Unit Title: Organisational Behaviour Unit Reference Number: H/502/4794 Guided Learning Hours: 160 Level: Level

5 Number of Credits: 18

Learning Outcome 1
The learner will: Understand the importance of organisational behaviour in successfully managing a dynamic environment.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 1.1 Compare the primary roles, functions and activities of different management levels including their interface with organisational behaviour.

Indicative Content

1.1.1 Identify the primary roles, functions and activities of different management levels. Apply this to top, middle and first line management and consider the skills needed for each. 1.1.2 Discuss the concept of organisational behaviour and its interface with management. Review the various influences on behaviour in organisations and the interface with management in integrating and balancing these. 1.2.1 Define ‘organisation’ and ‘behaviour’. Define an organisation’s goals and characteristics. Define ‘behaviour’ in terms of people, the processes of management, the organisational context, organisational processes and environmental interactions. 1.2.2 Explain the characteristics of organisational culture and identify four main types. Consider the meaning, origins and characteristics of culture. Discuss, with examples, the nature of organisational culture. Explain the four cultural types (Handy) together with rational and excellence models (Peters and Waterman). Explain the link between organisational culture and organisational climate. Specify the characteristics of a healthy/unhealthy climate. Discuss the importance of culture in successful organisations. 1.2.3 Develop an awareness and understanding of the various ways in which behaviour is influenced in organisations. Examine the syllabus approach to Organisational Behaviour including an overview of individual, interpersonal, group and organisational processes and the integrating role of management. Students (either singly or in groups) should consider and report on the psychological contract at work in terms of their expectations of the organisation and the organisation’s expectations and requirements of them.

1.2 Explore the concepts of organisation and behaviour and explain the characteristics of organisational culture.

2.3 Recognise the major difficulties in studying personality.1 Identify the individual’s contribution to the organisation and the factors affecting behaviour.3 Examine the concept of attitudes and the problems of attitude change including solutions like the learning process and its key theories. functions and measurement. Students should look at examples of the factors that affect our perception and apply them to interpersonal perceptions in the work situation. Recognise the main sources in perceptual distortion. the defence mechanisms of Freud.Learning Outcome 2 The learner will: Understand the individual’s contribution to organisational behaviour and performance by recognising the importance of personality. Indicative Content 2.1. 2. e. Underline the need for balance between the potentially conflicting advantages of individuality and the need for co-operation and conformity with organisational objectives. 2.2 Compare and contrast the various approaches to personality. expressive. 2. Explore the dynamics and interaction of these factors and the influence of early social.1.g. These would include: selectivity. the halo effect. motivation and change. Assessment Criteria The learner can: 2. Explore the process of perception and its key principles. 2.4 Examine the various measures of personality. Encourage students to identify the criteria that differentiate personality. educational and family experiences as well as more educational ones and recent work. either singly or in small groups. attitudes and learning. They might classify them using Katz’s knowledge.g. Underline the importance of communication (the importance of verbal and non verbal signals). Cattell. labelling.2 Explain the process of perception and any distortions that may arise. stereotyping. Look at Jung. instrumental and ego-defensive functions. and perceptual defence.1 Identify individual contribution and assess alternative approaches to personality and its measurement. their formation. Look at the inability to observe directly and weaknesses of assessment. Students. should ‘explore’ their own attitudes as distinct from values or beliefs. perception. Consider and contrast the major psychoanalytical and traits approaches to personality and summarise how they apply to organisational behaviour e. Distinguish the meaning of attitudes and their functions for individuals.1.2. Look at internal and external locus of control. Identify the source of individual differences and its significance for management.1 Explain the process and principles of perception and the problems and distortions that may arise. 2. Steers and Eysenck as well as self measurement. Consider the importance of attribution of characteristics and how individuals judge behaviour and intentions. gender/traits/abilities/physique/ motivation/attitudes/development.3.1. 2. cultural.1 Examine the significance of attitudes. Groups should consider the implication of shared .

