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Seismic Attributes

Karenth, Takashi, Danielle, Mike, Scott

www.seismicatlas.org

What are seismic attributes?

A measurable property of seismic data, such as amplitude, dip, frequency, phase

and polarity. Attributes can be measured

at one instant in time or over a time

window, and may be measured on a

single trace, on a set of traces or on a

surface interpreted from seismic data.

Schlumberger Oilfield Glossery

Why are they important?

The increasing reliance on seismic data requires that we gain the most

information possible from the seismic

reflection data Seismic attributes empower interpreters

to obtain more information from seismic

data

Seismic geomorphology uses seismic attributes to extract geomorphologic insight using 3-D datasets

Application of seismic attributes

Check seismic data quality-identifying artifacts

Performing seismic facies mapping to predict depositional environments

Hydrocarbon play evaluation Prospect identification and risk analysis Reservoir characterization

Categorization of attributes

There are hundreds of seismic attributes

Taner et al. (1994) divide attributes into two general categories: geometrical and physical

o The objective of geometrical attributes is to enhance the visibility of the geometrical characteristics of seismic data; they include dip,

azimuth, and continuity.

o Physical attributes have to do with the physical parameters of the subsurface and so relate to

lithology. These include amplitude, phase, and

frequency.

Workflow

Starts with the interpreter

Look for FLT (funny looking things)

-typically a local amplitude bright spot, dim spot, or

something that looks geological

Once FLT is identified it becomes the focus by applying one or several seismic attributes

Workflow • Starts with the interpreter • Look for FLT (funny looking things) -typically a local

The point is to look for geological or geomorphological patterns in plan and section

view. E.g. fluvial, deep water channels, slumps slides, carbonate reefs, shelf ridges, ect. Develop one or more geologic hypotheses

www.seismicatlas.org

Examples of seismic attributes

www.seismicatlas.org

Amplitude Discontinuity Curvature Frequency

Horizon based amplitude

Tuning effects

Tuning effects Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds
Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds
Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Rayleigh Criterion

λ/4

Amplitude analysis allows us to operate outside the constraint of Rayleigh’s

Criterion, allowing resolution in great detail of structures that would normally be considered on the margin of seismic resolution. 2

Channel or deltaic sands

Channel or deltaic sands
Channel or deltaic sands

Direct hydrocarbon indicators

Direct hydrocarbon indicators Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Gas and fluid accumulation

Gas and fluid accumulation Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Mass transport complexes

Mass transport complexes Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Sills

Sills Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Certain types of reefs

Certain types of reefs Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Complex deformation

Complex deformation Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Virtual Seismic Atlas, Leeds

Discontinuity Attributes and Fault Imaging

Discontinuity Attributes and Fault Imaging The most obvious characteristic of geologic faults is lateral discontinuity of

The most obvious characteristic

of geologic faults is lateral

discontinuity of the geologic strata. The equivalent seismic

representation is the

discontinuity of siesmic reflectors.*

Discontinuity Attributes What are they?

Variance – Uses statistical variance (squared differences) of “adjacent”

seismic amplitudes. Coherency Dot product cross-correlation of “adjacent” wave packets.

Semblance Computes the squared sum of vectors along the trace and off the trace. The maximum sum direction has most semblance.

Similarity Checks a standard pattern of points around a central point for the most similar seismic amplitude and progresses to the most similar point as the next central point.

Similarity Patterns:

Steered Similarity:

2 Point 44 Point Point 8888 Point Point 4 Point 8 Point Point Point
2
Point
44 Point
Point
8888 Point
Point
4 Point
8 Point
Point
Point
2 Point 4 Point 8 Point
2 Point
4 Point
8 Point

Minimum vs. Maximum Similarity

Minimum vs. Maximum Similarity Better Fault Continuity Better Fault Detail

Better Fault Continuity

Better Fault Detail

Small Fault Flexure with Local vs. Regional Dip-Steering

Regional Dip-Steering

If the sub-regional dip (right) is used,

discontinuity attributes

will succeed at locating

flexures associated with small faults.

