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# Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics

Base quantities PHYSICAL QUANTITIES that cannot be defined in terms of other physicalquantities but has its own definition Derived quantities PHYSICAL QUANTITIES that are derived from base quantities by multiplication ordivision or both Scientific notation/standard form Random errors ERRORS that arise from unknown and unpredictable variations in condition, andwill produce a different error every time. Random errors are caused by factorsthat are beyond the control of observers.(human limitations, lack of sensitivity, natural errors, wrong technique) Zero error ERROR that arises when the measuring instrument does not start from exactlyzero Parallax error ERROR in reading an instrument because the observers eyes and the pointer arenot in a line perpendicular to the plane of scale Measurement PROCESS of determining value of a quantity using a scientific instrument with astandard scale Consistency ABILITY to register the same reading when a measurement is repeated(improve eliminates parallax error, greater care, not detective instrument) Accuracy DEGREE to which a measurement represents the actual value(improve repeat readings, avoid parallax/zero error, high accuracy instrument) Sensitivity ABILITY to detect quickly a small change in the value of a measurement(thermometer thin wall bulb, narrow capillary) Inferences EARLY CONCLUSION that you draw from an observation or event usinginformation that you already have on it Hypothesis GENERAL STATEMENT that is assumed to be true regarding the relationshipbetween the manipulated variable and responding variable POWERS of the base number 10 to show a very large or small number Prefixes Error GROUP OF LETTERS placed at the beginning of a word to modify its meaning,which act as multipliers Scalar quantity Systematic errors QUANTITY which has only magnitude or size(time, temperature, mass, volume, distance, density, power) Vector quantity CUMULATIVE ERRORS that can be corrected, if the errors are known.(zero error, incorrect calibration of measuring instrument) DIFFERENCE between actual value of a quantity and the value obtained inmeasurement QUANTITY which has both magnitude or size and direction(force, velocity, displacement, acceleration, momentum)

## Chapter 2: Forces and Motion

Distance how far a body travels during motion Displacement

CHANGE IN POSITION of an object from its initial position in a specified direction Speed

FALLING of an object without encountering any resistance from a height towardsthe earth with an acceleration due to gravity Forces in equilibrium

ABILITY of an electrical appliance to transform energy from one form to anotherwithout producing useless energy or wastage Elasticity PROPERTY of an object that enables it to return to its original shape and dimensionsafter an applied force is removed Spring constant FORCE needed to extend a spring per unit length Elastic limit

RATE OF CHANGE of distance Velocity RATE OF CHANGE of displacement Resultant force Mass MEASURE of an objects inertia AMOUNT of matter in the object Acceleration RATE OF CHANGE of velocity Energy Inertia CAPACITY of a system to do work PROPERTY of matter that causes it to resist any change in its motion or state of rest Momentum PRODUCT of mass and velocity Gravitational PE ENERGY STORED in the object because of its height above the earth surface SINGLE FORCE which combines two or more forces which act on an object Work Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. MAXIMUM STRETCHING FORCE which can be applied to an elastic material before itceases to be elastic An object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when forces act upon an object andit remains stationary or moves at a constant velocity

Elastic PE Force pulling or a pushing ACTION on an object Impulsive force LARGE FORCE which acts over a very short time intervalRATE OF CHANGE in momentum Gravity FORCE originated from centre of the Earth that pulls all objects towards the ground Free fall RATE at which work is done or energy is changed and transferred Efficiency ENERGY STORED in the object as a result of stretching or compressing it Kinetic energy ENERGY possessed by a moving object Power

*PRINCIPLE Hookes Law Hookes law states that the force, F applied to a spring is directly proportional tothe springs extension or compression, x provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. Principle ofconservation ofenergy Principle of conservation of energy states that total energy in an isolated system isneither increased nor decreased by any transformation. Energy cannot be creatednor destroyed, but it can be transformed from

one kind to another, and the totalamount stays the same. Principle ofconservation ofmomentum The principle of conservation of momentum states that, in any collision orinteraction between two or more objects in an isolated system, the totalmomentum of the system will remain constant; that is, the total initial momentumwill equal the total final momentum. Newtons firstlaw of motion Newtons first law of motion states that a body will either remain at rest orcontinue with constant velocity unless it is acted on by an external unbalancedforce. Newtonssecond law ofmotion Newtons second law of motion states that the acceleration a body experiences isdirectly proportional to the net force acting on it, and inversely proportional to itsmass. F =ma Newtons thirdlaw of motion Newtons third law of motion states that to every action there is an equal butopposite reaction

