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English 10

Hamlet:
Through Thematic Lenses
Summary Hamlet remains one of Shakespeare’s most popular plays; it has become a rich source for cultural references and motifs. This unit introduces students to Shakespearean language and focuses on developing understanding of thematic connections throughout the play. By searching for specific clusters of themes within each act -- whether death, decay, exile, or madness -- this unit allows students to narrow their focus and find a lens that resonates with them. We’re built this unit based on the principles of reader-response: how each student responds to the play is to be valued and, by focusing on broad themes, we hoped to build in space for students to come to their own conclusions and to make their own connections. We also connect Hamlet to The Lion King, which should help students who are having difficulty accessing the play and its central ideas build thematic in-roads. Specific lessons suggest adaptation and extensions but, as with all lessons, each needs to be tailored to the specific class and adjusted to each classroom’s dynamics. Importantly, throughout the unit, the teacher takes a backseat to the educational experience. Students should be in charge of constructing meaning; however, teachers need to be comfortable enough with the play and to have enough of a grasp on its characters, plot machinations, and themes to be able to jump in and assist students when they may be having difficulty grasping Hamlet’s central tenants. Most of the reading of the play will happen in class; additionally, time should be allotted (and has been in our outline) for in-class work on the portfolio. Outcomes GCOs 3: Interact with sensitivity and respect, considering the situation, audience, and purpose 4: Select, read, and view with an understanding of a range of literature, media, and visual texts 6: Respond personally to a range of texts 7: Respond critically to texts, applying your understanding of language, form, and genre 8: Use writing and other ways of representing to explore, clarify, and reflect on your thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learning; and to use your imaginations 9: Create texts collaboratively and independently, using a variety of forms for a range of audiences and purposes SCOs 3.3: demonstrate an awareness of varieties and styles of language – recognize the social contexts of different speech events 4.1: Read a wide variety of print texts 4.3: Seek meaning in reading, using a variety of strategies 4.4: Use fix-up strategies to clear up confusing parts of a text and adjust reading and viewing rate according to purpose 1

English 10 6.1: Respond to texts regarding issues, themes, and situations, while citing appropriate evidence 6.2: Respond to texts by questioning, connecting, evaluating, and extending 6.3: Make thematic connections within print and media texts and public discourse 6.4: Demonstrate a willingness to consider other interpretations of text 7.1: Examine the different aspects of texts that contribute to meaning and effect 7.2: Make inferences, draw conclusions, and support responses to content, form, and structure 7.3: Explore the relationships of language, topic, genre, purpose, context, and audience 7.6: Respond critically to various texts 8.1: Use writing and other ways of representing to; extend ideas and experiences; reflect on feelings 8.2: Use note-making, illustrations, and other ways of representing to reconstruct knowledge 8.3: Choose language that creates interesting and imaginative effectives. 9.2: Create an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context of texts; use appropriate form, style, and content for specific audiences and purposes; use appropriate strategies to engage the reader/viewer Outline Death & Hauntings (Introduction & Act I) ! ! Madness, Suspicion, & Drama (Acts II & III)! ! To Be or Not To Be (Act III)! ! ! ! Corruption & Purity (Act IV) !! ! ! Return of the Exiled Child (Act V & Mod, Interp.) ! “The Rest is Silence” (Wrap-Up)! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 5 classes! 3 classes! 4 classes! 3-4 classes! 7 classes! 3-4 classes! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! J. Tibbetts A. Bakes A. Bakes R. Wheadon J. Davison R. Wheadon

TOTAL: ! ! !

26-28 classes (5 1/2 weeks)

Assessment 1. Writing Prompts/Tasks -- Throughout, students will respond to writing prompts and/or task prompts; these will not be formally assessed but will be collected and organized by students at the end of the unit for their reflective portfolios 2. Reflective Portfolio -- Students will produce a reflective portfolio at the end of the unit that will include work from throughout the unit as well as a culminating piece. See back pages for further description. Texts Atkinson, Rowan. On Shakespeare.YouTube. <https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=DKXQbIBt9C8> --. Pink Tights and Plenty of Props. YouTube. <https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=8AWHzO2c8gc> Bradshaw, John. Homecoming: Reclaiming and Championing Your Inner Child. New York: Bantam, 1990. Print. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1972. Print. Dakin, Mary and Colleen Myers. (2003) “Emulating Shakespeare: To Snooze or Not to Snooze”. Folger Shakespeare Library. Web. 2

English 10 Gavin, Rosemarie. “‘The Lion King’ and ‘Hamlet’: A Homecoming for the Exiled Child.” The English Journal 85.3 (1996): 55-57. Gillespie, Sheena, Terezinha Fonseca, and Carol A. Sanger, eds. “Critical Approaches: A Case Study of Hamlet.” Literature Across Cultures. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. 968-984. Print. Golden, John. “Where to Be or Not to Be: The Question of Place in Hamlet.” English Journal 99.1 (2009): 58-64. EBSCO. Web. 18 March 2013. The Lion King. Dirs. Roger Allers and Rob Minkoff. Disney, 1994. Film. McWorter, Patti C. “A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classic Edition of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet.” Signet Classic. Web. <http://www.us.penguingroup.com/static/pdf/teachersguides/ hamlet.pdf> MTV Hamlet Rap. MTV. YouTube. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2S6_aL6CtSk> O’Brien, Peggy, ed. Shakespeare Set Free:Teaching Hamlet and Henry IV, Part 1. New York: Washington Square P, 1994. Print. Petrallia, Carol. (2010) “‘To be or not to be’ – Appreciating the Language and Interpreting the Meaning of Hamlet’s Soliloquy”. Folger Shakespeare Library. Web. “Romulus and Remus, The Story of.” Uploaded to YouTube by GrecoRomanWorld on 18 Nov. 2008. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wA1D9wd29jI> “This is Hamlet in the Classroom: Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers”. Reinventing the Wheel. 2011. Web. Shakespeare, William. No Fear Shakespeare: Hamlet. New York: Spark, 2003. Print. Shakespeare’s Globe.Virtual Tour. Web. <http://www.shakespearesglobe.com/about-us/virtual-tour/ middle-gallery> Whelan, Debra Lau. “Yo, Hamlet!” School Library Journal 53.6 (2007): 48-50. EBSCO. Web. 18 March 2013.

