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INDUCTION MOTORS

Luis Guasch *, Felipe Córcoles **, Joaquim Pedra **

*

Dep. Eng. Electrònica, Elèctrica i Automàtica, ETSE, Ctra. Salou, s/n, 43006 – Tarragona - Spain

**

Dep. Enginyeria Elèctrica, ETSEIB, Diagonal, 647, 08028 – Barcelona - Spain

Abstract – This paper analyzes the effects caused by the sensitive loads are motors, adjustable-speed drives, another

unsymmetrical voltage sags in the induction machine supply type of power electronic equipment, discharge lamps and

system: current and torque peaks, and mechanical speed loss. control devices –computers, programmable logic controller

These effects depend on many elements, such as the sag mag- and contactors–.

nitude and duration, the type of sag (symmetrical or unsym-

The consequences of a voltage sag in the induction ma-

metrical), and the fault and recovery voltage instants. It is

shown that the most severe transient occurs for specific in- chine supply are speed loss and current and torque peaks

stants. Extensive ranges of voltage drop have been analyzed that appear in the voltage drop and recovery points [4,5].

(for different magnitude and duration and the most severe This transient can trigger the motor or system protections.

fault and recovery voltage instants), and machine sensitivity is In this paper, the effects of unsymmetrical voltage sags

graphically shown in CBEMA curves. These curves can be on induction machines are analyzed and compared with the

applied to protective relay coordination, especially for large effects of the symmetrical sags. Section II shows a voltage

machines. It is also shown that different unsymmetrical sags sag classification. The induction machine model is included

with the same positive-sequence voltage produce similar ef- in Section III and used in Section IV to study the behavior

fects. These unsymmetrical sags can be grouped to express

of the machine for the different sag types. The influence of

machine sensitivity in CBEMA curves, using the positive-se-

quence voltage for ordinates. the fault and recovery instant is discussed in Section V.

Section VI includes CBEMA curves to show graphically

Index Terms – unsymmetrical voltage sag, sensitivity machine sensitivity to the different sag types. These curves

curves, CBEMA curves, induction machine. plot current and torque peaks, and speed loss versus voltage

dip. The use of positive-sequence voltage to study the ef-

fects of unsymmetrical sags on the machine is also sug-

I. INTRODUCTION gested. An application of the CBEMA curves is shown.

tion between 10% and 90% in rms voltage, with a duration II. VOLTAGE SAG TYPES

from 0.5 cycles to 1 minute [1]. A short circuit or overload

on the utility system generally originates it. Typically, the In [2] it is shown that voltage sags experienced by three-

voltage sag duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 cycles, and the phase loads can be classified into four types, denoted as A,

magnitude depends on the power system distribution and B, C and D. Fig. 1 shows their phasor diagrams: dotted

the proximity to the fault site. (In this paper, the sag mag- lines are the pre-fault voltage phasors and solid lines are the

nitude is the net rms voltage in percent or per unit of system fault voltage phasors.

nominal voltage). Sag type A is balanced. All phasors drop the same

The voltage at the customer bus is transient during the amount in magnitude. They can be defined by (1), where h

fault and after clearing the fault (that means voltage is non- is the sag magnitude or depth (0 ≤ h ≤ 1).

sinusoidal). For simplicity purposes, the shape of the sag is

considered rectangular. Then, it can be characterized by a

duration and a depth, as well as by the possible associated

phase angle shift (phase jump) [2].

Voltage sags can be either balanced or unbalanced, de-

Type A Type B

pending on the causes. If the individual phase voltages are

equal, the sag is balanced. If the individual phase voltages

are different or the phase relationship is other than 120°, the

sag is unbalanced. A three-phase short circuit or a large

motor starting can produce symmetrical sags. Single-line-

to-ground (SLGF) or phase-to-phase faults due to lightning,

animals, accidents, etc. can cause unsymmetrical sags. The

large majority of faults in the utility system are SLGF’s. Type C Type D

Three-phase faults are more severe but much less common

[3]. The load and the transformer connections influence the

sag. A classification of the sags is included in [2].

