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Definition An engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal
 

Definition

An engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal energy and uses this energy to produce mechanical work. Engines normally convert thermal energy into mechanical work; therefore, they are called heat engines.

When fuel burns in the presence of atmospheric air, a tremendous amount of heat energy is released. The products of combustion attain very high temperature. A heat engine converts the released heat energy into useful work with the help of a working fluid.

Classification

Heat engines are broadly classified into:

1)

Internal Combustion Engines (IC Engines)

In internal combustion engines, either the combustion of the fuel takes place inside the engine cylinder or the products of combustion enter into the cylinder as a working fluid. In reciprocating engines having cylinder and piston, the combustion of the fuel takes place

inside the cylinder and such engines may be called I C engines.

Definition An engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal

2)

External Combustion Engines (EC Engines)

In external combustion engines, the combustion of the fuel in the presence of air takes place outside the engine cylinder. The heat energy released from the fuel is utilized to raise the high pressure steam in a boiler from water. Steam is a working fluid, which enters into the cylinder of a steam engine to perform mechanical work.

Definition An engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal
   
IC & EC engines are heat engines and they convert heat into work. Example of an
IC & EC engines are heat engines and they convert heat into work. Example of an IC engine is a
petrol engine and example of an EC engine is Steam Engine. The main differences between them are listed
below:
Combustion: The main difference is where the combustion takes places.
o
o
In IC engines fuel combustion takes place inside the cylinder
While in EC engines it takes place outside the engine cylinder
Temperature & Pressure: The temperature and pressure in an IC engines is much higher than those
of EC engines.
Materials: IC engines are made of materials that are better resistant to heat and pressure than in
EC engines.
o
IC
engine
cylinder
is
usually
made
of
an
iron
alloy
that
contains nickel and
o
molybdenum
EC engine is mainly made of cast iron
Piston Arrangement: In IC engines the piston is directly connected to connecting rod, whereas in an
EC engine there is a stuffing box (It prevents the leakage of steam from the cylinder).
Efficiency: Efficiency of IC engine is higher than EC engine.
Storage: Boilers are required for EC engines to store water, which is to be converted to steam. But
IC engines require only a much smaller tank to store fuel.
Starting & Stopping Time: EC engines, unlike IC engines cannot be started or stopped quickly,
because it takes time to initiate boiling of water and generate steam.
Weight: IC engines are lighter than EC engines.
Economy: IC engines are cheaper compared to EC engines.
 
Advantages Overall efficiency is high Greater mechanical simplicity Weight-to-power ratio is generally low Generally lower initial
 

Advantages

Overall efficiency is high

Greater mechanical simplicity

Weight-to-power ratio is generally low

Generally lower initial cost

Easy starting from cold conditions

These units are compact and thus require less space

Disadvantages

The IC engines cannot use solid fuels which are cheaper. Only liquid or gaseous fuels of given specifications can be efficiently used. These fuels are relatively more expensive The IC engines are not self-starting whereas the EC engines have a high-starting torque The intermittent IC engines have reciprocating parts and hence they are susceptible to the problems of vibration

Applications

IC engine finds its own major application in mobile propulsion system. The use of engine in mobile state of affairs ensures more power to weight ratio in addition to excess fuel energy density. IC engine is now widely used in number of automobiles, aircraft vehicles, motorbikes, boats and other similar locomotives. Automobiles such as helicopters, big barges and ships and jet crafts utilize excess power which is supplied in the form of gas turbines. Gas turbines are especially used in major power plants and similar naval applications. It is also used for minor power applications. Majority of the industries today have general electric motors which are of internal combustion type. Competitive technology of electric motor invention is used in power automobiles such as low power automobiles and non-automobiles. Battery operated electric vehicles have hybrid internal combustion engine technology. Batteries are made of Lithium ion and Lithium poly chemistry and are of safe, cost efficient and has increased life expectancy.

Advantages Overall efficiency is high Greater mechanical simplicity Weight-to-power ratio is generally low Generally lower initial
   
Advantages Starting torque is generally high Because of external combustion of fuel, cheaper fuels can be
   

Advantages

 

Starting torque is generally high Because of external combustion of fuel, cheaper fuels can be used, even solid fuels can be used advantageously Due to external combustion of fuel it is possible to have flexibility in arrangement These units are self-starting with the working fluid whereas in case of internal combustion engines, some additional equipment or device is used for starting the engines EC engine is much more powerful than a wind-mill or water-mill

Disadvantages

 

EC engine is huge and heavy

EC engine is unsafe to use

EC engine has low efficiency

EC engine does not start at once, before it can start, we have to build a coal fire to get working fluid

Applications

 
 

The main applications of EC engines are steam engines and stirling engine.

Steam engine uses are:

Steam power engines when attached to generator are able to produce electricity. It could be used at

Applications of the Stirling engine range from heating and cooling to underwater power systems. A

household level or industrial level depends upon the size of the steam engine. Steam boats are also designed to utilize steam power.

Factories are run by steam power engines.

Locomotives are steam power-driven.

Stirling engine uses are:

Stirling engine can function in reverse as a heat pump for heating or cooling. Other uses include:

oCombined heat and power oSolar power generation

o

Stirling marine engines

Advantages Starting torque is generally high Because of external combustion of fuel, cheaper fuels can be
 
Advantages Starting torque is generally high Because of external combustion of fuel, cheaper fuels can be