motivation and hygiene (Herzberg) and other behavioural models (McGregor. Encourage students to represent these processes . Examine the main process theories of motivation and their explanation of the actual process of motivation. equity theory of Adams. Consider the characteristics of the change agent. Apply these learning concepts and recognise the importance of a learning culture. the learning cycle (Kolb) and consider their effectiveness. McClelland.attitudes at work. Identify needs and expectations in intrinsic/extrinsic/social terms. the various content and process theories and their implications for management. and feedback loop.3. 2. behavioural models and process approaches. achievement of desired goals and resulting fulfilment.1. driving force/behaviour. Give particular attention to: expectancy models of Vroom. Alderfer). Appreciate the internal and external factors relevant to the process of learning. Consider the role and effectiveness of attitude surveys.1.3. Schein). 2. Use experience at work/in class to develop a simplified model including needs/expectations. Examine the chain of learning (Gagne). Porter and Lawler. Assessment Criteria The learner can: 3. Indicative Content 3. Examine what early theorists had to say (or did not say) about motivation.2 Explain the principles and problems associated with attitude change and recognise the impact of behavioural issues on attitudes. 2.1. goal theory of Latham and Locke. presentation and implementation factors.3 Compare and contrast content with process theories.3. and job re-design approaches to improve motivation. equity and goal setting approaches. Identify the process involved in attitude change and the key variables that apply. including expectancy.1 Define motivation and examine early developments. operant conditioning and behaviour modification. Compare classical conditioning.1 Compare and contrast need theories. Compare classical and operant conditioning. Recognise that learning might be cross referenced with the communication process. Learning Outcome 3 The learner will: Understand motivation.4 Examine chain and cyclical theories of learning and consider their effectiveness. group influences and perceptions of likely outcomes. Recognise the link between attitudes and learning as well as perception. 3.2 Analyse individual behaviour through ‘need theories’ (Maslow.3 Identify the internal and external factors relevant to the learning process. Classify and critically examine the main content theories and their explanation of what motivates workers. audience characteristics. 3.

Provide examples of effective and ineffective motivation and consider the reasons for the outcome. Recognise overlap with ‘esprit de corps’ and team spirit. Use grids to compare low and high morale and their impacts. measurement. Learning Outcome 4 The learner will: Understand about job satisfaction and its relationship to job performance together with stress.3 Explain the main approaches and recent developments in improving job design. 3. and comment on these. frustration reactions and the necessary management action to overcome them. morale and job satisfaction.1 Discuss the implications for management of different theories (including job design).1 Explain the concept of morale: its nature. Distinguish between the basic methods of job rotation. 3. tele-working. 3. Other valuable tasks would involve specifying the characteristics of a ‘satisfying’ job and the organisational context in which such jobs should be developed e. morale and effectiveness.3. Consider the implications of motivation theory for leadership and managing people effectively. personnel and payment policies.schematically. job enlargement and job enrichment. Examine the characteristics of a committed workforce and . Recognise and explore overlaps with other parts of the syllabus. Assess the effectiveness of job content approaches.3. Indicative Content 4. Relate motivation to different levels of the managerial hierarchy and how the theories might be applied in practice. Develop a model of job enrichment using core job dimensions to produce critical psychological states and desired outcomes. either singly or in groups. 3. Assess the nature/importance of a quality working life and practical ways forward in securing a satisfied and high performing worker. Distinguish between the concepts of motivation.2 Consider recent developments in the re-designing of the working environment.1.2 Examine the problems of motivation and the implications for management of the different theories. Define the term job design and underline its importance to job satisfaction and performance. flexible working arrangements. self managed groups.2. Assessment Criteria The learner can: 4.2.g.1 Examine the concepts of morale and job satisfaction and their relationship to performance. quality circles and empowerment. consequences and the means of achieving it. should widen their perception of job design to employee participation/involvement.2 Analyse the problems of motivation and the links to job satisfaction. 3. 3. Students. multi-skilling.1 Examine the main approaches to improve job design and the principles involved.

