocabulary and reading skills. health.[12] . Parents may choose from a commercial care center close to their work. in Scotland Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education is responsible for improving care and education for children from birth to eighteen. This is implemented by inspections carried out by HMIE itself or by other members of inspection and review teams. social and other services to enrolled children and families. and some companies offer care at their facilities. aiming to provide parents and carers information to help them decide whether a particular child care setting is providing good quality child care and meeting government standards. For instance. Inspection reports include feedback from staff and parents as well as the inspectors. ratios of children to adult caregivers will vary according to state licensing requirements. Head Start programs aim to promote school readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of children through the provision of educational.Center-based care Commercial care centers also known as daycares are open for set hours. Today. The school will act in loco parentis meaning "in lieu of parent supervision". Another method of child care is for before and/or after school: the YMCA program.[9] Infants may also be cared for in infant and child care centers. academic achievement and socialization. family child care home or a public school. and the caring and reinforcement parents and families need to help each other.[11] Most western countries also have compulsory education during which the great majority of children are at school starting from five or six years of age.

The basic numbers of children that childminders can care for is 6 children under 8 years of age. Care for children under five is split into Childcare on Domestic Premises which is Childminding and Daycare. They comply/administer/work with The Early Years Foundation Stage EYFS and have the same responsibilities for education as nurseries and reception classes. of these children. sociologist Christopher Doob finds that poor children are less likely to attend the centre-based and home based childcare programs. Typically informal childcare is necessary for families who do not have enough funds to finance placing their children in a more expensive child care facility. those children who receive informal childcare do not receive the same educational preparation and school readiness that centre-based and home based children receive. . for example grandparents and siblings.[13] Unlike those children who receive centre-based or home based childcare. In the UK being a ‘Childminder’ is a protected title and can only be used by registered professionals. In his book Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Doob concludes that due to a lack of financial capital. They generally work from their own homes and are always self-employed setting their own terms and conditions. Registered Childminders are trained. 3 may be under 5 and of these 1 may be under 1. sometimes including evenings and weekends. These numbers include the childminders own children (although the childminder’s children will not be included in the childminding ‘Certificate’). and is utilized typically by those who are considered poor. Those low income families are also more apt to work longer hours on an irregular and inflexible schedule. which often increases the number of children that can be cared for and individual childminders can request a ‘variation’ which may increase the children that they care for particularly for ‘continuity of care’ or for twins. Effects on child development For many.[14] England In England. and ultimately leaves children at a cognitive disadvantage. insured and qualified in Paediatric First Aid. which ultimately makes using a childcare facility that has regular business hours unlikely. which Doob finds that informal care thus results in the less developed school-related skills children need. A study done by Roberta Iversen and Annie Armstrong explains that due to long and irregular working hours. Some childminders work with either childminding assistants or with co-childminders. Informal childcare is an especially inexpensive form of childcare.Informal care Informal childcare is a variation of childcare that utilizes family members as a childcare system. poor families are thus subject to substandard amounts of human capital. the use of paid childcare is a matter of choice with arguments on both sides about whether this is beneficial or harmful[15] to children. which results in lower quality childcare programs. poor parents are more likely to utilize informal childcare. childcare is inspected and regulated by OFSTED (previously this was administered by Local Authority Social Services). Parents may need to utilize informal care for a variety of reasons. There is a professional body – The National Childminding Association NCMA which “Promotes and supports quality childminding expertise” and provides information for Childminders and parents.