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English 10

Hamlet:
Death and Hauntings (Introduction & Act I)
Summary Objectives Introduce students to Hamlet specifically and the language of Shakespeare generally. To have students become familiar with navigating Shakespeare's use of the English language by giving them a concrete sense of character and plot GCOs 3: Interact with sensitivity and respect, considering the situation, audience, and purpose 4: Select, read, and view with an understanding of a range of literature, media, and visual texts 7: Respond critically to texts, applying your understanding of language, form, and genre SCOs 3.3: Demonstrate an awareness of varieties and styles of language – recognize the social contexts of different speech events 4.4: Use fix-up strategies to clear up confusing parts of a text and adjust reading and viewing rate according to purpose 7.1: Examine the different aspects of texts that contribute to meaning and effect Materials Pre-Work Plan Warm-Up (2 class) Run through Shakespeare powerpoint/lecture that introduces students to the play, via: a thumbnail sketch biography of Shakespeare; examples of the way his writing has effected our language (phrases he coined, fun insults, etc.); a virtual tour of the Globe theatre; a video of Lego Shakespeare's life; and a few funny videos that give a sense of what Shakespeare's all about (MTV Hamlet Rap & Rowan Atkinson). Pay careful attention to the opening dialogue of Act I Sc. I. Have the students read it out and pull out vocabulary that they find new and confusing. Construction paper; scissors; coloured pencils and/or markers Have construction paper and scissors for the creation of the bookmarks

Outcomes Met

4

English 10 In Act I, the ghost of Hamlet's father is first alluded to, then spoken of to Hamlet in Scene II, and finally confronted by Hamlet. What reality does the ghost have? Is he a truly supernatural manifestation? Or is he the first sign of Hamlet's madness? Or is Hamlet truly pretending to be mad? Discuss these questions with the class, and the way that the death of the senior Hamlet hangs over the opening of the play. Main Act (2 classes) After finishing an in-class reading of the first Act, have the students create bookmarks with a character name of their choice up at the top. Try and spread the characters out evenly throughout the class. (Not everyone can be Hamlet.) Supply them with the materials (construction paper, scissors, etc.) necessary to make their bookmark. Have them write the character's name at the top of the bookmark where it sticks out of the book. Underneath, have them write three character traits or plot points that relate to that character at this point in the play. After each act, have them update the bookmark with one or more pieces of info about the character. As the bookmark will carry out throughout the play, past the point of Act I, the conclusion will fully occur when the play has been finished. At this point, the bookmark will be filled with character info, and the students can compare their bookmarks with each other, and read other student's bookmarks to pick up information about each of the characters in the play. Students will be formatively assessed based on their participation in class discussion and the creation of their bookmarks. More stringent assessment will be withheld until after further reading of the text. Adapt as necessary for the students in class who require it. Students who have difficulty with vocabulary may be given a primer sheet. Show a clip of Act I Scene II from Hamlet (1996) http://www.shakespearesglobe.com/about-us/virtual-tour/middle-gallery (Virtual tour of the Globe theatre) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2S6_aL6CtSk (MTV Hamlet Rap) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DKXQbIBt9C8 (Rowan Atkinson – Shakespeare) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8AWHzO2c8gc (Rowan Atkinson – Pink Tights and Plenty of Props)

Conclusion (1 class)

Assessment

Adaptations Extensions Resources

5

English 10

Hamlet:
Madness, Suspicion, & Drama (Act II and III)
Summary This lesson connects the concepts of suspicion and truth in Hamlet with the main focus of the drama on the players version of the mousetrap scene. Read Act II and III together as a class. Students will explore the concept of suspicion in Hamlet and Students will create a mini poster representing a quotation from Hamlet. GCOs 4: Select, read, and view with an understanding of a range of literature, media, and visual texts 6: Respond personally to a range of texts 7: Respond critically to a range of texts, applying their understanding of language, form, and genre 8: Use writing and other ways of representing to explore, clarify, and reflect on their thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learning; and to use their imaginations SCOs 4.1: Read a wide variety of print texts 4.3: Seek meaning in reading, using a variety of strategies 4.4: Use fix-up strategies to clear up confusing parts of a text and adjust reading and viewing rate according to purpose 6.2: Respond to texts by questioning, connecting, evaluating, and extending 6.4: Demonstrate a willingness to consider other interpretations of text 7.1: Examine the different aspects of texts that contribute to meaning and effect 7.2: Make inferences, draw conclusions, and support responses to content, form, and structure 7.3: Explore the relationships of language, topic, genre, purpose, context, and audience 8.1: Use writing and other ways of representing to; extend ideas and experiences; reflect on feelings 8.2: Use note-making, illustrations, and other ways of representing to reconstruct knowledge 8.3: Choose language that creates interesting and imaginative effectives.

