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# Problem Set1

1. Draw a block diagram for a communications system and write synopsis for each one. 2. List all network topologies and define advantages and disadvantages for each one. 3. Name the network layer that performs the following functions: a) Has a local address that was built in by the LAN adapter card manufacturer. b) Puts out and receives signals through an external port (connector). c) Provides standard services to various computer programs. d) It uses a hierarchical address assigned by the local network manager. e) Responsible for end-to-end connections across a multi-node switched network or router network. 4. Assume that a computer sends a frame at the transport layer to another computer and the destination port address is not running. According to what you read from chapter 2, what will happen to that process? 5. What is the difference between Flow control in Transport and Data link layer? 6. Why do we need the error control in transport and data link layer? 7. Determine the possible bit rate and the number of levels over a channel for these cases? a) B = 2.4K Hz, noiseless channel with L = 16. b) B= 2.4K Hz, SNR = 20 dB. c) B = 3.0K Hz, SNR = 40 db. 8. A signal goes from routers A, through B and C, and finally arrives at D. The signal loses 2 dB from A to B, again 5 dB from B to C, and loses 3 dB from C to D. What is the total gain or loss from A to D? 9. What is the maximum data rate for a voice-grade line with a bandwidth of 4K Hz and a SNR of 10000 to 1? What is the maximum data rate if the SNR is now enhanced to 50 dB? 10. Calculate the transmission bandwidth for a video signal, the width and height are 200 and 150 pixels respectively with 128 color

Assume the image is uncompressed. A digital signaling system is required to operate at 56. 11. What is the channel capacity for a device channel with a 300 Hz bandwidth and SNR is 3 dB? 13. What is the signal to noise ratio required to achieve this capacity? 14. What is the data transmission rate in bits per second of this system? 16. We want to design a 56kbps modem. the bandwidth of the channel is 4M HZ. What SNR in dB is required to achieve this capacity? 18. What is the Capacity (bits/sec) if the bandwidth is 2. what is the minimum required bandwidth of the channel? 17. 15.400 bps and each symbol has 8 states (levels)? 19. An image is 1024 x 768 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel.4M Byte floppy diskettes that weigh 30 g each. What is the minimum number of signaling levels we need? Assume that a telephone channel has a bandwidth of 3K Hz. Suppose that data are stored on 1. a) How long does it take to transmit it over a 56 kbps modem channel? b) How long does it take to transmit it over a 1-Mbps cable modem? c) How long does it take to transmit it over a 10-Mbps Ethernet? Over 100-Mbps Ethernet? . Given a channel with capacity of 100M bps and a bandwidth of 3M Hz. Suppose that an airline carries 10. Further assume that 25 frames per second are acceptable to the user. Given a channel with an intended capacity of 32M bps. assuming an available bandwidth of 4k Hz? 12. We were hired to study the design of a 100K bps modem.000 kg of these floppies at a speed of 1000 km/h over a distance of 5000 km.patterns and 16 level intensities.000 bps. How many signal levels would we need. If the signal used has 8 levels.

If a binary signal is sent over a 3K Hz channel whose signal-tonoise ratio is 20 dB. b) 60B/66B line encoding. what is the maximum achievable data rate? Problem Set2 Problem # 1 For a voice grade line.20. Data bits per frame = 128. Problem # 4 Derive an expression of the maximum effective data rate over a B bps line for the following: a) Asynchronous communication a. b. Send 1 character at a time. . Parity bit = 1 b) Synchronous communication a.5 d. when using a) Differential Manchester encoding. what is the minimum required bandwidth of the channel? Problem # 3 What is the max required baud of a 2G bps encoding. Stop bit = 1. If the signal used has 8 levels. a digital signal with 16 levels is used. a) What is the Baud rate? b) What is the bit rate? Problem # 2 A digital signaling system is required to operate at 56000 bps. Start bit = 1 c.

