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Faisal Amjad CPS 422

Computer Networks


NETWORK LAYER Internetworking Routing


Packetizing Fragmenting

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Interconnecting the Networks
‰So far we have studied transmission across ‰Application Level Interconnection
individual networks o Application programs used to handle heterogeneity
o The application program on each machine in the network
‰Now we take a conceptual LEAP to collect the understands the network connections for that machine
diverse networking technologies into a coordinated and interoperate across the connections
Whole o At first this seems natural, but is limited and
‰The primary Goal is a scheme that hides the cumbersome in its approach
details of underlying network hardware while o Adding new functionality to the system means building
providing universal communication services new application program for each machine
o Adding new hardware means modifying or creating new
‰The primary Result is a high level abstraction that
programs for every possible application
provides the framework for all design decisions
o When an intermediate program fails, source and
destination are unable to detect or control the problem
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Interconnecting the Networks Need for Network Layer
‰Network Level Interconnection ‰We can now conclude that:
o The alternative to application level interconnection o To solve the problem of delivery through several links,
o Provides a mechanism that delivers packets from the Network Layer was designed
original source to ultimate destination o It is responsible for
o It detaches the notion of communication from the ƒ routing packets through routers and switches and
details of networking technologies ƒ host-to-host delivery
o It also hides the low-level details from the applications
and the user

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Internet Architecture
‰We have seen how machines connect to individual Two physical networks interconnected by a Router

‰Now we will see how networks can be
interconnected to form an Internetwork or
Internet Net 1 Router Net 2
‰Two networks can only be connected by a
computer that attaches to both of them
‰The inter-connecting computer must be willing to
cooperate with other such computers in order to Router between Net 1 and Net 2 must
capture packets destined for each
shuffle packets from one network to another other and transfer them

‰Such computers are called Internet Gateways or
Internet Routers
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Interconnection through IP Routers Three Networks interconnected by two Routers

‰When internet connections become more complex,
routers need to know about the topology beyond
the network to which they connect Net 1 R1 Net 2 R2 Net 3

R1 must transfer from Network 1
to Network 2 all packets destined
for Network 2 or network 3

Important Point
Routers use the destination network, not the destination host, when
routing a packet

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Network Layer at Source Network Layer at Routers
‰Responsible to create packets that carry universal ‰Responsible for routing packets
addresses (source and destination) ‰Finds out the interface through which the packet
‰Receives data from transport layer must be forwarded
‰Adds universal addresses ‰May further resort to fragmentation
‰Ensures it is of correct size for passage through
next link (fragments it if required)
‰May add field for error control
‰Delivers packet to the Data link layer

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Network Layer at Destination The user’s view The physical structure of Networks
and Routers
‰Receives packet from data link layer
‰Responsible for address verification
‰Checks if the packet has been corrupted during
‰If packet has been fragmented, then waits for all
the fragments and re-assembles them
‰Delivers the packet to the transport layer

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