Objectives

Outcomes Met

6

English 10 Materials Copies of No Fear Shakespeare: Hamlet should be available. Construction Paper, Markers Write writing prompt on the board. Have film clip ready. Plan Warm-Up (0.5 classes) Continue reading Act II as a class. Writing Prompt: Can you recall a time when you believed someone was lying to you? How did you arrange to discover the truth? Following the writing prompt, encourage students to pair up and share their responses. Discuss the different tactics that someone may choose to discover the truth when faced with lies and false information. Have groups record their responses to share in a class discussion. Main Act (2 classes) After the discussion, refer students to the end of Act II where Hamlet arranges for the players to perform The Murder of Gonzago with the addition of a few added lines. What Hamlet hopes is to prove Claudius’s guilt in the murder of King Hamlet Sr. by watching his reaction to the drama: “For murder, tough it have no tongue, will speak; With most miraculous organ” (2.2.554-555). “The play’s the thing; Wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the king” (2.2.566-567). Have students make predictions about Claudius reaction. As a group read through Act III scene II. Did your predictions come true? (At this point you could show a Youtube clip of the players scene from Hamlet 1990, 1996). Discuss the differences between the films and Claudius reaction. Was his reaction one you were expecting? How would you interpret his reaction? In small groups of 3 have students write modern versions of the mousetrap scene from Act III. How would you trap Claudius, if the action were taking place today? Students will write brief passages of lines to be inserted into something Claudius might be watching today. These should be no longer than 1 page. Be creative! How might you slip a “mousetrap” into Claudius’s favourite TV show? Into Walking Dead, Simpsons, Big Bang? Select your own material, and write in inserted “mousetrap” content in this style, beginning and ending with the source material. Invite students to present these to the class by performance or summary.

Pre-Work

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English 10 Explain to students that at this time they will choose their favourite line from Act II or III and in pairs work to create a mini poster that contains the quotation from the play which connects to the modern version of the mousetrap. Include appropriate artwork or collages on the poster. Student posters should be kept for the portfolio. A few will be displayed around the classroom. Conclusion (0.5 classes) At the end of Act III, reiterate what has happened throughout Act II and III and summarize and adding to their timelines. (Hamlet’s madness, the Mousetrap, Polonius Death) Focus on how the tensions are building. Have students predict what might happen to Hamlet in act IV. Informal assessment, building toward the reflective portfolio for the end of the unit. Remind students to put all of the work they generate in a folder so that they can revisit their work for their portfolios. (modern version of significant scene, mini-poster) No Fear Shakespeare and graphic novels of Hamlet will be available in the classroom for any students who need the modern adaptation to provide clarity and understanding. The language of Shakespeare is not as important as the concepts and main themes from the play. This lesson includes video clips from the films for students who are strong visual learners. Students were assigned to work in small groups and are encouraged to work together to create their modern interpretations. Any students that struggle with script writing will be encouraged to join a group with strong writers. As well students may use graphic organizers to keep their ideas structured. Further adaptations will be developed and implemented for any student who requires it. Extensions Extended the lesson by having students work in small groups to update their character bookmarks and timeline with any new characters they encountered in scenes II and III. (Roscencrantz, Guildentern etc.) McWorter, Patti C. “A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classic Edition of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet.” Signet Classic. Web. “This is Hamlet in the Classroom: Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers”. Reinventing the Wheel. 2011. Web.

Assessment

Adaptations

Research/ Resources

8

English 10

Hamlet:
“To Be or Not to Be” (Act III continued)
Summary One of the most famous Shakespearean soliloquies is Hamlet’s “To Be or Not to Be” soliloquy in Act III. This lesson has students focusing on the soliloquy. Students will engage with the language and rhythm of Shakespeare’s style and conclude by creating their own version of the famous speech. Students will be analyzing the famous Shakespearean soliloquy from Hamlet “To Be or Not to Be” and how the speech represents Hamlet, who he is, what he wants, and what he questions. Students will be encouraged to listen to the language, the sound of rhythm and the word choices. Students will also view, discuss, and write in response to two film presentations of Hamlet’s soliloquy. Students will reproduce the pattern of a soliloquy using their own words to create poetry. GCOs 4: Select, read, and view with an understanding of a range of literature, media, and visual texts 6: Respond personally to a range of texts 7: Respond critically to a range of texts, applying their understanding of language, form, and genre 8: Use writing and other ways of representing to explore, clarify, and reflect on their thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learning; and to use their imaginations SCOs 4.3: Seek meaning in reading, using a variety of strategies 4.4: Use fix-up strategies to clear up confusing parts of a text and adjust reading and viewing rate according to purpose 6.2: Respond to texts by questioning, connecting, evaluating, and extending 6.4: Demonstrate a willingness to consider other interpretations of text 7.1: Examine the different aspects of texts that contribute to meaning and effect

Objectives

Outcomes Met

9

English 10 7.2: Make inferences, draw conclusions, and support responses to content, form, and structure 7.3: Explore the relationships of language, topic, genre, purpose, context, and audience 8.3: Choose language that creates interesting and imaginative effectives. Materials Copies of No Fear Shakespeare: Hamlet should also be available. Highlighters Handouts of Colleen Myers’s emulation of Hamlet’s third soliloquy, where she asks, “To snooze or not to snooze?” Handouts of Hamlet’s soliloquy “To Be or Not to Be” Photocopy Handouts Have film clips ready to go Facilitate a class discussion: Do we talk to ourselves when we’re alone, walking or driving? Do we talk to ourselves when we’re working out a problem, or shopping at a store? Do we rehearse arguments or things we’re going to ask of others before we act? Why do we do this? In what ways is this similar to a soliloquy? As we talk to ourselves, out loud or in our heads, do we always know what we’re going to conclude? Hand out copies of Hamlet’s soliloquy. Break the class into groups of four or five. Have each group do a read aloud of the speech. The first time direct students to read until they hit a full stop (period, question mark, colon, or exclamation mark). The second time students read until they think there is a change in direction of thought. This will be up for debate but invite discussion and negotiating where to place these breaks. Each student in the group should get the chance to read aloud the soliloquy. Ask students to highlight/underline words/phrases that are descriptive and have students identify the descriptive words they chose and why they did so. Students may want to respond to the sound and rhythm of the phrase, and/or the image created. Discuss in class and have students record their responses in their journals. In preparing to review the films, discuss and list several criteria of good speaking and acting. (volume, expression, emphasis, phrasing) Write on the board the names of the actors/character roles and ask students to write comments in their notebooks about the individual performances. View the two film performances of Hamlet’s soliloquy (Kenneth Branagh and Mel Gibson).