Different categories of industrial equipment have differ-

ent sensitivities to voltage sags [3]. The main categories of

Fig. 1. Voltage sag types

V a = hV III. INDUCTION MACHINE MODEL

1 3

V b = − hV − j hV (1) The chosen model for the induction machine is a linear

2 2 single-cage transient model. When the Ku transformation

1 3 [6] in the synchronously reference frame is applied, the

V c = − hV + j hV transformed equations are:

2 2

Types B, C and D are unsymmetrical sags. For sag type LMv OP = LMr + L b p + jω g

sf s s Ψ b

M p + jω Ψ g OPLMi OP

sf

B only one phasor drops in magnitude. For sag types C and

D, two phasors drop in magnitude and change in phase

Nv Q MN M b p + jsω g

rf Ψ b

rr + Lr p + jsω Ψ gPQNi Q

rf

ω − ωm

angle. For sag type D the third phasor only drops in mag- s= Ψ (5)

nitude. Sag types B, C and D are defined by (2), (3) and (4): ωΨ

V a = hV

bg e

Γ t = 2 M Im i sf irf* j

1 3

Vb = − V − j V (2)

2 2 IV. VOLTAGE SAG EFFECTS

1 3

Vc = − V + j V The transient shape depends on many elements, such as

2 2 the sag magnitude and duration, the electrical parameters of

the machine, the load and the mechanical inertia. Depend-

Va =V ing on the type of fault (balanced or unbalanced), the fault

1 3 and recovery voltage instants (or the corresponding voltage

Vb = − V − j hV (3) angles) have different effects on current and torque peaks.

2 2 Irrespective of the type of sag, the observed effects of a

1 3 voltage sag on the induction machine supply are speed loss

Vc = − V + j hV

2 2 and current and torque peaks.

Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show the machine be-

Va =V havior for sag types A, B, C and D, respectively. The sags

have a depth h = 0.1 with 300 ms of duration. The chosen

1 3 motor for the simulation is an actual motor that drives a

V b = − hV − j V (4)

2 2 ventilator in a cement plant: 610 kW, 3300 V (star), 50 Hz,

7850.5 Nm, 742 min-1 and 148 A. Its operating point is

1 3

V c = − hV + j V close to the nominal conditions.

2 2

Sag magnitude, h, (%) and mechanical speed, ω m, (rad/s) Sag magnitude, h, (%) and mechanical speed, ωm, (rad/s)

78 78

77 77

76 76

75

• ‚ 75

• ‚

10% 10%

74 74

73 73

8 8

4 4

0 0

-4 -4

-8

-8

6 6

3 3

0 0

-3 -3

-6 -6

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (ms) Time (ms)

Fig. 2. Machine behavior for voltage sag type A: 300 ms and 10% of sag Fig. 3. Machine behavior for voltage sag type B: 300 ms and 10% of sag

magnitude magnitude

Sag magnitude, h, (%) and mechanical speed, ωm, (rad/s) Sag magnitude, h, (%) and mechanical speed, ωm, (rad/s)

78 78

77 77

76 76

75 • 10% ‚ 75 • 10% ‚

74 74

73 73

8 8

4 4

0 0

-4 -4

-8 -8

6 6

3 3

0 0

-3 -3

-6 -6

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (ms) Time (ms)

Fig. 4. Machine behavior for voltage sag type C: 300 ms and 10% of sag Fig. 5. Machine behavior for voltage sag type D: 300 ms and 10% of sag

magnitude magnitude

The effects of sag type A, Fig. 2, have been studied in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 display current and torque peaks versus

[4,5]. Mechanical speed loss shows initial oscillations in the phase voltage in points • and ‚ for the unsymmetrical

voltage drop and recovery points, points • and ‚. Current sags with different depth h (0.1, 0.5 and 0.9).