Local Dip Regional Dip
Local Dip
Regional Dip
Small Fault Flexure with Local vs. Regional Dip-Steering Regional Dip-Steering If the sub-regional dip (right) is

Regional Dip: Better Fault Continuity

Local Dip: Some Faults Not Imaged

Directional Decomposition of the Similarity

Attribute

Better Fault Continuity
Better Fault Continuity

Seismic Geomorphology Turbidite Fan Terminations (Thrust Faults)*

Seismic Geomorphology – Turbidite Fan Terminations (Thrust Faults)* A - Time varying section through trubidite deposits

A - Time varying section through trubidite deposits where decollement

surfsurface and thrust faults.

B A verticle section through the turbidite deposits showing thrust fault and duplex fault terminations.

Faults and Automated Horizon Tracking

Combines Discontinuity Attributes and Seismic Amplitudes

Faults and Automated Horizon Tracking Combines Discontinuity Attributes and Seismic Amplitudes Seismic amplitudes used to define

Seismic amplitudes used to define the brown horizon.

No explicit fault

picks were used, only discontinuity attributes to define fault blocks.

A High Quality Discontinuity Volume

Better Fault Continuity
Better Fault Continuity

A Fault continuity even in the presence of roll- over and interfingering reflectors.

B A discontinuity not associated with a fault is suppressed.

C Local apparent continuity does not disrupt the fault trace.

Uses of Discontinuity Attributes

Automated fault delineation Assistance in manual fault picking Delineation of directional fault sets Seismic geomorphology (turbidite fan terminations (thrust faults)

Auto tracking of seismic horizons in time slices without fault picks

Curvature
Curvature

Roberts et al. 2001; Seismicatlas.org

Dip, Azimuth, and Curvature

Dip, Azimuth, and Curvature Roberts et al. 2001
Dip, Azimuth, and Curvature Roberts et al. 2001

Roberts et al. 2001

Positive and Negative Curvature

Positive and Negative Curvature Roberts et al. 2001; Chopra et al. 2010
Positive and Negative Curvature Roberts et al. 2001; Chopra et al. 2010

Roberts et al. 2001; Chopra et al. 2010

Roberts et al. 2001
Roberts et al. 2001

Roberts et al. 2001

Curvature Attributes: Dip Angle

Curvature Attributes: Dip Angle Roberts et al. 2001
Curvature Attributes: Dip Angle Roberts et al. 2001

Roberts et al. 2001

Fault Detection through Dip Magnitude

Fault Detection through Dip Magnitude Schuelke 2011

Schuelke 2011

Curvature Attributes: Azimuth

Curvature Attributes: Azimuth Roberts et al. 2001

Roberts et al. 2001

Curvature Attributes: Maximum Curvature

Curvature Attributes: Maximum Curvature Roberts et al. 2001
Curvature Attributes: Maximum Curvature Roberts et al. 2001

Roberts et al. 2001

Curvature Attributes: Most-Negative

and Most-Positive Curvature

Curvature Attributes: Most-Negative and Most-Positive Curvature Roberts et al. 2001

Roberts et al. 2001

Curvature Attributes: Most-Negative Curvature

Curvature Attributes: Most-Negative Curvature Schuelke 2011

Schuelke 2011

Fault Detection through Curvature

Fault Detection through Curvature Treagold 2011

Treagold 2011

Fault Detection: Velocity Variations with Azimuth

Fault Detection: Velocity Variations with Azimuth Treagold 2011

Treagold 2011

Fault/Fracture Impact on Horizontal Drilling

Fault/Fracture Impact on Horizontal Drilling Treagold 2011

Treagold 2011

Coherency vs. Curvature

Coherency vs. Curvature Chopra et al. 2007

Chopra et al. 2007

Neural Network and Application

One of the methods to combine multiple input attributes in order to

extract / isolate a target geological feature / property

Brouwer et al

What is the problem with single attribute?