Pre-Work Plan Warm-Up (1 class)

Main Act (2 classes)

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English 10 After viewing the films discuss: Which performance was better? Why? Refer to expression and delivery. Did viewing the films help give meaning and understanding to the soliloquy? Explain Hamlet’s arguments. What options does he think he has as the son of the murdered king? What option do you think he will pursue? Why? What do we learn about Hamlet’s character from this soliloquy? Distribute the handout, Colleen Myers’s emulation of Hamlet’s third soliloquy, where she asks, “To snooze or not to snooze?” Discuss the ways in which Myers has retained Shakespeare’s structure replacing it with her own meaning. Instruct Students to write their own version of the soliloquy. Make sure students describe an actual choice that they are facing or have faced. Encourage students to replace almost every word with a word of their own that serves the same grammatical purpose (nouns with nouns, etc). The goal is for them to retain Shakespeare’s rhythm and structure, but create their own meaning. Conclusion (1 class) When Students are finished have them share their work in small groups. Conclude with a discussion: What did students learn about the speaker in a soliloquy? Informal assessment, building toward the reflective portfolio for the end of the unit. Remind students put all of the work they generate in a folder so that they can revisit their work for their portfolios. No Fear Shakespeare and graphic novels of Hamlet will be available in the classroom for any students who need the modern adaptation to provide clarity and understanding. The language of Shakespeare is not as important as the concepts and main themes from the play. This lesson includes a variety of video clips from the films. This will allow students to better connect with the content and more easily access the Shakespearian language through visuals. For any student who was experiencing difficulties in creating their own Shakespearian soliloquy additional options could be explored between student and teacher. Flexibility could include the option to create a visual representation. Further adaptations will be developed and implemented for any student who requires it.

Assessment

Adaptation

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English 10 Extension Extended the lesson by having students work in small groups to update their character bookmarks with any new characters they encountered and add any new key scenes to the working timeline. Dakin, Mary and Colleen Myers. (2003) “Emulating Shakespeare: To Snooze or Not to Snooze”. Folger Shakespeare Library. Web. McWorter, Patti C. “A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classic Edition of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet.” Signet Classic. Web. Petrallia, Carol. (2010) “‘To be or not to be’ – Appreciating the Language and Interpreting the Meaning of Hamlet’s Soliloquy”. Folger Shakespeare Library. Web. “This is Hamlet in the Classroom: Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers”. Reinventing the Wheel. 2011. Web.

Research/ Resources

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English 10 HAMLET 3.1.64-98 To be or not to be—that is the question: Whether ’tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles And, by opposing, end them. To die, to sleep— No more—and by a sleep to say we end The heartache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to—’tis a consummation Devoutly to be wished. To die, to sleep— To sleep, perchance to dream. Ay, there’s the rub, For in that sleep of death what dreams may come, When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause. There’s the respect That makes calamity of so long life. For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, Th’ oppressor’s wrong, the proud man’s contumely, The pangs of despised love, the law’s delay, The insolence of office, and the spurns That patient merit of th’ unworthy takes, When himself might his quietus make With a bare bodkin? Who would fardels bear, To grunt and sweat under a weary life, But that the dread of something after death, The undiscovered country from whose bourn No traveler returns, puzzles the will And makes us rather bear those ills we have Than fly to others that we know not of? Thus conscience does make cowards of us all, And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied o’er with the pale cast of thought, And enterprises of great pitch and moment With this regard their currents turn awry And lose the name of action.
© Folger Shakespeare Library 2007

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English 10 EMULATION OF HAMLET’S THIRD SOLILOQUY By Colleen Myers
To snooze or not to snooze – that is the question: Whether ’tis easier to rise on time And face the harsh light of early day, Or to stay huddled under the quilt, And, by hiding, avoid the rays. To rise, to hit the snooze button— No more – and by rising to say I face The early-morning preparations for the events That each day holds— ’Tis a situation I do not wish to face. To snooze, to sleep— To sleep, perhaps too long. Ay, there’s the problem, For in oversleeping what events may come about When we are hiding from the alarm’s harsh call Must make us stop and think. That’s the idea That makes disaster of sleeping in. For who really wants to face the 6 a.m. sun, The first period’s quiz, The morning person’s obnoxious cheeriness, The disappointment in decaffeinated coffee, The dance class’s early rehearsals, The overly chipper song of the early bird, And the cold looks That early-risers send in my late-sleeping direction, When they too may sleep in On weekends free from tribulations? Who would heed the alarm’s early call, To squint and yawn through the first hours of the day, But that the horror that something may be missed while dozing, The unknown events that have occurred which The gossips discuss While we stand in a confused daze, Wishing we had risen on time Instead of seeking those futile thirty minutes? Thus the chance of missing out does make early risers of us all, And thus the bliss of sleeping in Is tainted by eye-opening thoughts of lost news, And peaceful moments of dreams and sleep With this regard their paths are cut short And lose the dark in favor of the harsh light.