and torque peaks are usually obtained in the first cycle after In sag of types B and D (Fig. 6a, Fig. 6c, Fig. 7a and

the drop or the recovery voltage points, but in certain con- Fig. 7c), it can be observed that the maximum current and

ditions in the next 2 or 3 cycles. The fault and recovery torque peaks are obtained when phase voltage is 90° (va(t)

voltage instants have minimal influence in current peak and is null). In sag type C (Fig. 6b and Fig. 7b), the maximum

no influence in torque peak and speed loss. peaks are obtained when phase voltage is 0° (va(t) is maxi-

The transients of unsymmetrical sags are very different mum).

from the symmetrical ones. They are sensitive to the fault Fig. 8 displays speed loss in point • versus phase volt-

and recovery voltage instants, or voltage angles in these

instants. This influence is studied in Section V. On the

other hand, transient speed and torque show non-damped

7 Current peak, ipeak / (√2·IN), (p.u.) for sag type B

oscillations because of the negative-sequence voltage. By

6

comparing symmetrical and unsymmetrical sags with the 5 10% •

same depth –h in (1), (2), (3) and (4)– and duration, it can 4

3 10% ‚ 50% ‚

be observed that current peaks are usually lower in the

2 90% ‚ 50% •

unsymmetrical sags whereas torque peaks can be higher. 1 90% •

Among the unsymmetrical sags, type B produces lower 0

current and torque peaks, and speed loss, Fig. 3.

7 Current peak, ipeak / (√2·IN), (p.u.) for sag type C

Sag types C and D, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, with the same 10% •

6

depth and duration, show similar transients. Similar torque 5 10% ‚

and current peaks can be expected. This will be verified in 4 50% •

the CBEMA curves of Section VI. 3

2 50% ‚

90% ‚

1 90% •

0

V. INFLUENCE OF THE FAULT AND RECOVERY

Current peak, ipeak / (√2·IN), (p.u.) for sag type D

VOLTAGE INSTANTS 7

6 10% •

5

If the fault is balanced, type A, the fault and the recov- 4 10% ‚ 50% ‚

ery voltage instants (or the corresponding voltage angles) 3

50% •

2 90% ‚

have less influence in current peak and no influence in 1 90% •

torque peak and speed loss. They only cause current peak to 0

be obtained in one or another phase [4,5]. However, these 0 45 90 135 180

instants have a great influence in current and torque peaks Angle (°)

when the fault is unbalanced, and no influence in speed Fig. 6. Current peak in points • and ‚ versus the voltage angle for sag

loss. types B, C and D. Sag magnitudes (10%, 50% and 90%). Sag duration:

300 ms

5 Torque peak, Γ / ΓN , (p.u.) for sag type B SPEED LOSS, ( smin / s initial )·100, (%) FOR SAG TYPE A, ϕ = 0°

100

4 10% •

90

3 50% • 10% ‚

80

2 50% ‚ 90% • 70

1 90% ‚ 300

60 200

0

50 135 400 1000 1500

Torque peak, Γ / ΓN , (p.u.) for sag type C 110

5 10% • 40 2500

4 30

50% • 500

2000

3 20

2 10% ‚ 50% ‚

90% • 10 160

3500

3000

1 90% ‚ 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1

0 10 10 10 10 10

Sag duration (s)

SPEED LOSS, ( smin / s initial )·100, (%) FOR SAG TYPE B, ϕ = 90°

4 10% • 90

50% •

3

80

2 50% ‚ 90% •

70

1 10% ‚ 90% ‚

60

0

0 45 90 135 180 50 110

160

Angle (°)

40

135

Fig. 7. Torque peak in points • and ‚ versus the voltage angle for sag 30

types B, C and D. Sag magnitudes (10%, 50% and 90%). Sag duration: 200

300 ms 20

10

-3 -2 -1 0 1

100,0 10 10 10 10 10

90% Sag duration (s)

99,5

50% SPEED LOSS, ( smin / s initial )·100, (%) FOR SAG TYPE C, ϕ = 0°

99,0 100

90

98,5 10%

80

0 45 90 135 180 110

Angle (°) 70

Sag magnitude, h (%)