2 Explain the sources of and reactions to frustration and alienation at work.2. Recognise the positive and negative consequences of stress and how to cope with it. 4.1 Identify the nature and causes of stress and understand the links with personality.3 Analyse stress. regression. the conflicts that might arise and the means available to realise expectations and improve performance. Learning Outcome 5 The learner will: Understand the nature. in particular alienation and ‘anomie’. Classify the role problems that may arise. 4. Examine organisational and personal goals and potential conflicts between them. Consider the critical indicators that management should monitor in assessing staff morale and commitment. and the potential for role conflict.2 Analyse the concept of job satisfaction and its relationship to performance.the role of management in its creation.g. 4. Use motivation theories to explore this linkage. aggression.3. withdrawal. 4. fixation. appreciate its links to personality and recognise how best to handle stressful situations. classify.2 Develop the role of the manager in handling stressful situations. Identify. 4. the voluntary sector and armed forces. e.3 Recognise the problems of individuals in work roles. skills. Identify problems arising at work.1. 4. Define the meaning and sources of stress and its relationship to personality. Consider the significance of stress arising in the context of organisational change. Consider what would make them feel committed to an organisation and how this would affect their behaviour. Discuss the importance of individual role relationships within the organisation/group and identify the individual’s role set and associated expectations.1. Students should be encouraged to relate their own experience of stress at work and at college to their studies. significance and effectiveness of groups in organisations. 4. Discuss how management can tackle stress at the personal and organisational level. Distinguish constructive and negative frustration reactions when achievement of desired goals is blocked and give examples of displacement.1 Identify sources and reactions to frustration and alienation at work. assess the diverse factors affecting job satisfaction. Consider how resulting role stress may be alleviated. 4. Identify the comfort zone. Consider the impact of new technology and possible alienation.3.3 Review the characteristics of staff morale and employee commitment. Examine the type of situations where stress might arise using the analysis of Cooper and Handy. role incongruence/ overload etc. .3. Examples might be drawn from business.

5.2. at college and socially.3. why they join and how the group influences them. 5. Distinguish between Schein’s task and maintenance functions performed by the group in the building and performance of effective teams. Investigate the nature of ‘team spirit’ in organisations by using the analogy of a sports team.3. Consider the acquisition of norms and their role and purpose. Define the nature and organisational importance of groups and their key characteristics.2 Discuss the nature of team spirit and the characteristics associated with effective and ineffective teams. norming and performing.3 Examine the roles or skills associated with effective teams and explore the nature of team spirit.1 Distinguish formal and informal groups and their effects on behaviour.2 Identify the key characteristics of effective and ineffective workgroups (e. synergy and deviance). norms. Systematically analyse the factors leading to group cohesiveness and performance.2. Consider whether groups produce better decisions and summarise the factors that determine effective groups. Reference should be made to factors such as membership. 5. Recognise the characteristics and contribution of each of the nine roles. Use the Belbin typology to consider the membership of effective teams and the key roles and skills to include.1 Use the work of Belbin to examine the roles/skills essential for effective team performance. . Recognise the stages in group development: forming. Refer back to Mayo and the Hawthorne studies regarding the importance of group norms and values. Identify the general functions that groups perform for both the formal organisation and the individual within the group. storming. Explain the patterns of formal and informal groups within organisations and the reasons for their formation. Indicative Content 5. 5. rules and norms that might apply in these situations and the factors that make for cohesive and high or low performing groups.Assessment Criteria The learner can: 5. Students should be encouraged to consider their own membership of groups both at work. 5. interaction and interdependence as well as a capability for unified action.1.1 Explain the process of group development and its impacts on individual behaviour. Reflect on the groups individuals belong to. group awareness and perceptions. They should report back on their reactions to working in a group. shared values/sense of purpose. conformity.g. Explain each element and consider the process of group development. 5.3 Identify the task and maintenance functions that effective workgroups fulfil.2.2 Identify the key characteristics and functions of effective workgroups and the process of group development. cohesion. 5. Produce a star chart and discuss the factors influencing group behaviour. Summarise the characteristics of effective and ineffective groups. Relate team spirit to the concept of morale considered in Learning Outcome 4.1 Explain the nature of a group and distinguish formal and informal types.

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 7. situational leadership (Hersey and Blanchard). normative leadership model (Vroom). styles and situation. 6.1 Explain the nature and types of conflict between . Utilise the hard and soft Ss in Watson’s organisational framework to assist this distinction. Produce examples of power/authority in action. 6.1. Identify the role of leadership. The situational approach should be thoroughly treated considering: Fiedler’s model of the leadership situation. behavioural. 6. making clear the similarities and differences with management. contingency. 6. 6.1 Explain the nature and Indicative Content 7. Learning Outcome 7 The learner will: Understand the nature of conflict and various approaches to securing conflict resolution.1 Define leadership and compare and contrast the idea of leadership with that of management.1. Establish a framework for analysing leadership and consider the nature.2 Compare and contrast leadership theories based on traits.2.1 Distinguish leadership from management and the exercise of power as distinct from authority.1. 6.2 Examine situational theories including contingency and path-goal models. Assessment Criteria The learner can: 6. Outline the sources of both power and authority in the leader-subordinate relationship and the nature of this relationship.3 Explain the variables driving leadership effectiveness.2 Explain the nature of leadership and the exercise of power and authority.3. Students. style. either singly or in groups should be encouraged to distil the key functions of the leader and provide examples of each from their own work or social experience.2. path-goal theory (House). The continuum of leadership behaviour should be explored in some depth with consideration of the factors determining the given leadership style. functional.1 Compare and contrast leadership theories based on traits and styles. Indicative Content 6. They could report to the rest of the group on their analysis of effective and ineffective leaders of whom they had experience. strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches: traits.Learning Outcome 6 The learner will: Understand leadership theories and examine the key variables that determine the effectiveness of leadership in practice.1 Summarise the variables affecting leadership effectiveness.