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English 10

Hamlet:
Corruption & Purity (Act IV)
Summary This lesson ties in the themes of corruption and purity with vengeance and holds them in tension: is Hamlet’s quest for revenge a pure one, considering it has been sanctioned by the ghost of his father? Has his quest for revenge been tainted by Polonious’s death? Does corruption spread? Can something that was once “pure” lead to corruption? Students will conclude this lesson with a sense of anticipation for the final act of the play. They will better understand the recurring motif of corruption/purity (“Something is rotten in the state of Denmark” [I.IV. 94]). Students should develop an affiliation with or investment in at least one character through creative writing. Students will read Act IV in class. GCOs 4: Select, read, and view with an understanding of a range of literature, media, and visual texts 6: Respond personally to a range of texts 8: Use writing and other ways of representing to explore, clarify, and reflect on their thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learning; and to use their imaginations SCOs 4.1: Read a wide variety of print texts 4.3: Seek meaning in reading, using a variety of strategies 4.4: Use fix-up strategies to clear up confusing parts of a text and adjust reading and viewing rate according to purpose 6.1: Respond to texts regarding issues, themes, and situations, while citing appropriate evidence 8.1: Use writing and other ways of representing to extend ideas and experiences; reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes; describe and evaluate their learning processes and strategies. 8.2: Use note-making, illustrations, and other ways of representing to reconstruct knowledge. Materials Pre-Work Chart paper, markers, loose leaf, blank paper, assorted art supplies. Copies of No Fear Shakespeare: Hamlet should also be available. Prepare your version of the act’s timeline (only use this as a guide if students are having difficulty; the class timeline should be generated by the class) Write writing prompt on the board (for introduction) 15

Objectives

Outcomes Met

English 10 Plan Warm-Up Writing prompt: Early in the play, Hamlet is charged by his father’s ghost (0.5 classes) to avenge Hamlet Sr.’s death (I.V.25); Hamlet also says that “with wings as swift / As meditation or the thoughts of love, / May sweep to my revenge” (I.V.29-31). Is Hamlet’s desire for revenge driven by love? Does that make his revenge “pure”? Can revenge ever be pure? How is Hamlet’s “purity” affected after Polonius’s death? Following the writing prompt, students should form small groups to discuss their answers. Encourage them with additional discussion points, such as the tension between purity of motive and the vile act of murder, or Ophelia’s descent into supposed corruption because of love, or the way in which she becomes mad because of Hamlet’s revenge. Main Act After the discussion about some of the act’s chief tensions, students (2-3 classes) will continue to work in small groups and will read through the act while crafting character sheets/timelines, in order to determine who is going where, who is motivated in what way, throughout the act’s many scenes. Once students have developed their timelines, build one as a class. Be sure your discussion is thorough and links purity/decay/ corruption to the plot and character development; if students are not contributing, be sure you can lead the class work. The collaborative timeline is important, as many of the play’s tensions come to a head in Act IV and understanding the plot’s machinations is crucial to understanding the play itself. The collaborative work should help you ensure that all students have grasped the main picture. Once the timeline has been built, put up a list of characters from the play: Hamlet, Claudius, Gertrude, Laertes, and Ophelia. Have students choose a scene and write an inner monologue for one character. How are they feeling about Hamlet? About Polonius’s death? About what is happening in the scene? This should help students form affiliations to certain characters, as well as encouraging them to immerse themselves more fully in the drama. Conclusion At the end of the act, reiterate what has happened throughout the act. (0.5 class) Revisit the timeline that was developed collaboratively. Have students predict, either in writing, drawing, or through story-boarding, what they think will happen in the final act of the play. Assessment Informal assessment, building toward the reflective portfolio for the end of the unit. Remind students put all of the work they generate in a folder so that they can revisit their work for their portfolios.

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English 10 Adaptations As always, students will be encouraged to respond to the writing prompts in writing, although how this will happen depends entirely on the student. They could use idea-mapping, jot notes, or entire paragraphs. Any writing prompts selected for the portfolio will be able to undergo expansion/editing/refinement. The creative writing process could be modified for students who have difficulty writing; acceptable alternatives would include artistic responses (collages, comic strips, abstract art) or oral explanations. Students who may have difficulty with the timeline can be given a Chain of Events graphic organizer, and could use it to track the plot throughout the scenes of Act IV. Extensions Research/ Resources Cue up Ophelia’s flower speech on YouTube to show if the class runs short and there isn’t enough time to begin the next act. Gillespie, Sheena, Terezinha Fonseca, and Carol A. Sanger, eds. “Critical Approaches: A Case Study of Hamlet.” Literature Across Cultures. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. 968-984. Print. McWorter, Patti C. “A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classic Edition of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet.” Signet Classic. Web. O’Brien, Peggy, ed. Shakespeare Set Free:Teaching Hamlet and Hentry IV, Part 1. New York: Washington Square P, 1994. Print. Shakespeare, William. No Fear Shakespeare: Hamlet. New York: Spark, 2003. Print.

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English 10

Hamlet:
Return of the Exiled Child (Act V & Modern Interpretation)
Summary Through this lesson, students will compare the characters, plot, and themes of Shakespeare’s Hamlet to Disney’s The Lion King, in order to deepen their understanding of the classic play and draw parallels with a more modern interpretation. Students will also become familiar with the exiled child archetype, and will identify examples of the motif present within both works. The instructor will encourage students to deepen their comprehension of Shakespeare’s Hamlet by comparing it to a modern interpretation and identifying parallels. The effectiveness of different media types (written play and cartoon film) in their presentation of similar stories will be compared. In addition, the instructor will describe the archetype of the exiled child and guide students through the application of this motif to the texts under consideration. These concepts will be extended through an assignment which prompts students to apply this motif more broadly to other “texts” (films, books, short stories, etc.), whether selected or student-created, and/or to personal experiences. GCOs 4: Select, read, and view with an understanding of a range of literature, media, and visual texts 6: Respond personally to a range of texts 8: Use writing and other ways of representing to explore, clarify, and reflect on their thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learning; and to use their imaginations SCOs 4.1: Read a wide variety of print texts 4.2: View a wide variety of media and visual texts 4.3: Seek meaning in reading, using a variety of strategies 4.5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of literary devices and media techniques on the understanding of a text 6.1: Respond to texts regarding issues, themes, and situations, while citing appropriate evidence 6.2: Respond to texts by questioning, connecting, evaluating, and extending 8.1: Use writing and other ways of representing to extend ideas and experiences; reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes; describe and evaluate their learning processes and strategies.

