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1. Hypotheses are tentative statements of the expected relationships between two or more variables a. There is a significant positive relationship between self-concept and math achievement b. The class using math manipulatives will show significantly higher levels of math achievement than the class using a traditional algorithm approach 2. Reasons for using hypotheses a. Provides specific focus b. Provides for testing of the relationships between variables c. Directs the investigation d. Allows the investigator to confirm or not confirm relationships e. Provides a framework for reporting the results and explanations deriving from them f. When supported provides empirical evidence of the predictive nature of the relationships between variables g. Provides a useful framework for organizing and summarizing the results and conclusions 3. Types of hypotheses a. Inductive and deductive 1. Inductive hypotheses are formed through inductively reasoning from many specific observations to tentative explanations 2. Deductive hypotheses are formed through deductively reasoning implications of theory b. Research or statistical 1. Research hypotheses are conjectural statements of the expected results a. Directional: a specific outcome is anticipated (e.g., the class using manipulatives will demonstrate higher achievement levels than the class using a traditional instructional approach)
Consistent with known facts.2 for examples of research problems. prior research. rake angle. States an expected relationship between two or more variables e. there will be achievement differences between the groups of children using co-operative group strategies or individualized instruction) 2. Criteria for evaluating research hypotheses a. This is purely statistical in nature This does not represent the outcome anticipated by the researcher c. Stated in declarative form b.g.b. research hypotheses. ii. Logical extension of the research problem d. and null hypotheses as well as the relationships among them 4. Carefully designed blade structure. Non-directional: an outcome is anticipated but the specific nature of it is unsure (e. Is clear and concise Round operative carbide burs are designed for the efficient excavation of caries during the root canal procedure. or theory c. Product Recommended: Round Operative Carbide Burs #2.. flute depth and spiral angulation results in the powerful cutting performance of SS White operative carbide burs. Statistical hypotheses are statements of a relationship or difference that can be tested statistically a. Can be tested f. #4 and #6 Round Carbide Burs ISO Ø 010 and 014 (REF E 0123) • these burs are used to cut in a surfacial way into the occlusal face in order to remove the whole pulp . Null hypothesis: a statistical statement that no difference or relationship exists i. See Table 2.
The opposite end is used . and the other end is Lshaped which aids in detecting the unremoved parts of the tooth as the roof of pulp chamber. visibility and efﬁciency: these burs should be used obliquely For restored teeth – Ceramic Crown Round Diamond Bur ISO Ø 016 (REF F 0001) • use the round bur diamond with a light brush-cutting action and water spray to progressively sand away and eliminate tooth-color restoratives Transmetal Bur Extra-fine crosscut shape is designed to remove an old amalgam filling or to cut through porcelain fused to metal crowns without shattering the porcelain or breaking the bur. 2) Plastic instruments: It has two ends. Endodontic Instruments: There are many instruments used in the different phases of endodontic treatment and they are as follows: General Instruments 1) Endodontic explorer: A double end instrument. one end is straight used to locate the root canal orifices after the removal of the pulp chamber.chamber roof – including all pulp horns – by gradually moving down towards the pulp chamber • for better control. The cutting surface of the Transmetal bur is 5mm and the total length is 19mm. the first is used to carry temporary filling material.
it should be perpendicular to the long axis of the . files and gutta percha. 4) Endodontic locking pliers (tweezer): It has a lock that allows materials to be held without continuous finger pressure. 9) Instrument stopper (rubber stopper): It is used to mark the length of the tooth on reamers and files. 7) Transfer sponge: It is sponge saturated with disinfectant solution. It is a convenient instrument to measure reamers. 7) Endodontic syringe: It is used to carry irrigating solution into the root canal. 3) Endodontic excavator: It is larger than a spoon excavator. The organizer provides holes for the files to be place vertically in a sponge which is saturated with disinfectant to maintain its sterility. It is also used in curettage of periapical lesions in surgical endodontics (apicectomy). used to allow excavation of the contents of the pulp chamber. 6) Instrument organizer (endodontic kit): It is used for arrangement of reamers and files according to the size and length. The tip of the instrument is flat to prevent penetration of the needle to the small canals. The reamers and files can be placed in it after being used. 5) Endodontic ruler: It is a metal ruler made of 0.as a plugger to condense cement and base materials in the root canal. also it has a groove which facilitates holding gutta percha and absorbing points.5mm divisions. also it has a groove in its tip to permit the irrigation which might be under pressure to flow coronally rather than forcing it to the apical foramen causing post operative pain.
