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The use of theory in program planning and evaluation.

(From Theory in a Nutshell by Don Nutbeama and Elizabeth Harris)

Program Phase Task Possible Use of Theory Teaching thoughts
Problem identification Clarify major health issues for a Clarify what should be the target • Identify the existing problem.
and prioritisation defined population, and prioritise elements of an intervention, such • Outline the social justice issue.
in terms of the potential for as individual beliefs, social • Identify target population
effective intervention. norms or organisational • What are the existing beliefs, social norms or
practices. organisational practices contributing to the SJ
issue?

Why?
Planning a solution Develop a program plan which Guidance on how and when and • Program objectives – what is the target change?
specifies program objectives, where change can be achieved in What is the message?
strategies and the sequence. the target elements of a program. • Program strategies – how will the message be
communicated?
• Program sequence – how will the message be
promoted? Where will the message be displayed?
When will the message be displayed?
• How do we know this change can be achieved by
the proposed program?
Mobilising resources for Generate public and political Guidance on how to build • What already exists that you can align your
implementation support, build the capacity of partnerships, raise public project to in an effort to increase chances of
partner organisations and secure awareness and foster success?
resources. organisational development. • What health promotion models can you design
your intervention on?
• Are there existing health promotion campaigns
you can use a base or partner program to enhance
your impact?
• How will you distinguish your program from the
others that exist? Consider placement,
promotion and other aspects.
Implementation Execute the program as planned, Provide a benchmark against • How will you determine success of the program?
utlising multiple strategies (as which the actual implementation What measurable information can you collect?
appropriate to the program can be compared with the How and when will you collect it?
objectives). theoretically ideal. • Implement the plan as designed, noting barriers
and impacts as they occur. Outline actions
decided and taken to counteract arising barriers?
Evaluation Assess the impact and outcome Define outcomes and • Was the intervention successful? Were the
of the program according to pre- measurements which could be program objectives achieved?
defined program objectives. used at each level of evaluation. • What significant occurrences inhibited progress
and success of the intervention?
• What significant occurrences enabled progress
and success of the intervention?
• What recommendations would you suggest if
another groups was to attempt your program in
the future?