over role or lack of communication). drawing on material considered in previous lectures.causes of conflict between individuals. or workers and supervisors (e.g. job design/flexible working/perks. third party mediation/conciliation/arbitration.1 Recognise specific conflict situations and compare and contrast alternative procedural arrangements for reducing or resolving conflicts. 8.1 Examine the nature and scope of communication in organisations. Focus on the importance of managing conflict. groups and the organisation. Consider a variety of strategies including some of the following: reconciling goals and objectives. clear definition of roles.g. Learning Outcome 8 The learner will: Understand formal and informal communication processes and networks. various procedures for conflict resolution e.2 Examine the causes of conflicts. 7. Recognise its characteristics and importance to management. 7.1 Examine the nature and importance of formal and informal communication and communication processes in organisations. leadership style e. individuals. or workers and the organisation itself (e. 7. Identify and explain the primary sources or causes of conflict at the individual.2 Identify different strategies for resolving conflict including interpersonal techniques.3. over pace of change). Explain the communication process and the use of verbal communication and non-verbal behaviours. 7.g. conflicting goals). avoiding its harmful effects and channelling it in positive directions. improve group effectiveness and overall organisation. Conflict situations may be between different workers (e.1 Explain the role of the manager in the management of conflict and its positive and negative implications.3 Identify specific conflict situations and compare alternative procedural arrangements for preventing or reducing conflict.g.g. 7.2 Examine the role of leaders/ managers in managing conflict and identify strategies or techniques for its resolution. disciplinary procedures/appraisal/arbitration and mediation. Review the conflict handling strategies (Thomas). group and organisational levels.2. non-monetary rewards e. Form a multi-perspective model of the process and discuss each element and its significance. develop group and interpersonal skills through training. balance social and technical systems. Procedural arrangements include negotiation. and examine the potential barriers to effective communication. Discuss alternative strategies to deal with conflict. Classify types of conflict and its positive and negative outcomes. Assessment Criteria The learner can: 8.1.g. changing situational factors.2 Specify and evaluate the main forms of communication: . groups and the organisation.1.2. Indicative Content 8. 7. disputes procedures.1. participative and supportive.

jargon. noise. receptivity.  Written examinations are of three hours’ duration. non-verbal (e.  All learning outcomes will be assessed. receiver assumptions.3 Analyse barriers to effective communication and techniques to reduce them.g.abeuk.g. filtering etc.written (e. Outline alternative informal communication networks (grapevine) within groups and their impact on effectiveness. 8. should be encouraged to look at communication barriers in their own workplace and college. They should develop strategies to improve the communication processes and report back to the rest of the group. team briefings). figures.com) for further recommended reading.1 Compare alternative patterns of group communication (networks) and consider the meaning and importance to management of networking.3 Demonstrate understanding of formal and informal communication within and between organisations and the techniques to improve them. 8.1. physical distance.2 Compare group networks and recognise the importance to management of networking. Recommended Reading:  Organisational Behaviour – ABE Study Manual.2. Identify organisational/semantic/perceptual barriers to communication: imprecise objectives. Assessment:  Assessment method: written examination (unless otherwise stated). Evaluate how the manager can best improve the effectiveness of communications. 8. reports.1 Analyse the various barriers to effective communication. Consider the effectiveness of various organisational channels/structures/networks for communicating information. 8. . perceptions. body language). 8.  Please refer to the Tuition Resources section of the Members Area of the ABE website (www. either singly or in groups. The concept of ‘networking’ should be thoroughly explored in terms of its meaning and importance. Students. e-mail). meetings.g. Comparisons might be made with their own ‘networks’ of contacts. oral (e. Students should be encouraged to consider who should be included in such networks and why. relationships. text. voice.3. poor organisation. distortion.

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