Objectives

Outcomes Met

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English 10 Materials ! ! ! Pre-Work " Copies of Hamlet for students (including No Fear Shakespeare and graphic novel versions of the play) Film: The Lion King (1994) Handouts outlining elements of the exiled child archetype Students will already have completed reading Acts 1-4 and will have shown comprehension of the content through various formative and summative assessments.

Plan Warm-Up Students will begin the lesson by reading Act V of Hamlet in groups. (2 classes) Follow their completion of the reading with a brief discussion of the conclusion of the play. How did the events in the previous acts culminate in Hamlet’s tragic death? Were students surprised by the ending? Main Act (4 classes) Introduce The Lion King as modern interpretation of Hamlet. Explain briefly to students that the film uses many of the same plotlines and character traits, and explores many of the same themes – kingship, murder, exile, revenge – as Shakespeare’s tragedy. While tales about heroes were once sung in ballads, recorded in epics, and acted out in plays, today we often tell their stories through novels and films. Tell students to watch for similarities to Hamlet in The Lion King; but don’t have them take notes. The parallels will be drawn out after the film as a group. Screen The Lion King. In groups, discuss the film in the context of Hamlet. What parallels did students notice? Characters Hamlet (Prince) Hamlet

The Lion King Simba

Similarities Father murdered, banished, face dangers but survive, return to avenge father’s death, bring about new order

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English 10 Mufasa King Hamlet Murdered and usurped as king by jealous brother; appears as ghost to son, reminding him of duty to homeland and urging to “remember me” (I.v.92) Murderous villain, kills brother, usurps throne, banishes prince Used by brother in law Provide relief from main plot, remind prince of responsibility to homeland, influence prince’s return to confront nemesis

Scar

Claudius

Sarabi Timon & Pumbaa

Gertrude Rosencrantz & Guildenstern

Themes • • • • • jealousy revenge absolute power as corruption innocence vs. experience Conflict Both Hamlet and Simba seem incapable of taking action against their father’s murderers. Hamlet thinks murder is immoral, while Simba blames himself for his father’s death. Scar and Claudius are both jealous younger brothers who kill their older brothers and take their place as king Rightful kings, Simba and Hamlet, fatally confront the usurpers, Scar and Claudius Ending Peace restored as rightful king takes the throne A new world order is begun

• •

• •

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English 10 Ask students: How was the ending of The Lion King different than the ending in Hamlet? What does this achieve? Why do you think The Lion King ended this way? How did the change in media affect the telling of the story? Introduce students to the archetype of the exiled child. Pass around quick-reference handouts, which provide students with the following information: • Archetypes, according to Joseph Campbell, are patterns of human experience that represent part of the collective unconscious of mankind, such as life/death, good versus evil, and the hero. • The archetype of the mythical child in exile is another that recurs throughout history in a number of forms – ex. Jesus, Buddha, Perseus, Hamlet, Simba • According to John Bradshaw, the characteristics of the exiled child are as follows: • The child to be exiled is the child of distinguished parents, the son of a king, or one who should legitimately inherit the throne. • The child is often saved by lowly people (shepherds), a humble woman, or suckled by a female animal. Basically the myth suggests that the child is thrown onto the mercy of elemental forces. • The old order attempts to kill the child… But the abandoned child is strong and able to survive. • Slowly the child begins to recognize his own extraordinariness . . . The child's strength comes from the gradual recognition of who he is. • The new self-recognition lets the divine child (hero) know that there is something he has to teach the old order. He understands that at this precise moment in time, the old order can hear him and be regenerated. Now, not only has a new child been born, but a new world order has been born. The child may have to find his distinguished parents. He may have to take revenge; sometimes he may have to kill them. • Finally the child achieves the rank and honor that is his due. He accepts his divinity or his kingship or his leadership role. (26667) As a class, discuss how these concepts apply to the character of Simba, in The Lion King. Then analyze Hamlet. How does he exhibit the characteristics of the exiled child?

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English 10 Conclusion Debrief students: (1 class) How does archetype of exiled child help you understand Hamlet as a character? His tragic end? The play overall? How are the elements of this classic tale enduring? How have the same themes been interpreted over time in different forms (ex. different stories, presentation styles/media)?

Assessment

Students will construct a piece of writing which demonstrates their understanding of the archetype of the exiled child and shows application of the motif to new settings. Three options of assignments will be provided, of which students will choose one. In approximately 1000 words: Personal: Write about a time when you felt like the “exiled child.” Which of the archetypal characteristics can be applied to your own life? Think about personal journeys, struggles with good and evil, new self-recognition followed by positive change, or transformations caused by your intervention. Analytical: Identify another story you have encountered, whether in a book, movie, play, short story, etc., which featured the exiled child motif. How was it executed similarly or differently than it was in Shakespeare’s Hamlet? For example, this theme can be applied to the ancient Roman tale of Romulus and Remus, the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling, The Dark Elf Trilogy by R. A. Salvatore, and others. Topics must be approved by the instructor before writing. Creative: Write your own short story (approximately 800 words) in which you employ the conventions of the exiled child archetype. Include a brief (200 word) description of which features of the motif you worked into your story.