160

60

Fig. 8. Mechanical speed loss in point ‚ versus the voltage angle for sag

type B. Sag magnitudes (10%, 50% and 90%). Sag duration: 300 ms 50 200

40

30

135 300

500

that speed loss is independent of phase voltage. The corre- 10 400 1500

1000

sponding plots for sag of types C and D are similar. 0

-3 -2 -1 0

2000

1

10 10 10 10 10

Similar results have been obtained for sags with differ-

Sag duration (s)

ent depth and duration, and for machines of a wide range of

power. SPEED LOSS, ( s min / sinitial )·100, (%) FOR SAG TYPE D, ϕ = 90°

Therefore, when unsymmetrical voltage sags are applied 100

to an induction machine, the maximum current and torque 90

peaks are obtained for specific phase voltages: 90° for sag 80

of types B and D, and 0° for sag of type C. 110

70

Sag magnitude, h (%)

160

60

50

VI. SENSITIVITY CURVES

40

1000

tion and the most severe fault instant). 10

135

200 300

400

1500

Machine sensitivity is graphically shown in the follow- 0

-3 -2 -1 0

2000

1

10 10 10 10 10

ing CBEMA curves for speed loss, Fig. 9, current peak, Fig.

Sag duration (s)

10, and torque peak, Fig. 11. The axes of these curves rep-

Fig. 9. CBEMA curves of mechanical speed loss for sag types A, B, C

and D

resent the magnitude, h, and the duration –in logarithmic A. Curves shape

scale– of the events.

These curves display the results of 4800 voltage sags: With reference to mechanical speed loss, the most se-

120 different sag durations (from 1 ms to 10 s) and 40 vere sag is type A, Fig. 9a. Types C and D, Fig. 9c and Fig.

magnitudes (from 0% to 97.5%). The transients have been 9d, have similar effects, and type B, Fig. 9b, is the least

simulated for the unfavorable voltage angles mentioned in severe type.

Section V. Displayed current and torque peaks are the The maximum current peaks are usually obtained in sag

maximum values between the peak of the voltage drop type A, Fig. 10a. Sag types C and D, Fig. 10c and Fig. 10d,

point and the peak of the voltage recovery point. have similar curves. In some cases, these unsymmetrical

sags can produce higher peaks than the symmetrical sag, as

CURRENT PEAK, ipeak / (√2·IN) , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE B, ϕ = 90° TORQUE PEAK, Γpeak / ΓN , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE B, ϕ = 90°

100 100

2

90 90

3

Positive-sequence voltage, V 1 (%)

80 80 4 3

4

2 5 5

70 4 5 70

60 60

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Sag duration (s) Sag duration (s)

CURRENT PEAK, ipeak / (√2·IN) , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE C, ϕ = 0° TORQUE PEAK, Γpeak / ΓN , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE C, ϕ = 0°

100 100

2 2

90 90

Positive-sequence voltage, V 1 (%)

Positive-sequence voltage, V 1 (%)

3 80 4

80

70 70 3

5

4 60 5

60 6 7

7 7 6

7 50

50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Sag duration (s) Sag duration (s)

CURRENT PEAK, ipeak / (√2·IN) , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE D, ϕ = 90° TORQUE PEAK, Γpeak / ΓN , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE D, ϕ = 90°

100 100

2

90 90

2

Positive-sequence voltage, V 1 (%)

Positive-sequence voltage, V 1 (%)

80 3 80 3

4

70 70

5 6 4

60 6 60 5 7

8 7

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Sag duration (s) Sag duration (s)

Fig. 12. CBEMA curves of instantaneous current peak for sag types B, C Fig. 13. CBEMA curves of instantaneous torque peak for sag types B, C

and D, using the positive-sequence voltage for ordinates and D, using the positive-sequence voltage for ordinates

is the case of point P (Fig. 10). ipeak / (√2·IN) = 4 p.u., FOR SAG TYPES A, B, C and D