Consistency of approach. or what you are told on the phone. You may get a misleading impression if you base your decision on what the advertisement or the brochures say. Social scientists have recently started drawing on popular folktales such as urban legends in order to uncover some of the complex socio-psychological elements in the decision. a caregiver could spend time working or performing more leisure activities. or service. a recent study in Australia[18] concluded that centers run by corporate chains provided the lowest quality care when compared to community-based providers and independent private centers. For example. The value of unpaid child care Parents and mothers especially spend a significant amount of time raising their children. and as a result there is a high opportunity cost. or taking an elderly family member to his/her doctor’s appointments. . nanny.they can also refer to taking care of a sick family member. In most cases. (2) Have a trial period. Instead of taking care of a family member. which is often more protracted and involved for middle-class parents. (4) If the childcare arrangement does not live up to your expectations or if you find it does not work out as well you had expected do not feel embarrassed or shy about withdrawing your child or asking for a change. ChildForum provides the following practical advice for parents when making their childcare programme decision: (1) Do not make a final decision too quickly.[17] Here it is also possible to see the influence of older story-telling elements such as Grimm's Fairy Tales where children learn about the dangers of allowing strangers into the home. Care penalties are not strictly related to childcare. If you think your child may be experiencing harm or is at risk discontinue using the childcare immediately. even traumatic for parents. Also have some spontaneous/unscheduled visits. the husbands get all the credit for providing for the family. Put your child first and before any personal obligations to the teachers. skills and qualifications of careers have been shown in many studies to improve the chances of a child reaching his or her full potential.[19]’ A care-penalty is the price one pays for doing care work for a family member.[16] The choice of childcare can be extremely difficult. (3) If you are employing a nanny or caregiver in your own home ask the person to come for an hour or two over three to five days or to do some childcare so you can get a feel for if this person is a good fit for your child and for you. babysitting a younger sibling. If you are considering enrolling at a centre or home-based service have some short visits with your child before officially starting and stay with your child to observe.The first few years of a child's life are important to form a basis for good education. “We were just passing and thought we would pop in to say hi”. morality. The opportunity cost can relate to both time and money. their homemaker wives deserve just as much credit for their care work. These mothers nurture and develop their children into being functional members of societyhard work that is not motivated by monetary gain. Caregivers do not receive monetary compensation and they must pay a ‘care-penalty. Care giving demands a lot out of an individual. self-discipline and social integration. For centuries it has been assumed that women will stay home and take care of the children while their husbands go out and work. However.

They prepare the next generation for school. These job functions functions can include: cooking. We know what the optimal . If unusually large numbers of unusually large-brained large brained offspring were being successfully raised to maturity.. Learning stories The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's general notability guideline. The value of unpaid childcare is also an important figure in various legal entities. A child’s entire future l largely argely depends on how he/she was nurtured.. voters. the first humans were few. One reputable survey suggested that the value of a female female caregiver’s work would be $117. congressmen. but the schools and employers also depend on the childcare. They use a story. Eventually.[20] The reason for the high salary is because mothers typically perform about 10 different job functions throughout the week. A nanny wouldn’t make nearly as much money. The government also benefits because these children will eventually become taxpayers. and capture the moment in greater detail and provide parents with a greater insight into the events that occur in their child’s time in childcare. making. It is important to assess the value of caregivers because they they are what truly make society function. they will be the ones running the country. exceptional. If notability cannot be established. redirected. and voters.867 per year.telling format instead of a traditional ‘observation’ report to document the different ways that young children learn. driving. interests and needs Space for parent feedback[22] History First child care in human prehistory According to Chris Knight.Studies have been done to get an annual salary estimate for a female caregiver. work. By giving estimation. appreciated. . What they include     Story of the child’s progress Pictures of the experiences (Optional) The child’s strengths. Find sources: "Child care" – news · books · scholar · JSTOR · free images (September 2011) Learning Stories are documents that are used by Carers and educators in childcare settings. Not only does the child depend on this care.. the article is likely to be merged merged. cleaning. Population expansion on such a scale is inconsistent with female tolerance tolerance of infanticide. or deleted. harassment. and laundry among other duties. the plaintiff or defendant can be fairly compensated for their labor. Please help to establish notability by adding reliable. Expert witnesses (most often economists) are occasionally brought into court cases to give estimates on the value of unpaid labor. the quality of childcare must have been exceptional. or the heavy costs to mothers of male philandering and double standards.[21] and often their work is under under-appreciated. and decision-making. but they would be putting in fewer hours and performing fewer duties. secondary sources about the topic. then the population "exploded .