Problem # 7 Using HDB3 to encode the following bit string (You may assume that this is the very first sequence of 4 zeros) 11100001 Problem # 8 What are the modulated signals for the sample signal below. what is the data rate of the new digital signal? Problem # 6 Encode the following bit stream. d) Differential Manchester. Problem # 5 An analog signal is to be converted into digital form. Overhead per frame = 48 bits. (You can choose the carrier frequencies. c) Manchester. but make sure they are distinguishable). RZ. b) Bipolar AMI. If the signal is quantized using 8 bits per sample. 11101000 Using a) NRZ-L. .b. The analog signal represents frequencies in the range 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. Note that the previous signal levels are indicated when appropriate. NRZ-I.

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1 parity bit.3 from the text book. what is the minimum required bandwidth if 30 channels are to be multiplexed. at least 3% of the line . a) What is the Maximum message bandwidth for which the system operates satisfactory? b) Determine the signal to quantized noise ratio when a full load sinusoidal modulating wave of frequency 1 MHz is applied to the input? c) You passed the output digits of PCM system into a Block Coding 8Bit/10Bit. what is the current Data Rate and Bandwidth? d) You passed the output digits of Block Coding into NRZ-I Line Coding What is the Min. Assume that one synchronization character is sent every 19 data character and. 1 start bit. Each terminal sends asynchronous character consisting of 7 data bits. where each channel has a bandwidth of 4kHz? Problem # 12 A Character-interleaved time-division multiplexer is used to combine the data streams of a number of 110-bps asynchronous terminals for data transmission over a 2400 bps digital line. channel Bandwidth required? Hint: return to the figure 5. Problem # 10 What is the data rate of a T1 line? Problem # 11 a) What is the main problem in synchronous time-division multiplexing. in addition. where every channel receives a fixed time slot? b) Using frequency division multiplexing. The bit rate of the system is equal to 256 Kbps.Problem # 9 PCM system uses a uniform quantizer followed by an 8 bit binary encoder. and 2 stop bit.

and then determine the following: a) The output frame rate? b) The output data rate? c) Efficiency of the system? Problem # 16 A synchronous TDM is used to multiplex digital and analog sources. Problem # 13 Assume that we have a collection of 28Kbps DTEs we need to multiplex together on a 56Kbps line. Assume the following sources are to be multiplexed: . B = 30k Hz). each channel has a bandwidth of 30 kHz. What is the maximum number of terminals we can reasonably expect to support using statistical time division multiplexing in this situation? Note. b) Determine the number of terminals that can be accommodated by the multiplexer. b) Maximum number of users for FHSS technique (assume Bss = 25M Hz. c) Maximum number of bits in PN sequence for FHSS? Problem# 15 We need to use synchronous TDM and combine 20 digital sources. and the last 5 with a bit rate of 110 kbps. a) Determine the number of bits per character. Assuming that all of the terminals transmit an average of 23% of the time and the multiplexer compresses data at its inputs to 70% ( not by 70%).capacity is reserved for pulse stuffing to accommodate speed variations from the various terminals. 10 with a bit rate 60 kbps. you should use the rule of thumb of an 80% utilization. Determine a) Maximum number of users for FDM technique. 64 kbps. 5 with a bit rate of 120 kbps. Problem # 14 You are required to design a communication system that has 920-945 MHz bandwidth. Design a synchronous TDM for these sources.

digital inputs and one analog input with a bandwidth of 500 Hz. synchronous.Source 1: Analog. Calculate the output capacity in Kbps. Assume that the analog sample will be encoded into 4-bit PCM words. Problem # 17 Show a block diagram for a TDM PCM that will accommodate four 300-bps. Problem # 18 Find the number of the following devices that could be accommodated by a T1-type TDM line if 1 percent of the line capacity is reserved for synchronization purposes. 4 KHz bandwidth Source 2: Analog: 6 KHz bandwidth Sources 3-10: 1100 bps synchronous Show a block diagram of the TDM system using the given sources with the assumption that Pulse stuffing is used. Assume that the analog input with a bandwidth of 500 Hz. a) 110-pbs printer terminals b) 300 bps computer terminals c) 64-kpbs PCM voice frequency lines Study Hard .