Motion Camouflage for Unicycle Robots using Optimal Control

I˜ naki Ra˜ n´ o and Chris Burbridge
inaki.rano@gmail.com Computer Sciences and Systems Engineering Dept University of Zaragoza Spain

TAROS 2010

Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage

UniZar & ISRC-Ulster

Table of Contents 1 2 3 4 5 Motion Camouflage for Unicycle Robots using Optimal Control All together Results Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster .

Everybody knows what Motion is!! We see motion on static images. Can we see motion as something static? Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster .

Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster .Camouflage A method of crypsis (avoidance of observation) that allows an otherwise visible organism or object to remain indiscernible from the surrounding environment through deception.

Motion Camouflage? Are You Kidding? That’s impossible! Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster .

Motion Camouflage Stealth behaviour of dragonflies and hover-flies. Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster . Blooming. the visual size of the Shadower increases. The Shadowee sees the Shadower always on the Focal Point. Eyes (cameras) only measure angles (rays). Camouflage for attack or retreat.

Some robots follow this model. θ) and two control inputs (v . ω ). dual-drive. (“Ackerman”). tricycle.Unicycle Robots Unicycle motion model x ˙ = v cos θ y ˙ = v sin θ ˙ = ω θ 3D state space (x . synchro-drive. Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster . y .

Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster . . Unless you’re a crab.Why Unicycle Robots? Existing 2D and 3D Motion Camouflage techniques treat the shadower as a point Animals move in 2D/3D but they have a heading (they’re not points) Restriction to motion (2D) dx sin θ − dy cos θ = 0 animals usually don’t move perpendicular to their heading. .

y ˙ (t ))dt y (t ) can be obtained solving the Euler-Lagrange equation ∂g d ∂g − =0 ∂y dt ∂ y ˙ with boundary conditions. u ). But we have a system to be controlled x ˙ = F (x . y (t ). Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster .Calculus of Variations Find the function y (t ) that minimises the functional tf J [y ] = ti g (t . where x (t ) ∈ n and u (t ) ∈ m .

u ] = h(x (tf )) + ti [g (t . u ) and the appropriate boundary conditions. x (t ). u (t )) − x ˙ (t ))] dt Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster .Optimal Control Find the control functions u (t ) that minimise the functional tf J [x . u (t ))dt with the dynamic constrain x ˙ = F (x . Constrained Minimisation? This is a job for the “Lagrange Multipliers”!! tf J [x . u ] = h(x (tf )) + ti g (t . x (t ). u (t ))+ λ(t )(F (x (t ).

λ(t )) ∂λ ˙ (t ) = − ∂ H (x (t ). x (t ). u (t )) the solution can be obtained from the equations ∂H (x (t ). Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster . u (t ). u (t ). λ(t )) = g (t .Optimal Control Solution If we define the Hamiltonian H (x (t ). u (t ). u (t ). λ(t )) ∂u x ˙ (t ) = as the solution to a Boundary Value Problem. λ(t )) λ ∂x ∂H 0 = (x (t ). u (t )) + λ(t )t F (x (t ).

yp) f =(f x.All together Y x p=(x p. yt) CCL X Dynamic constrains v Control inputs u =     ω x ˙p v cos θp Function to minimise  y   v sin θp   ˙p     θ   ˙  ω  p  =   g (x) = 1 |(x − f ) × (x − f )|2 p t x  x    vt ˙t 2 y 1 vt y ˙t + uT R u 2 Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster . f y) θp x t =(x t .

5 0.5 −1.0 2.5 Shadower −0.5 3.0 0.0 2.5 1.0 CCL ε −2.5 0.0 −1.5 2.0 −3.0 1.0 −0.0 18 16 14 12 10 Error 10 9 8 7 6 5 Error 8 4 6 4 2 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Shadowee 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster .0 1.5 −1.Results Focal Point Trajectory −0.5 3.5 Trajectory 1.0 1.0 0.5 2.5 −2.0 0.0 −1.5 1.0 0.

positions. .Discussion The good news Motion Camouflage can be achieved for non-holonomic motion. . . and velocities seem to stay bounded The bad news Need to know too much information (time. . . for any focal point. . . velocity) No certainty on bounded velocities Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster . . . . It is extensible to any shadowee trajectory.

Thanks for your attention “Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out and remove all doubt” Abraham Lincoln Ra˜ no ´ & Burbridge Unicycle Motion Camouflage UniZar & ISRC-Ulster .

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