Buoyant force NET FORCE acting upwards due to the difference between the forces acting onthe upper surface and the lower surface PRINCIPLELaw of Flotation

Archimedes principle states that the buoyant force on a body immersed in a fluidis equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that object(buoyant force = weight of water displaced)

Bernoullisprinciple Law of floatation states that the weight of an object floating on the surface of aliquid is equal to the weight of water displaced by the object.(weight of object = weight of water displaced) Bernoullis principle states that the pressure of a moving fluid decreases as thespeed of the fluid increases, and the converse is also true

Chapter 4: Heat
Temperature DEGREE of hotness of an object Thermometricproperty

## Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure

Pressure FORCE acting normally on a unit surface area Gas pressure FORCE per unit area exerted by the gas particles as they collide with the walls of their container (due to the rate of change of momentum) Pascals Principle Pascals principle states that a pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitteduniformly in all directions throughout the fluid. Archimedesprinciple

PHYSICAL PROPERTY of a substance which is sensitive to and varies linearly with thetemperature change Thermalequilibrium A STATE when heat transfer between the two objects are equal and the net rate of heat transfer between the two objects are zero Heat capacity HEAT ENERGY required to raise its temperature by 1C or 1 K

Specific heatcapacity HEAT ENERGY required to produce 1C or 1 K rise in temperature in a mass of 1 kg. Latent heat HEAT ABSORBED OR RELEASED when a substance changes its state without achange in temperature is called the latent heat of the substance Specific latentheat of fusion HEAT ENERGY required to change 1 kg of a substance from solid state to liquidstate, without a change in temperature Specific latentheat ofvapourisation HEAT ENERGY required to change 1 kg of a substance from liquid state to gaseousstate, without a change in temperature PRINCIPLEBoyles Law Boyles Law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportionalto its volume provided the temperature of the gas is kept constant(PV = k) Pressure Law The pressure law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is directlyproportional to its absolute temperature (in Kelvin), provided the volume of the gasis kept constant(P/T = k) Charles Law Charles law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional toits absolute temperature (in Kelvin), provided the pressure of the gas is keptconstant(V/T = k)

PHENOMENON where the direction of light is changed when it crosses theboundary between two materials of different optical densities as a result of achange in the velocity of light. Apparent depth,d

The incident ray and the refracted ray are on the opposite sides of thenormal at the point of incidence, all three lie in the same plane Obey snells law Snells Law The value of sin i sin r is a constant.

DISTANCE of the image from the surface of water (or the boundary betweenthe two mediums involved) Real depth,D DISTANCE of the object from the surface of the water (or the boundarybetween the two mediums involved)

Total internalreflection TOTAL REFLECTION of a beam of light at the boundary of two mediums, whenthe angle of incidence in the optically denser medium exceeds a specific criticalangle Critical angle GREATEST ANGLE OF INCIDENCE in the optically denser medium for which theangle of refraction, r = 90 Power of lens

IMAGE CHARACTERISTICS Virtual an image which cannot be projected (focused) onto a screen Real an image which can be projected (focused) onto a screen Laterally inverted an image which left and right are interchanged

MEASURE OF ITS ABILITY to converge or diverge an incident beam of light PRINCIPLELaws of Reflection the angle of incidence, i, is equal to the angle of reflection, r (i = r) the incident ray, normal and reflected ray will all lie in the same plane Law of Refraction

Upright an image which in vertical position Diminished image formed is smaller than the object

Chapter 5: Light
Refraction

## Magnified image formed is larger than the object

WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium isparallel to the direction of propagation of the wave(sound waves, ultrasound) Amplitude MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT form its equilibrium positionMEASURE of height of the wave crest or depth of the wave trough.

