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Answer all.questions. A group of students carried out an experiment to study the effect of the concentration of albumen suspension on the rate of reaction ofpepsin enzyme. Diagram 1.I- shows the method used by the students. The time taken for the change in the cloudiness of the albumen suspension is shown in Diagram 1.2. The whole experiment in Diagram 1.1 was repeated using different concentrations of albumen suspension. .Table 1.L shows the results of the experiment.



10 ml albumen suspension + 1 ml enzyme pepsin 17o

WaterbathST "C

Observation at the beginning of experiment Diagrarn 1.1

Observation at the end of experiment

Diagram 1.2


Percentage concentration of albumen suspension

Beginningof experiment End of experirnent

fime taken / minutes


10ml albumen suspension + 1 ml pepsin 17o


10ml albumen suspension + 1 ml pepsin 17o


20Vo 10 ml albumen suspension + 1 ml pepsin 17o

@ w
[3 marks]

Table 1.1 (a) (i) Based on Table 1'1, state two observations on the relationship behreen the quantity of albumen and time.



(ii) grrt" the inference which corresponds to the observation in (axi). 1"


[3 marks] (b) Using the information provided in Table 1.1, completeTable r.2byrecording the time taken - -'- vJ !vv! ' forthealbumensuspensiontoturnclear.
Percentage concentration of albumen suspension LOVo ISVo 2OVo Table 1.2 [3 marksl (c) (i) Complete Table 1.8 based on this experiment. Method of handle the variable Manipulated variable

fime taken / minutes


Table 1.3 t3 marksl r 67


(iii) Explain the relationship between the rate of reaction of pepsin and the concentration of albumen suspensionbased on the graph in l(e)(ii). :

[3 marks] (fl .Basedon this experiment, what can you deduce about this enzyme?

lB marks) (g) The experiment is repeated using the apparatus set {p as in Diagram 1,8. The quantities of albumen suspension and pepsin urrry*" used are as shown. The experiment is left for one'hour.



20 ml albumen suspension 20% .+ 1 ml boiled enzyme Waterbath 3Z "C

Diagram 1.8 P, Q, R and S are four possible observations after one hour. choose one correct observati-_and explainyour choice.

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R 173




A housewife made fruit pickles using unripe mango. During the preparation, she placed the mango slices in water and later placed them in sugar solution. When the mango slices were in the water,'ii was found that, the slices, became turgid and their sizes increased. But when they were placed in the sugar solution, the slices becJ-e sdft and shrunken. Based on the above situation, plan a laboratory experiment to determine the concentration of sucrose which is isotonic to the cell sap of the mango. . The planning ofyour experiment must include the following aspects: o Problem statement o Aim of investigation o Hypothesis ? Variables o List of apparatus and materials o Tbchnique used o Experiment procedure or method o PreBentation of data o conclusion

'\--, rnarksr IL7



Paper 3 1 (a) (r) 1. The higher the percentage coneentration of albumen suspension, the more time

(it is needed to change into colourless Rate of pepsin suspension. 2. The lower'the percentage Concentratign' reaction of albumen suspension, the less time is needed to change into colourless suspension. 1.6 of enzymatic reaction (ii) 1. The rate increases with the increase in substrate concentration. 1.5 2. The rate of enzymatic reaction decreases substance decrease in the with concentration. L.4 (b) LO%-7 minutes 15%- 10 minutes 1.3 2lo/o- 13 minutes (c) (r)
Variables Manipulated variable Use differeit concentration of Concentration of albumen suspension' albumen suspension. Responding variable Time taken for the digestion of albumen. Controlled variable Enzyme concentration temperature and Ptl *"dt"*"f 1% pepsin, 1 ml of Pepsin, 37'C waterbath, volume of albumen suspension= 10 ml Albumen suspension becomes colourless. Concentration of albumen suspension Method to handle the variable



(ii;) The rate of pepsin reaction increases with the percentage of the concentration ofalbumen suspension and it reaches a maximum value' (0 This enzyme, which is pepsin acts on albumen suspension to change it into clear solution' The rate of enzyme reaction increases with the substrate concentration. (g) R. The 1 ml of enzyme used is boiled enzyme,hence it is denatured/destroyed and cannot act on the . substrate.

Variables Manipulated Responding Controlled
(d) (e)

Problem statement: How is the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap ofplant tissues determined? Apparatus Syringe Stopwatch T?rermometer Material Albumen suspension Pepsin Waterbath Aim of investigation: To determine the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of plants. Hypothesis: When plant cells are immersed in isotonic solution, there is no nett gain in mass and size. Manipulated variable: Concentration of sucrose solution. Responding variable: Mass of strips of mangoes..

The rate of enzymatic reaction increases with the iricrease in substances concenttation (r)
t0o/o 15o/o

Percentage concentration of albumen fime/min Rate of enzyme reaction as percentage of albumel converted Perrnin

20% 13 20 13 = 1.54

. Controlled variable: Surrounding temperature and time. Materials: Mango slices, distilled water, 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0'4M, 0.5M and 0.6M sucrosesolution. Apparatus: Razor blade or shaip scalpel, petri-fishes, forceps, a ruler, 50 ml beaker, an electronic scale, tissue paper'


10 15 10
= 1.50


= 1 .4 3


Technique used: Immersed the mango slices in solutions of different concentration. Proeedure: 1. Seven petri dishes are prepared and labelledA, B, C, D, E, F and G. 2. Each beaker is filled with the following solutions respectively: Petri dishA: Distilled water Petri dish B: 0.1M sucrosesolution Petri dish C:0.2M sucrosesolution Petri dish D: 0.3M sucrose solution Presentation ofdata: Mass of mango slice Solution 3.

4. 5.


Petri dish E: 0.4M sucrosesolution Petri dish F: 0.5M sucrosesolution . Petri dish G: 0.6M sucrosesolution Each mango slice is wiped dry with some tissue papers. The mass of each slice is measured and recorded. The mango slices must be covered in the solution. Afber soaking for an hour, each slice is removed from its respective petri dish and wiped dry. The mass of each slice is measured again and recorded. The results are recordedin a table.

Petri dish


Different in Final mass length

% different inlength

Initial mass

Texture appearanoe

Distilled water 0.1 m sucrosesolution 0.2 m sucrosesolution 0.3 m sucrosesolution 0.4 m sucrosesolution 0.5 m sucrosesolution 0.6 m sucrosesolution


Firm Firm Firm Firm Soft

F G Paper 2 SectionA 1' (a) (')


A graph of the percentage difference in mass against the concentration of sucrose solution is drawn. Difference in mass (%)

Skin Tbansporting oxygen Regulating body temperature Eliminating urea


Concentration of sucrose solution

Converting excessglucoseto glycogen As a protective layer (b) X: Becauseskinconsists ofvarious types oftissues such as connective tissue; muscle tissue; combjned ' together to perform specific functions. Erector muscle: Because erector muscle consists of specialised long cells called muscle fibres .

Conclusion: Based on the graph above, the concentration ofthe cell sap of mango slice is yM.

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