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1.Ecology: Study of the interactions among living things and non living things in the environment.

Population: All the members of a species living in a given area/location.

Community: All the interacting populations in a given area.

Ecosystem: The living and non living organisms interact or function together.

Biosphere: Where all life exists on Earth.

2.Abiotic factors: The non living parts of the environment.

Biotic factors: The living or once living organisms in an environment.

Abiotic factors are non living things like temperature, humidity, wind, and light intensity.
These things impact the biotic factors. Things can only live in a certain environment if they are adapted
to the certain abiotic factors.

3.Carrying capacity: The maximum number of organisms an area can support.

Niche: The role or responsibility an organism must fulfill.

Habitat: Home

Population growth: The change in population size over time.

4.Autotrophs make their own food. An example of an autotroph is a plant. A heterotroph depends on
others for food. An example of a heterotroph are humans.

5.Decomposers: They break down dead organisms. Example: Fungi, bacteria.

Herbivores: They are plant eaters. Example: Cow.

Carnivores: They are meat eaters. Example: Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Omnivores: They eat both meat and plants. Example: Humans.

Predator: They are the animals that hunt. Example: Lions.

Scavenger: They eat dead organisms. Example: Hyenas, vultures.

6.Parasitism: One organism benefits, the other is harmed. Example: Tapeworm and humans.

Mutualism: Both organisms benefit. Example: Bee and flower.

Commensalism: One organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. Example: Clown
fish and sea anemone.

7.Food chain: Shows the transfer of energy, through a series of organisms, from producers to primary
consumers to secondary consumers to decomposers.
Example: Grass→grasshopper→birds→hawk
Food web: A series of interconnecting/interrelated food chains.

8.Producer: They make their own food. Example: Plants.

Primary consumer: An organism that gets its energy from producers. Example: Cow.

Secondary consumer: A consumer that gets its energy from other consumers. These are often called
carnivores. Example: Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Decomposer: They break down dead organisms. Example: Bacteria, fungi.


10.Biomass: Plant materials and animal waste used as fuel.

Succession: Gradual changes in an Ecosystem over time, where one species replaces another.

Pioneer Organism: First organisms to move into the new world.

Climax community: Most stable community.


12.Primary succession is when living things move into a NEW land and secondary succession is when
living things recolonize an area after a major disturbance.

13.During photosynthesis, plants produce oxygen, which we breathe in.

14.The Sun's heat provides energy to evaporate water from the Earth's surface. Plants also lose water to
the air, which is called transpiration. The water vapor eventually condenses, forming tiny droplets in
clouds. When the clouds meet cool air over land, precipitation is triggered, and water returns to the land
or sea. Some of the precipitation soaks into the ground. Some of the underground water is trapped
between rock or clay layers; this is called groundwater. But most of the water flows downhill as runoff ,
eventually returning to the seas as slightly salty water.

15.Biodiversity: Many living things. Refers to the differences in living things.
16.If one species dies out, you still have more species to survive on.
17.Monoculture: Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over
a wide area. ; ; This decreases the biodiversity because there is only one species, not many.



20.The Greenhouse Effect is caused by burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil, which adds carbon
dioxide to the atmosphere. The negative consequences of the green house effect are raised temperature
on the planet, destroying homes of organisms, melting ice causing the leftover water to rise above sea
level, and causing hurricanes and cyclones.

21.Acid rain is caused by burning coal which releases nitrogen dioxides and sulfur dioxides into the air.
The chemicals mix with the rain and falls back to the Earth. Acid rain kills marine life, terrestrial plants
and it destroys buildings and statues.

22.Ozone depletion is caused from cleaning products, refrigeration, AC, foam products and aerosols,
deplete the ozone layer which blocks ultra violet radiation. The effects of this are increased skin
cancers and cataracts.

23.We build buildings and roads when the areas we build those things in could be used to plant other
things, such as trees.






29.Stop polluting by using electric cars instead of gasoline powered.
Stop releasing a bunch of chemicals in the air through factories.
Foreign species are eliminated.
Species are bred and released.