Natural frequency FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY of which an object vibrates. It is the frequency of a systemwhich oscillates freely without external force Reflection of wave Reflection of wave occurs when a wave strike an obstacledirection ; f = ; a = ; = Refraction of wave

Chapter 1 Waves
Waves A TYPE OF DISTURBANCE produced by an oscillating or vibrating motion in which apoint or body moves back and forth along a line about a fixed central point produceswaves. Wavefront LINE OR PLANE on which the vibrations of every points are in phase and are at thesame distance from the source of the wave. In phase =same direction, same displacement Transverse Wave WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium isperpendicular to thedirection of propagation of the wave(water waves, light waves, electromagnetic waves) Longitudinal Wave

Period TIME TAKEN to complete an oscillation, from one extreme point to the other and backto the same position. Frequency NUMBER OF COMPLETE OSCILLATIONS made by a vibrating system inone second Wavelength,

Refraction of wave occurs when a wave travel from one medium to anotherf = ; v ; ; direction Diffraction of waves PHENOMENON in which waves spread out as they passed through an aperture or rounda small circlef = ; = ; speed = ; v ; direction Interference ofwaves SUPERPOSITION of two waves originating from two coherentsourcescoherent =

DISTANCE betweensuccessive pointsof the same phase in a wave Damping DECREASE in the amplitude of an oscillating system is called damping.(Internal damping: extension and compression of moleculesExternal damping: frictional force/ air resistance)a ; f = Resonance Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force. The resonating system oscillates at itsmaximum amplitude.

same frequency, amplitude and in phase Constructiveinterference Constructive interference occurs when the both crests or both troughs of both wavescoincide to produce a wave with crests and troughs of maximum amplitude Destructiveinterference Destructive interference occurs when the crest of one wave coincides with the troughof the other wave, thus cancelling each other with the result that the resultantamplitude is zero.

VALUE of a steady current/ voltage, which would produce the same heating effect in a givenresistor. Transformer EQUIPMENT to raise or lower the potential difference of analternating currentsupply

## measuring and testing INSTRUMENT used in study of electricity and electronics

ConductorSemiconductorInsulator PRINCIPLEFaradays Law MATERIAL which allows current to flow thorugh themMATERIAL whose resistance is between good conductor and insulatorMATERIAL which does not conduct electric current Junctionvoltage Lenzs Law Electromagnet DEVICE in which magnetism is produced by an electric currentTEMPORARY MAGNET which acts as a magnet when the current is switched on and ceasesto be a magnet when the current is switched off Magnetic field REGION in which a magnetic material experiences a force as the result of a magnet or acurrent-carrying conductor Radial field MAGNETIC FIELD with the field lines pointing towards or away from the centre of a circle. Electromagneticinduction PRODUCTION of an electric current by a changing magnetic field (conductor cuts across amagnetic flux OR a change of magnetic flux linkage with a coil) Root mean squarecurrent/ voltage Lenzs law states that an induced electric current always flows in such a direction so as tooppose the change (or motion) producing it. POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE acting from n-type to p-type material of a diode across the depletionlayer Rectification CONVERSION of a.c. to d.c. by diode Smoothing PROCESS where output is smoothed by connecting a capacitor across load that acts as areservoir and maintains potential difference across load Logic gates ELECTRONIC SWITCHES with one or more inputs and one output.

Chapter 3 Electromagnetism

The magnitude of the induced electromotive force (e.m.f.) is directly proportional to therate of change of magnetic flux linkage with the solenoid or the rate at which a conductorcuts through the magnetic flux.

Chapter 4 Electronics
Thermoionicemission EMISSION of electrons fromhot metal surface Work function MINIMUM ENERGY required to eject electrons from surface Cathode ray fastmoving ELECTRONS travel in astraightline in vacuum Cathode radoscilloscope

Chapter 5 Radioactivity
Atom An atom consists of a nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons, withelectrons orbiting the nucleus. Nuclide TYPE of nucleus with particular proton number and nucleon number Proton number NUMBER of protons in the nucleus of an atom Nucleon number NUMBER of protons and neutrons in an atom Isotopes ATOMS of an element which have the same proton number but different nucleonnumber(similar chemical properties but differs in physical properties)

Radioactivity SPONTANEOUS DISINTEGRATION of unstable nucleus into a more stable nucleuswith the emission of energetic particles or protons Radioactive decay PROCESS where an unstable nucleus becomes a more stable nucleus by emittingradiations Radioisotope ISOTOPE that has unstable nucleus that tends to undergo radioactive decay Half life TIME TAKEN for the activity of atoms to fall to half its original valueTIME TAKEN for half the atoms in a given sample to decay

Nuclear fission PROCESS involving the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two nuclei of roughly equalmass and shooting out several neutrons at the same time. Nuclear fusion PROCESS involving the fusion of two or more small and light nuclei come togetherto form a heavier nucleus. PRINCIPLEEinsteins Principle ofMass-Energy Conservation The change of energy is linked to the change of mass by the equation