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Mike Hurley

From: Stephanie Kaplan
Sent: Wednesday, February 11, 2004 3:50 PM
To: Team 3; Philip Zelikow; Chris Kojm; Dan Marcus
Subject: Public Diplomacy

The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy is a bipartisan panel created by Congress and appointed by
the President to provide oversight of U.S. Government activities intended to understand, inform, and influence
foreign publics. It states that it has been in existence for over 50 years, but it was reauthorized and given a new
charter in 2000. The Commission's July 2003 report and testimony from one of its Commissioners, Harold
Pachios, in the House today are attached.

Djerejian's enterprise -- the Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim World -- was formed in June 2003 at
the request of Congress. It is a subcommittee the Advisory Commission. Their October 2003 Report is attached. The preface
(pages 5-6) includes a list the most recent reports on the topic.

STEPHANIE L. KAPLAN
9-11 COMMISSION
7(202)331-1125
F (202) 296-5545
www.9-11commission.gov

2/11/2004
The New Diplomacy: Utilizing Innovative Communication Concepts
That Recognize Resource Constraints
A Report from the United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy
July 2003

Introduction

From the time governments were organized until very recently, diplomacy involved conveying a message to
another government, usually delivered by a government official to a representative of a foreign government,
and the response of foreign government officials. The information revolution that occurred in the last half of
the 20th century dramatically expanded this paradigm.

To effectively tell America's story to the world and conduct diplomacy, the U.S. Department of State also
must change the way it communicates. By continuing to embrace innovative technology and novel - but
effective - thinking, the Department can harness the power wielded by diverse audiences.

The Department of State's Office of E-Diplomacy sponsored a fact-finding trip by U.S. Advisory
Commission on Public Diplomacy to examine three inventive diplomatic tactics that enhance the
Department's outreach.

These three concepts, which utilize new media and recognize resource constraints, are referred to as:

1. American Presence Posts, which use a single American officer in an important region to further
commercial and public diplomacy goals;

2. American Corners, which provide, without American personnel, a public diplomacy outpost - library,
discussion forum, program venue and Internet access - available for the use of the local population in a host
country; and

3. Virtual Consulates, which use the power of the Internet to communicate with local publics and
Americans in a locally branded product that may be able to handle up to 50 percent of a physical consulate's
workload.

In today's world, a wide array of significant foreign citizens - journalists, students, and business people -
shape relations among nations through their influence on the public discourse. In rapidly expanding
numbers, we all are - no matter in which country we reside - gaining information from the Internet,
television, and other forms of mass media.

Citizens in foreign countries no longer must rely on their government for information. To effectively advance
the American agenda, the U.S. Government must find the means to engage all sectors of foreign society by
diverse means.

If implemented in a large scale and coordinated effort tailored to host country needs and capabilities, the
Advisory Commission believes American Corners, American Presence Posts, and Virtual Consulates
together can form key building blocks of a "New Diplomacy" that informs and influences foreign audiences in
their homes, places of business, and venues of leisure. Through the power of technology and innovative
concepts, direct communication is now possible with the populations we must engage.

American Presence Posts

The American Presence Post (APP) revolves around a single Foreign Service Officer posted in a major city
or region. This piece of the "New Diplomacy" requires the most significant output of resources and Embassy
dedication. Former U.S. Ambassador to France Felix Rohatyn originated the American Presence Post
concept in 1997 to handle consular and American citizen services, U.S. commercial promotion, and public
diplomacy.
Communicating Public Diplomacy Objectives
Harold C. Pachios, Commissioner, United States Advisory Commission on Public
Diplomacy
Remarks to the Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee on National Security,
Emerging Threats and International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Washington, DC
February 10, 2004

Chairman Shays and distinguished members of this subcommittee, I want to thank you on behalf of our
chairman, Barbara Barrett, and the five other members of the bipartisan U.S. Advisory Commission on
Public Diplomacy for this opportunity to share my thoughts on U.S. government efforts to inform, engage
and influence audiences in the Middle East and around the globe. I would also like to recognize my fellow
commissioner, Tre' Evers, from Florida who is here with me today.

As this subcommittee has noted, over the past two years, several significant studies have been issued
dealing with the conduct of public diplomacy. I most recently served as my commission's representative on
the Djerejian Advisory Group for Public Diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim World. I think the Djerejian group
made some important points, but I do have some differences with some of the group's observations.

Having served on this nearly 50 year-old commission for 11 years, I believe that our public diplomacy
programs need to be divided distinctly between two areas, immediate communications and long-term
communications.

Our long-term communications include professional and student exchanges, American libraries and cultural
programs. We know these programs work. They are some of our most effective. In fact, while they were
young, Prime Minister Tony Blair and Afghan President Hamid Karzai both participated in our international
visitor efforts. We know that both of these men are friends of America today. Because of the efficacy of
these long-term efforts, we must continue to fund them. However, many of these programs are the same
projects the United States Information Agency (USIA) used to win the ideological battle for the hearts and
minds of people throughout the world during the Cold War. These programs are expensive, and to succeed
they require the strategic placement of participants to have success. We often do not see results until at
least 10 years into the future.

If we really want to improve our long-term communications, we need to encourage more American
businesses to conduct their own professional exchanges, streamline our visa process for student visitors
and call on more American citizens to represent the United States abroad.

While constituting a core of what the State Department does to influence international public opinion, the
world has changed in a way that requires us to look beyond the influence of elite audiences and the
influence of people over the long term.

Here's what has changed. First, even people in the remotest villages throughout the world receive satellite
TV broadcasts. Second, as the world's only superpower, and an active one at that, everything our leaders
say and do is of consequence to ordinary people everywhere. Third, the new technology of broadcast
journalism ensures that when our leaders make statements, villagers in Jordan, Indonesia and Pakistan will
see and hear it simultaneously with people in Wichita, Portland, and Louisville. Same message, same time.

No longer do we have the opportunity to separate our messages, as we did when I served in the White
House many years ago as associate press secretary to Lyndon Johnson. Now, the same words and ideas
reach our global audience, sometimes with unflattering editing, as quick as it reaches domestic audiences.

Since international public opinion does have the power to interfere with our foreign policy objectives, the
process for unveiling new foreign policy goals, new visa rules or other matters that the global press corps
may cover needs to be coordinated and communicated by skilled public relations professionals who serve
and have access to the President and other key administration officials.
Changing Minds
Winning Peace
A NEW STRATEGIC DIRECTION FOR U.S. PUBLIC
DIPLOMACY IN THE ARAB & MUSLIM WORLD
Changing Minds
Winning Peace
A NEW STRATEGIC DIRECTION FOR U.S. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY
IN THE ARAB & MUSLIM WORLD

Report of the Advisory Group on
Public Diplomacy for the Arab and Muslim World

EdwardP. Djerejian
CHAIRMAN

Octoberi, 2003

Submitted to the Committee on Appropriations
U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES