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Session14 CableSupportSystems

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld
AnewIECStandard,IEC615372001hasbeendeveloped Iffulldetailsofthecablinglayoutareavailablethenthelikelycableloadcanbecalculatedusingeither manufacturer'spublishedinformationorthetablesofCableWeightsandDiameterswhicharegivenbelow. Howeveritisoftennecessarytoselectatrayorladderdesignintheabsenceofaccurateinformationonthe likelycableload.Toassistthisselectionprocessausefulapproachcanbetochoosealikelysizeoftrayor ladderandthentoestimatethemaximumcableweight whichiscapableofbeingcontainedwithinit.Thisestimatemaybearrivedatusingthefollowingguide: Max.cablingcapacity(kg/m)=Cablelayingarea(m2)x2800

TypicalIECWiringSpecification
Multicorecablesonracksortraysmaybebunchedinamaximumoftwolayers. HVandLVsinglecorecablesshallbelaidintrefoilgroupswith150mmclearspacing betweentrefoils. OntraysorracksHVcablesshallbesegregatedfromtheLVcables. Individualcablesemergingfromfloorsorsoilshallbeprotectedagainstmechanicaldamagebymeansofgalvanized steelpipesorrigidPVCpipes.SinglecorecablesemergingfromfloorsorsoilshallbeprotectedbyrigidPVCpipes. Thesepipesshallextendatleast100mmabovegroundorfloorlevel. Groupedcablesemergingfromfloorsorsoilshallbeprotectedcollectivelybyaproperlydesignedmetalshieldor ductinsuchawaythatheatdissipationofthesustainedloadcarryingcablesisnothampered.Thepropagationof firefromonespacetotheothershallbepreventedbypropersealingofopeningsaroundcables. Cablesorcablesupportsshallnotbefixeddirectlyorindirectlytoplant,equipmentorprocesspipingwhichmay requireremovalorreplacement.Cablesshallbelaidonracksortraysstrictlyinaccordancewiththelayingpatterns statedonthelayoutdrawings.Metalpartsofthecableracksandtraysshallbebondedandconnectedtothe commonearthinggrid. Allcablingsupportmaterials,i.e.ladders,traysandrelevantfixingmaterials,usedthroughouttheplantshallbe hotdipgalvanizedunlesstheenvironmentisconsideredtobeparticularlysaliferousorsulphurous,suchasto justifytheuseofmaterialsofferingahigherdegreeofcorrosionresistance.Inthelattercasespecificplantsorareas shallutilizestainlesssteel(grade304).Stainlesssteel(grade316)shallbeusedoffshore.

TypicalIECWiringSpecification
Bendsandcornersinthecableracks racks,traysorladdersshalltakeaccountoftheminimumcable bendingradii.Cableracksandtraysshallbeclosedbyremovabletopcovers,allowingadequate ventilation,insituationswhere: mechanicaldamageofthecablesislikelytooccurduringplantmaintenanceactivities, oilorchemicalspillagesonthetrayscanbeexpected, sunshieldingisrequiredagainstdirectsolarradiation. Verticalcablerackrisersshallnotbeinstalledinfrontof,orover,piperisers. Flexiblecabling Theapplicationofflexiblecablesinindustrialplantsandinstallationsshallbelimitedto: weldingcables; trailingcables,e.g.formovableequipment,handtools,handlamps; winches, h hoists, h sootbl blowers,and delectric l motors,if fconnected dby b meansof fanearby b intermediate d junctionbox. Anearthcontinuityconductor,equalincrosssectionalareatothelargestphaseconductor,shallbe provided.Thisrequirementappliesevenwhenthecableisarmored. Wiresinconduit Wiresinconduitsystemsshallbeappliedonlyforlighting,communicationandconvenienceoutlets inclosedbuildingsinnonhazardousareas.ConduitinstallationsshallbemadeusingrigidPVC conduitandnonmetallicconduitboxes. boxes Conduitboxcoversshallremainaccessible. accessible Wherelocal regulationspermit,unarmoredroundinstallationcablecanbeusedincableducts.Teeorstraight throughjointsshallbemadeinconnectionboxes.

TypicalIECWiringSpecification
Cablemarking/numbering Cablenumbersshallbemarkedonthecablesalongtheirroutesandatboth terminationpoints.Forundergroundcabling,thespacingbetweencablenumbers alongtherouteshouldnotexceed5m,andforabovegroundcabling,25m.Cables shallalsobenumberedwheretheybranchofffromamainroute. Forundergroundcablemarkingpurposesnoncorrodingstripsshallbeused,each havingamplelengthtobewrappedtwicearoundthecableandinwhichthecable numberhasbeenimprintedbymeansofletter/cipherpunches.Foraboveground cabling,plasticmarkersresistanttothesiteconditionsshallbestrappedroundthe cables. Forundergroundcabling,abovegroundroutemarkersshallalsobeprovidedatevery changeofdirectionintheroutingandatbothsidesofroadorpipelinecrossings, exceptwhencableroutingisalreadyindicatedbycoloredconcretepavement.

CableTrayWiring
MoreuseofprotectionbylocationthanistypicalinUSinstallations.Theuseofbasket trayistypicalforlightweightlastmetercablerunsinonshoreapplications.Theuseof ventilatedcabletrayiscommonforheavierweightcablesandoffersmoreprotectionin offshoreapplications. Cableladderistypicallyusedinfeederapplicationsforlongerrunsofmultiplecablesorof higherampacityandweight.

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld
TypicalCableWeightInformation

PVCUnarmoredStranded CopperPowerCablestoBS6346 Nom. Areaof Conductor,mm2 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 2core kg/m 0.7 0.9 12 1.2 1.7 2.3 2.8 3.5 4.2 5.5 70 7.0 8.5 D mm 18.4 20.0 22 2 22.2 24.6 28.2 30.9 34.1 37.8 43.2 47 2 47.2 53.2 kg/m 1.0 1.3 17 1.7 2.4 3.3 4.0 4.9 6.1 8.0 97 9.7 12.6 3core D 20.4 22.4 25 4 25.4 28.4 33.1 36.0 39.7 44.1 49.6 55 0 55.0 61.4 kg/m 1.3 1.7 23 2.3 3.1 4.3 5.3 6.5 8.0 10.6 13 2 13.2 16.7 4core D mm 22.7 25.0 28 6 28.6 32.2 37.2 40.6 45.0 49.8 56.2 62 5 62.5 69.6

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld
SupportofcabletrayandladderistypicallydoneinthesamefashionasUSinstallationsbut generallyhasfewerrestrictionsastoloadingdesign.Calculationsforloadingofcableintotrayis baseduponmanufacturerscabledatacomparedtoloadingdatafortraymanufacturer.

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld

Itisnotuncommontouseeitherthecable trayorladdertobeusedasameansto directlymountlightingfixturestothe supportstructure.Specialbracketryis designedforvariousbrandsofproductsto besupportedinthisfashion.Examplesof th types these t of finstallations i t ll ti areshown h here. Stretchpreventorsaretypicallyusedto relievestrainonthecableastheenterlight g fittings.

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld Typical

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld Typical

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld Typical

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld Typical

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld Typical

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld Typical

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld Typical

CableSupportSystemsinthe IECWorld Typical

SupportSystemsInstallation Examples p

SupportSystemsInstallation Examples p

SupportSystemsInstallation Examples

SupportSystemsInstallation Examples

CableCleatsTrefoilsforSingle CoreCables
Powercablesundershortcircuitconditions(especiallythree phase,singleconductorcablearrangements)aresubjectto significantforcesasaresultofinducedmagneticfields.For three h phase, h single l conductor d cables, bl these h forces f causeviolent l thrashingoftheindividualconductors,frequentlyresultingin inadequatelysupportedcablesjumpingoutoftheircabletray orracewaysystems.Suchunrestrainedcablemovementcan causecabledamage, g ,damage g tosurrounding gequipment q p and possibleinjury.

AEuropeanStandardnowexists EN50368:2003,Cable CleatsforElectricalInstallations.ThisStandardwas approvedbyCENELEC(theEuropeanCommitteefor El t t h i lSt Electrotechnical Standardization) d di ti )in i S September t b 2003and d publishedinOctober2003.EN50368:2003hasthestatus ofanapprovedBritishStandard.

CableCleatsTrefoilsforSingle CoreCables
Goodengineeringpracticefortheuseofsinglecorecableswithouttheuseof conduitsystemsistousecablecleatstominimizedowntimeandpotential dramaticdestructionofthecablesystemsandsurroundingenvironment

TypicalInstallationofsinglecorecable