Sag of types C and D, Fig. 11c and Fig. 11d, can pro- 100

case of point Q. 80

With reference to current and torque peaks, sag type B,

70

Fig. 10b and Fig. 11b, is also the least severe type of sag. A

When observing the curves, sag of types C and D could 60

40

ordinates 20

10

As the machine behavior depends on the type of sag, it

would be interesting to find a parameter that defines the 0

10-3 10-2 10-1 100 10 1

effects for the four types of sag. Sag duration (s)

This parameter could be positive-sequence voltage dur-

ing the sag. It is necessary therefore to study the conse- CURRENT PEAK, ipeak / (√2·IN) = 4 p.u., FOR SAG TYPES A, B, C and D

quences of different sag types with equal positive-sequence 100

voltage. 90

The Fortescue transformation (symmetrical components 80 Symmetrical and unsymmetrical

transformation), allows positive-, negative-, and zero- sags (A, B, C and D)

Sag magnitude, h (%)

70

sequence voltages to be calculated from real phase volt-

ages: 60

Unsymmetrical sags

(B, C and D)

LMV OP 1 L1 OP LMV OP

50

1 1

PP = 3 MM1

0 a 40

MMV a a2 PP MMV PP 30

Q MN1

1 b

(6)

NV 2 a2 a Q NV c Q 20

a = e j 2π /3 10

0

10-3 10-2 10-1 100 10 1

By using the expressions of the four sag types, (1), (2), Sag duration (s)

(3) and (4), and neglecting the zero-sequence voltage (in-

Fig. 14. Isolines of the CBEMA curves of instantaneous current peak,

duction motors are usually connected either delta or un- ipeak / (√2·IN) = 4 p.u., for sag types A, B, C and D

grounded wye):

Except for small differences, the curves of the three un-

V 1, A = h V V 2, A = 0

symmetrical sags agree. Thus, if CBEMA curves are plot-

2+h 1− h ted using positive-sequence voltage for ordinates, the study

V 1, B = V V 2,B = − V

3 3 of voltage sags can be simplified to two typologies: sym-

1+ h 1− h (7) metrical and unsymmetrical sags.

V 1,C = V V 2 ,C = V

2 2

1+ h 1− h C. Application of the curves

V 1, D = V V 2,D = − V

2 2

The CBEMA curves can be applied to protective relay

Equation (7) shows that minimum positive-sequence coordination (machine or system protection calibration). In

voltage in sag type B is 2/3·V; in sag types C and D is this sense, an intermediate solution must be chosen between

1/2·V. Maximum negative-sequence voltage in sag type B is the process requirements and the security of either the in-

1/3·V; in sag types C and D is 1/2·V. stallation or the motor.

Fig. 12 and Fig. 13 show CBEMA curves of current and Fig. 14a shows one isoline of the current peak CBEMA

torque peaks for sag of types B, C and D, using positive- curves for each sag. These isolines correspond to four times

sequence voltage for ordinates. The graphics for sag type A √2·IN. By setting the protections to trip at four times √2·IN,

are Fig. 10a and Fig. 11a, because sag is symmetrical the machine or the system are immune to symmetrical and

(Va = V1,A , (1), (7)). unsymmetrical sags included in shadow areas of Fig. 14b.

Mechanical speed loss has not been plotted versus posi-

tive-sequence voltage because it also depends on the nega- D. Developed algorithm. Calculation time

tive-sequence voltage. Remember that negative-sequence

currents produce negative average electrical torque, and The algorithm developed to analyze extensive ranges of

electrical torque is related to speed loss. voltage drops has a high calculation speed because it makes

use of previous calculations when it is possible.

Sensitivity curves in this paper display the results of study of voltage sags can be simplified to two typologies

4800 voltage sags: 120 different sag durations and 40 mag- (symmetrical and unsymmetrical sags) if CBEMA curves

nitudes. Their calculation time is about 90 minutes in a are plotted using positive-sequence voltage for ordinates.