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English 10 Adaptations No Fear Shakespeare and graphic novel versions of Hamlet will be available to all students in order to provide them with a number of avenues through which they can access the content of the play. Shakespearian language and traditional presentation is relevant; but it should not be permitted to hinder student engagement with and understanding of the play and related concepts. The lesson includes the use of different forms of media, including a classic written play as well as a modern cartoon film. This will provide variety and permit the lesson content to reach a wider range of students. It also allows students to more easily connect with Shakespearian material by updating its presentation and demonstrating the enduring and transformative nature of classic themes. Choice is provided in the nature of the written assessments, so students can choose a trajectory that best interests them and capitalizes on their particular skills. Further adaptations will be constructed and implemented as individual student needs require. Extensions Students have seen the exiled child archetype in Hamlet, as well as in a modern interpretation, The Lion King. If students are interested in pursuing the motif further, show them an earlier/historical example in the foundation myth of Rome, the tale of Romulus and Remus. The following YouTube video provides a clear, illustrated account of the tale (if somewhat comical). Have students watch from 0:00 – 6:23 (disregarding the questions that appear after the film). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wA1D9wd29jI Research/ Resources Bradshaw, John. Homecoming: Reclaiming and Championing Your Inner Child. New York: Bantam, 1990. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1972. Gavin, Rosemarie. “‘The Lion King’ and ‘Hamlet’: A Homecoming for the Exiled Child.” The English Journal. 85.3 (Mar., 1996) 55-57. “Romulus and Remus, The Story of.” Uploaded to YouTube by GrecoRomanWorld on 18 Nov. 2008. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wA1D9wd29jI>

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English 10

Hamlet:
“The rest is silence.”
Summary Hamlet is one of Shakespeare’s most famous plays, and it is rife with scenes, images, and lines that have become part of our collective cultural milieu. What’s more, however, is its rich themes: from vengeance to truth/suspicion, from purity/corruption to madness, Hamlet is a text rife with thematic connections to an almost endless range of cultural products. Having already connected the play to certain modern texts, students will now be encouraged to push their understanding of the play’s themes further and to explore their own journey of learning through a reflective portfolio. Students will revisit the play and evaluate how their first perceptions have changed. They should come away with a connection to the story and be able to link it to contemporary texts. GCOs 6: Respond personally to a range of texts 7: Respond critically to a range of texts, applying their understanding of language, form, and genre 8: Use writing and other ways of representing to explore, clarify, and reflect on their thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learning; and to use their imaginations 9: Create texts collaboratively and independently, using a variety of forms for a range of audiences and purposes SCOs 6.1: Respond to texts regarding issues, themes, and situations, while citing appropriate evidence 6.2: Respond to texts by questioning, connecting, evaluating, and extending 6.3: Make thematic connections within print and media texts and public discourse 7.6: Respond critically to various texts 8.1: Use writing and other ways of representing to extend ideas and experiences; reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes; describe and evaluate their learning processes and strategies. 8.2: Use note-making, illustrations, and other ways of representing to reconstruct knowledge. 9.2: Create an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context of texts; use appropriate form, style, and content for specific audiences and purposes; use appropriate strategies to engage the reader/viewer 24

Objectives

Outcomes Met

English 10 Materials Ensure students have access to binders/duotangs. Art supplies, paper, magazines, etc. should also be available for working on the culminating piece. Computer access would be ideal as well. Book computer lab (if necessary) Prepare exit slips for unit’s conclusion Photocopy & distribute self-assessment rubric

Pre-Work

Plan Warm-Up Split into thematic groups. Each group is tasked with selecting the two (1 classes) most important passages/plot points relating to their theme; they will also connect their theme to contemporary texts (songs, books, television shows, movies, etc.). Their findings will be shared with the class. Follow up with a writing prompt: The most important theme in Hamlet is… or The theme I find most meaningful in Hamlet is… Remind students to explain why they have identified the theme, what resonates with them, and any connections they have made between the text, their own lives, and other cultural products. Students who find another topic more interesting are encouraged to explore that topic in their writing log. Main Act Students will receive class time to work on their individual reflective (2 classes) portfolios. See attached description for instructions. Remind students that their portfolios must also include one culminating piece (see attached document). Conclusion Students will each select one piece that they find the most meaningful (1 class) and share in a small group setting. The unit will conclude with exit slips as the final piece of each student’s portfolio. Students will be encouraged to reflect on what they’ve learned, what ended up surprising them, and how they might approach studying the play differently now that they’ve finished it (this could take the form of a letter to their past selves). Students will then be encouraged to reflect on their portfolios and each student will use a self-assessment rubric to assign themselves a grade, to indicate where (if anywhere) they could have improved their work, and to highlight the biggest improvements they made through this unit.