Retrieved 24 November 2012. There can be no doubt that mothers would have done best by . according to Elaine Hoffman Baruch. ^ "What is Family Child Care". relatives. 6. National Association for Family Child Care.C.html#prog_desc 9. ^ Office of Head Start http://www. "According to the 2002 Quality Counts survey conducted by Education Week. ^ National Association of Family Child Care http://www. Education Week 21 (17): 10–11. Jennifer. or other child-care providers" 2.hhs. around 394 B.solution would have been. Retrieved 24 November 2012. "The Pros and Cons of Daycare". ^ ChildForum Childcare Information http://www. . FOX News Network. Maryland State Department of Education. "Starting Early". Retrieved 24 November 2012.com/options-adifferences-between-ece-programmes/73-private-childcare-arrangements-makingyour-own-and-what-is-involved.childforum. ^ Cerbasi. argued that a system of child care would free women to participate in society. ^ "Head Start and Early Head Start".nafcc. age five and younger. 7. Retrieved 24 November 2012..gov/programs/ohs/about/index.org/include/default. Retrieved 24 November 2012. ^ Olson. Inc. ^ "Opening a Family Child Care Home". Children's Defense Fund.. Nannycare: The Pros and Cons". or almost 12 million children. Parents With Nannies. 4. ^ "Daycare vs. are being jointly cared for by parents and early childhood educators. approximately six out of every ten children.. Lynn (1/10/02).asp 5."[23] Plato Plato.acf. taking advantage of every available childcare resource.[24] See also               Day care Corporate child care Nanny Babysitting Parental leave Magda Gerber Au pair Nursery school Kindergarten Forest kindergarten Playwork Child development Forgotten baby syndrome Work-family balance in the United States Notes 1. 8.html 3.

Univ. 22. ^ Kearns. and Plato.html 12. Retrieved 24 November 2012. ^ Knight. The Invisible Heart: Economics and Family Values. 13. How Can a Daycare Love? 16. anthropology. Austrian Ministry of Finance. 81-82 (author prof. Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. pp. NSW: Pearson Australia. citing Rohrlich.com. pp. ^ Iversen. and Annie Laurie Armstrong. 14. ^ Folbre. 2013. Mass. Early Human Kinship was Matrilineal. K.10.com/options-a-differences-between-ece-programmes/28-whoyou-want-to-leave-your-baby-or-child-with. ^ Doob. Web. ^ "Mom Salary Wizard?2010. Upper Saddle River. Christopher B. 159– 160 (author economist. Feminism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://familydaycare. 1984). Roberta Rehner. ^ http://www. pp1053-1076. Women in Search of Utopia: Mavericks and Mythmakers (N. R.html 17. & lecturer. in Allen.com/2009/09/21/valuingunpaid-work-matters-especially-for-the-poor/>.Y. VeryTogether. 227-253.C.pdf 19.pdf.childforum. <http://economix. Robin Dunbar. ^ Robin Croft (2006). 2006. 2008 (ISBN 978-1-40517901-0)).au/forms/feature%2041%20-%20Learning%20Stories. 23. 24. The Australia Institute http://www. <http://swz. ^ ChildForum list of childcare caregiver qualities and characteristics http://www. 2001 20.: Blackwell Publishing. Rush.NYTimes. 22:9/10.childforum. of East London).Daycares Don't Care.. Nancy.com.au/documents/downloads/DP84. Early Human Kinship: From Sex to Social Reproduction (Malden. 2008 (ISBN13 978-0-415-41784-6)). Nancy.com/childcare. Hillary Callan.: Schocken Books.nytimes. Univ." Web. eds. YMCA of the USA. 2nd ed. ^ Folbre. Karin. Journal of Marketing Management.com/momsalarywizard/htmls/mswl_momcenter. Mother's Day Paycheck for Mom's Job. [Accessed 20 May 11]. "Valuing Unpaid Work Matters. & Elaine Hoffman Baruch. of Vienna). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.com. Retrieved 20 May 2009." Kate Ryan. Folklore. Nicholas J. ^ Schönpflug. 11.com. The Republic (ca. 15. Chris. families and fear: understanding consumption decisions through the oral tradition. ^ "Child Care". 3 April 2009. ISSN 0267-257X 18. Birth to Big School.org. . ^ "Childproof Your Home!".Economix Blog . NJ:Pearson.html> 21. ^ 2006..). Jobs Aren't Enough: Toward a New Economic Mobility for Low-Income Families." The Economy and the Economics of Everyday Life . & Wendy James. Especially for the Poor NYTimes. Economics and Utopia: Time Travelling Through Paradigms (Oxon/London: Routledge. 2006.salary.blogs. Family Daycare Australia. 394 B.tai. Frenchs Forest. ^ Daycare . 2010. New York: New.