Reamers and files are manufactured by twisting a square bar to produce flutes but they differ in the number of flutes. It may be made of rubber or metal. because it is more flexible than carbon steel and don’t corrode. fracture of the instrument may occur.5-2. b) Files are less flexible than reamers but are more effective in cutting. Reamer = 0. but nowadays. and used for pulp (vital pulp) extirpation. This instrument is used inside the canal. a super flexible material which is nickel-titanium is used.25 flute/mm. It is made of stainless steel. otherwise. It is mostly used in filing action but can be used in reaming action. Intracanal Instruments: These instruments are used inside the root canal 1) Barbed broach.5-1 flute/mm. It is a short handled instrument with a shaft having projections2 directed obliquely towards the handle.reamer. . (a) Reamers are mostly used in reaming action and are less effective in filing action. These instruments are made of stainless steel. 2) Reamers and files. It can be used to remove cotton and paper points from the canal. K file = 1. It is used in straight parts of the canal and inserted freely (by using the suitable size) to the 2/3 of the pulp canal. and removal of necrotic tooth debris inside the canal.
Less effective in filing action because less no.(c) K flex file: It is a newly developed instrument made of a diamond cross section bar.More flexible. Less flexible. They are very active in just pulling action while K files are effective in both pulling and pushing action. 4. of flutes 3. 3) Spreader. . Can be used in reaming action. More no. tapered and pointed end instrument. It is a long. 4) Plugger.Less no.3 Differences between reamers and files Reamer File 1. There is also a finger spreader which is smaller and shorter to be used in posterior teeth. of flutes Used mainly in filing action. of flutes. (d) Hedstorm files: They are machined instrument that are made of stainless steel bar which are triangular in shape with very sharp edges. It is more flexible and has sharper blades with non cutting tip (blind tip). It can not be used in rotation movement. 2.Used mainly in reaming action. which is used to compress gutta percha into the apex and periphery of the prepared canal and also towards the irregularity of canals leaving a space for insertion of auxiliary root canal filling material cones.
Yellow= 20. The distance between D0 and D16 is 16mm. Pink= 6. It is necessary for vertical condensation technique and also plugging of gutta percha at the termination of all other obturation condensation techniques. Standardization of Intracanal Instruments: Each instrument has a number which refers to the size of its tip.It is a long and blunt flat tip blade instrument. Hedstroem file . but the total length differs from short to medium to long for anterior teeth. Gray= 8. Green= 35. The instrument tip pierces the center of the stop at right angles. All intracanal instruments are colour coded and each colour represents a size.3mm. White= 15. Blue= 30. Purple= 10. Black=80. There are 2 types of pluggers. and the shorter ones for posterior teeth. while size 70 reamer means that D0 = 0.7mm. If the stop is not placed squarely at a right angle to the shaft of the instrument.5 mm while D16 is 0.32 mm So in size 50 reamer. Black= 40. it is then slid along the shaft to the correct working length. the long handled type and finger type.82 mm. the tip (D0) is 0. then the colour returns to White= 45. The reamer of size 30 means that D0 = 0. Red= 25. D16 = D0 + 0. a measurement error will result. and so onto size 1 Measurement Control Technique Rubber stopper Instruments should always be used with a rubber stop as a measurement control. and so on to Blue= 60 and then the instruments increase by 10 as Green=70.
EDTA EDTA paste (Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid) is a chelating agent which softens the dentine of the canal walls and greatly facilitates canal preparation (Fig 13). or obturation. Disinfection after pulpectomy and pulp dressing Treatment of post-traumatic inflammation .This is the main disinfectant in endodontic treatment and dissolves the necrotic pulpal tissue within the root canal preparing it for a sealed filling.The Hedstroem file is machined from a round tapered blank. A spiral groove is cut into the shank. is an active disinfectant for the treatment of infected root-canals and periapical infections. also known as CMCP. Cement spatula Usage: Used for spreading plasters and for mixing ointments and masses. Root Canal Preparations/Camphor Mono-Chlorophenol (Cmcp) Camphor Mono-Chlorophenol. Only a true filing action should be used with this instrument because of the angle of the blade. producing a sharp blade. EDTA solution may be used as an irrigant at the end of the canal preparation phase to assist removal of the smear layer prior to placement of an intervisit dressing. Sodium Hypochlorite Root Canal Irrigant . Woodson Common Uses: Plastic Filling Instruments are used in dental restorations resulting from dental caries (dental cavities). The Hedstroem file is useful for removing gutta-percha root fillings. There is a strong possibility of fracture if a reaming action is used and the blades are engaged in the dentine.
Camphor 65% .Disinfection of the root-canal p-Chlorophenol 35%.
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