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English 10 Assessment Informal assessment will occur by observing students interact in their thematic groups and by seeing the connections they have made between the text and their own lives/contemporary cultural products. Work with learning logs/academic prompts will continue. Formal assessment will include a reflective portfolio. Throughout the unit, students have been responding to academic prompts -- either creatively, analytically, or personally -- and have been making entries in their writing logs. They will now have the chance to collect their best pieces, as well as to create a culminating piece. See attached description of project. Adaptations Students with difficulty communicating through the written word have been encouraged throughout to try different methods of reflection, whether that is by illustrating, idea-mapping, or making lists. Ideally, students will have identified an area in which they would like to improve, and we will be working toward that together. Students who may experience anxiety in presenting their own work will be permitted to work with friends with whom they may feel more comfortable. If this isn’t possible (and it should be encouraged, even if students feel uncomfortable!), they will be able to meet individually with the teacher to present the piece that they’re proudest of -- this should be a success especially for students who may not succeed in the traditional classroom setting. Other adaptations will be tailored to the individual class/to individual students. Extensions Students who need enrichment will be encouraged to revisit their original perceptions of the play, and to think about how their ideas about Hamlet or Shakespeare have changed, if at all. Would they consider reading another Shakespeare play, now that they’ve finished Hamlet? Would they recommend Hamlet to others? If not, could they recommend a different text that might get at similar themes? Gillespie, Sheena, Terezinha Fonseca, and Carol A. Sanger, eds. “Critical Approaches: A Case Study of Hamlet.” Literature Across Cultures. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. 968-984. Print. McWorter, Patti C. “A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classic Edition of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet.” Signet Classic. Web. O’Brien, Peggy, ed. Shakespeare Set Free:Teaching Hamlet and Henry IV, Part 1. New York: Washington Square P, 1994. Print. Shakespeare, William. No Fear Shakespeare: Hamlet. New York: Spark, 2003. Print.

Research/ Resources

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English 10

Hamlet:
Reflective Portfolio Assignment
General Outcomes: 6: Respond personally to a range of texts 7: Respond critically to texts, applying your understanding of language, form, and genre 8: Use writing and other ways of representing to explore, clarify, and reflect on your thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learning; and to use your imaginations 9: Create texts collaboratively and independently, using a variety of forms for a range of audiences and purposes Throughout our study of Hamlet, you will be given writing prompts. These prompts serve as jumping off points: you should explore your personal responses to the text -- to its ideas, characters, plot twists, and themes -- by responding to the prompt, connecting Hamlet to your personal life, or by comparing Hamlet to movies, books, or TV shows. Part of developing as a reader, writer, and thinker means reflecting on the work you’ve done and working to improve it. At the end of this unit, you will have the chance to select five pieces of work you’ve produced -- whether writing prompts, character maps, timelines, or artistic responses -- and then edit and arrange them for your portfolio. Remember: select pieces you’re proud of, or that you think demonstrate the most growth. In addition, you will work throughout the unit on creating one culminating project as the keystone of your portfolio. This piece, selected from the attached grid, should show me that you’ve respond to Hamlet in some fashion. I want to see that you’ve thought about Hamlet in connection to the rest of the world and to your life. Finally, you will add an exit slip as the final piece of your portfolio (to be distributed at the end of the unit). Once your portfolio is complete, you will fill out a self-assessment rubric to determine where you’ve improved as a writer/reader/thinker, how your perceptions about Hamlet changed (or didn’t!), and what your learned from the unit.

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English 10

Culminating Project Options
Analytical Blogging: Rewrite a monologue from the text as a blog entry or series of blog entries. Include appropriate links and/or images, and comments that other characters might leave on the post. Fakebook is another alternative. Essay: Select one of the themes we’ve discussed in class, or a different theme you find meaningful, and write a five paragraph essay exploring how Shakespeare writes about this theme.You may instead compare Hamlet to a modern text/movie. To Be or Not to Be: Should Shakespeare be taught in schools? Prepare a case either for or against teaching Shakespeare, using Hamlet as either proof of Shakespeare’s merits or as cannon fodder. This can be presented either in written form or orally. Creative Playlist: Choose one of the characters from the text and create a playlist that your character would have on his or her MP3 player. Include either a list of the playlist or a CD in your portfolio with an explanation of why you chose the songs you chose. Wild Card: Propose a different culminating project to me! It could be photography, a song, poetry -- anything you’re passionate about. Be sure to have me okay this first, and come prepared to explain why this project is a great idea. Short Story: Write a short story that either adds an alternate scene or takes the play’s characters and transports them to a different setting. Explore how the play’s tensions might resolve differently, or if things will always end in same way. Practical Letter: Write a letter to one of the play’s characters for them to read during a pivotal scene, suggesting an alternate course of ending or (depending on how you feel about that character) goading them on. Storyboard:You’ve been hired to create a short Hamlet cartoon. Create a storyboard that captures all of the play’s important moments. Feel free to adapt Hamlet for a different setting if you’d like.

Act It Out: Choose either a monologue or dialogue (with a partner) to perform in front of the class. Write a brief explanation of why you’ve chosen this part of the play. Why is it important/ exciting/meaningful?

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English 10

Hamlet Portfolio
Self-Assessment Rubric
General Outcomes 6: Respond personally to a range of texts 7: Respond critically to texts, applying your understanding of language, form, and genre 8: Use writing and other ways of representing to explore, clarify, and reflect on your thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learning; and to use your imaginations 9: Create texts collaboratively and independently, using a variety of forms for a range of audiences and purposes Beginning I have responded personally to the play, making an effort to connect Hamlet to my life or other texts I have critically reflected on Hamlet, on my perception of the play and its characters, and on its themes I have explored my thoughts and feelings throughout the portfolio I have selected appropriate responses for the portfolio and have ensured that my writing (the tone, the mechanics, the style) matches the given task ! 5! 1! 1! INCLUDES! ! ! ! ! Yes! ! Partial ! ! ! No Developing Accomplished

Writing Prompts/In-Class Pieces Culminating Project Exit Slip

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English 10 My portfolio shows that, over the course of this unit, I have improved in… ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! My favourite piece in my portfolio is… (Explain why too!) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! For my next portfolio, I would change… ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

The biggest area for me to concentrate on improving is… ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Overall, I found this unit to be… ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! My final comments are… ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! ! Outstanding

SELF-ASSIGNED GRADE

Satisfactory (+ or -) Needs Improvement ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! SIGNED: ! ! ! ! 30

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