Pentium MMX 300 MHz and 64 Mb of RAM computer.

REFERENCES

VII. CONCLUSIONS

[1] R.C. Dugan, M.F. McGranaghan and H.W. Beaty, Electrical Power

Systems Quality. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Fault and recovery voltage instants (or phase voltages)

influence current and torque peaks in the unsymmetrical [2] M.H.J. Bollen, “Characterisation of voltage sags experienced by

sags. The most severe peaks in sags of types B and D are three-phase adjustable-speed drives,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.

obtained when phase voltage is 90°; in sags of type C when 12, no. 4, pp. 1666-1671, oct. 1997.

phase voltage is 0°. [3] M.F. McGranaghan, D.R. Mueller and M.J. Samotyj, “Voltage sags

CBEMA curves have been displayed to represent ma- in industrial systems,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl.., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 397-

chine sensitivity to unsymmetrical voltage sags. Unsym- 403, mar./apr. 1993.

metrical voltage sags –types B, C and D– usually produce

[4] F. Córcoles, J. Pedra and L. Guasch, “Analysis of the induction

softer current and torque peaks than symmetrical sags with machines sensitivity to voltage sags,” Int. Conf. on Electrical Machines,

the same depth and duration. However, sags of types C and Istanbul (Turkey), sep. 1998, vol. III, pp. 1538-1543.

D can produce higher peaks in some cases.

As types C and D have similar CBEMA curves, they [5] F. Córcoles and J. Pedra, “Algorithm for the study of voltage sags on

induction machines,” accepted for publication in IEEE Trans. Energy

could be represented in the same graph. CBEMA curves Conversion, 1998.

can be applied to setting protection for the immunization of

the system or the machine to extensive ranges of voltage [6] J. Lesenne, F. Notelet and G. Seguier, Introduction a l'Electrotech-

sags. nique Approfondie. París: Technique & Documentation, 1981.

Different unsymmetrical sags with the same positive-

sequence voltage produce similar effects. Therefore, the

CURRENT PEAK, ipeak / (√2·IN) , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE A, ϕ = 0° TORQUE PEAK, Γpeak / ΓN , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE A, ϕ = 0°

100 100

90 90

80 80

3 2

2

Sag magnitude, h (%)

3

70 70

60 P 60

4

50 50

Q

40 6 40 5

5

30 30

20 20 6

7

4

7

10 7 7 10

7

8 8 887 7 7

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Sag duration (s) Sag duration (s)

CURRENT PEAK, i peak / (√2·IN) , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE B, ϕ = 90° TORQUE PEAK, Γpeak / ΓN , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE B, ϕ = 90°

100 100

90 90

80 80

P

Sag magnitude, h (%)

2

70 70

60 60

50 3 50

Q

40 40

4 3

30 30

4

20 20

5

2

10 4 5 10 5

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Sag duration (s) Sag duration (s)

CURRENT PEAK, i peak / (√2·IN) , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE C, ϕ = 0° TORQUE PEAK, Γpeak / ΓN , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE C, ϕ = 0°

100 100

90 90

2 2

80 80

Sag magnitude, h (%)

70 70

P

60 3 60 4

50 50

Q

40 40 3

30 5 30

4

20 20 5

6

7

10 10

7 7 6

7

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Sag duration (s) Sag duration (s)

CURRENT PEAK, ipeak / (√2·IN) , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE D, ϕ = 90° TORQUE PEAK, Γpeak / ΓN , (p.u.) FOR SAG TYPE D, ϕ = 90°

100 100

90 90

2

80 80

P

Sag magnitude, h (%)

Sag magnitude, h (%)

70 2 70

60 60 3

3

50 50

Q

4

40 40

6 4

30 5 30

20 20

6 5

7

10 10

8 7

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Fig. 10. CBEMA curves of instantaneous current peak for sag types A, B, Fig. 11. CBEMA curves of instantaneous torque peak for sag types A, B,

C and D C and D

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