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Lecture #11

**Equilibrium of a Rigid Body
**

(5.3 – 5.4)

Objectives

Today’s Objectives: Students will be able to a) Apply equations of equilibrium to solve for unknowns, and, b) Recognize two-force members.

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**In Class Activities
**

In-Class Activities: • Equations of equilibrium • Two and Three-force members

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5.3 Equations of Equilibrium

y F3 A body is subjected to a system of forces that lie in the x-y plane. When in F4 equilibrium, the net force and net moment F1 acting on the body are zero. This 2-D condition can be represented by the three x O scalar equations: ∑ Fx = 0 F2 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ MO = 0 Where point O is any arbitrary point. Please note that these equations are the ones most commonly used for solving 2-D equilibrium problems. There are two other sets of equilibrium equations that are rarely used. For your reference, they are described in the textbook.

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5.3 Equations of Equilibrium

Steps for Solving 2-D Equilibrium Problems

Free-Body Diagram If not given, establish the x, y coordinates axes in any suitable orientation Draw an outlined shape of the body Show all the forces and couple moments acting on the body Label all the loadings and specify their directions relative to the x, y axes The sense of a force or couple moment having an unknown magnitude but known line of action can be assumed Indicate the dimensions of the body necessary for computing the moments of forces

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5.3 Equations of Equilibrium

Steps for Solving 2-D Equilibrium Problems

Equations of Equilibrium Apply the moment equation of equilibrium ∑MO = 0 about a point O that lies on the intersection of the lines of action of the two unknown forces The moments of these unknowns are zero about O and a direct solution of the third unknown can be obtained When applying the force equilibrium ∑Fx = 0 and ∑Fy = 0, orient the x and y axes along the lines that will provide the simplest resolution of the forces into their x and y components If the solution yields a negative result scalar, the sense is opposite to that was assumed on the FBD

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Example 1

Given: The link is pin-connected at A and rests against a smooth support at B. Find: Horizontal and vertical components of reactions at pin A.

Plan: 1. Put the x and y axes in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. 2. Draw a complete FBD of the boom. 3. Apply the EofE to solve for the unknowns.

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Example 1 - Solution

FBD

• Reaction NB is perpendicular to the link at B • Horizontal and vertical components of reaction are represented at A

EofE

**∑ M A = 0; − 90 N .m − 60 N (1m) + N B (0.75m) = 0 N B = 200 N +→∑ = + → ∑ Fx = 0; Ax − 200 sin 30 N = 0 Ax = 100 N
**

+ ↑ ∑ Fy = 0; Ay − 60 N − 200 cos 30 N = 0 Ay = 233N

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**5.4 Two- and Three-Force Members
**

Simplify some equilibrium problems by recognizing members that are subjected to only 2 or 3 forces

**Two-Force Members
**

When a member is subject to no couple moments and forces are applied at only two points on a member, the member is called a two-force member

If we apply the equations of equilibrium to such a member, we can quickly determine that the resultant forces at A and B must be equal in magnitude and act in the opposite directions along the line joining points A and B.

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Example of Two-Force Members

If we neglect the weight, the members can be treated as two-force members. This fact simplifies the equilibrium analysis of some rigid bodies since the directions of the resultant forces at A and B are thus known (along the line joining points A and B).

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**5.4 Two- and Three-Force Members
**

Three-Force Members

If a member is subjected to only three forces, it is necessary that the forces be either concurrent or parallel for the member to be in equilibrium

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Example 2

Given: Weight of the boom = 125 N, the center of mass is at G, and the load = 600 N. Find: Support reactions at A and B. Plan:

1. Put the x and y axes in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. 2. Determine if there are any two-force members. 3. Draw a complete FBD of the boom. 4. Apply the EofE to solve for the unknowns.

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Example 2 - Solution

AY AX

1m

40°

**FBD of the boom:
**

3m 5m

A

1m

B

G

125 N 600 N

D

FB

Note: Upon recognizing CB as a two-force member, the number of unknowns at B are reduced from two to one. Now, using Eof E, we get, + ∑MA = 125 ∗ 4 + 600 ∗ 9 – FB sin 40° ∗ 1 – FB cos 40° ∗ 1 = 0 FB = 4188 N

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Solution

AY AX

1m

40°

**FBD of the boom:
**

3m 5m

A

1m

B

G

125 N 600 N

D

FB

→ + ∑FX = AX + 4188 cos 40° = 0;

AX = – 3210 N AY = – 1970 N

↑ + ∑FY = AY + 4188 sin 40° – 125 – 600 = 0;

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Homework

5-21, 5-30, 5-53

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Notes based on Engineering Mechanics: Statics
by R. C. Hibbeler by Dr. Meftah Hrairi.

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by R. C. Hibbeler by Dr. Meftah Hrairi.

by R. C. Hibbeler by Dr. Meftah Hrairi.

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