(1) Discontinuity attribute highlights any lateral features, including incised

sedimentary features, faulting, gas chimneys, noises and so on

(2) Attributes may not capture some of the target features (e.g. discontinuity attributes

will not highlight small faults)

Discontinuity Attribute Curvature Attribute
Discontinuity Attribute
Curvature Attribute

Brouwer et al

Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

Try to copy the cognitive capabilities of the human brain into computer

This system/method can be trained to mimic human interpretation Training data for gas chimney = Weight
This system/method can be trained to mimic human interpretation
Training data for
gas chimney
= Weight
Training data for
Nonchimney
Brouwer et al
Geo. Feature
Attributes
(e.g. Chimney
or nonchimney?)
Hou et al, 2008
Brouwer et al

Chimney Extraction by ANN

Chimney Extraction by ANN Brouwer et al

Brouwer et al

ANN with AVO + Frequency Attribute

Zeynal et al., 2012

AVO Attribute Analysis

Zeynal et al., 2012

Frequency Attribute Analysis

Frequency Attribute Analysis AQF attribute anomalies for 900’ Sand, Grand Bay Field Zeynal et al., 2012
Frequency Attribute Analysis AQF attribute anomalies for 900’ Sand, Grand Bay Field Zeynal et al., 2012

AQF attribute anomalies for 900’ Sand, Grand Bay Field

Zeynal et al., 2012

Neural Network Property Prediction

Neural Network Property Prediction The Neural Network were trained based on well control data, AVO and
Neural Network Property Prediction The Neural Network were trained based on well control data, AVO and

The Neural Network were trained based on well control data, AVO and absorption related attributes

GAS SAND MAP
GAS SAND MAP

Zeynal et al., 2012

Conclusion

Conclusion Posamentier et al, 2007
Conclusion Posamentier et al, 2007
Conclusion Posamentier et al, 2007
Conclusion Posamentier et al, 2007

Posamentier et al, 2007

References

Brouwer, F. C. G., Tingahl, K., and Connolly, D., A Guide to the Practical Use of Neural Networks, dDB Earth Sciences

Brouwer and Huck, An Integrated Workflow to Optimize Discontinuity Attributes from Imaging of Faults, 31 st

Annual GCSSEPM Foundation Bob F. Perkins Research Conference, December 4-7, 2011, Houston, Texas Cartwright, J. and Huuse, M., 3D seismic technology: the geological ‘Hubble’, Basin Research (2005).

Chopra, S. and K.J. Marfurt, 2007, Seismic Attributes for Fault/Fracture Characterization, 2007 CSPG CSEG

Convention. Chopra, S. and K.J. Marfurt, 2010. Integration of coherence and curvature images: The Leading Edge, v. 29, p.

1092-1107

Hou, J., Takahashi, T., Katoh, A., Jaroonsitha, S., Chumsena, K. P., and Nakayama, K., 2008, Application of seismic attributes and neural network for sand probability prediction A case study in the North Malay Basin, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia 54, p.115 121

Posamentier, Integrated Seismic Stratigraphy and Geomorphology; Workflows and Techniques, 2010 GCSSEPM

Foundation Conference Proceedings Roberts, A., 2001, Curvature attributes and their application to 3D interpreted horizons: First Break, 19, 8599.

Schuelke, J., 2011, Overview of Seismic Attribute Analysis in Shale Plays, Attributes: New Views on Seismic Imaging -- Their Use in Exploration and Production: 31st Annual GCSSEPM Foundation Bob F. Perkins Research Conference, February 2012, v. 1, p. 806-827

Treagold, G., et al., 2011, Eagle Ford Exploration and Development The Application of Regional Geology and Geophysical Technologies, Attributes: New Views on Seismic Imaging -- Their Use in Exploration and Production:

31st Annual GCSSEPM Foundation Bob F. Perkins Research Conference, February 2012, v. 1, p. 806-827

Zeynal, A. R., Aminzadeh, F., Cliffod, A., 2012, Combining Absorption and AVO Seismic Attributes Using Neural Networks to High-Grade Gas Prospects, SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, USA