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Hydrocarbon Processing’s Refining Processes 2006 Handbook reflects the dynamic advancements now available in licensed process technologies

, catalysts and equipment. The refining industry is under tremendous pressure to process “cleaner” transportation fuels with varying specifications for a global market. Refiners must balance capital investment and operating strategies that provide the optimum profitability for their organization. Hence, refining organizations will apply leading-edge technology in conjunction with “best practices” for refining fuels and petrochemical feedstocks from crude oil. HP’s Process Handbooks are inclusive catalogs of established and emerging refining technologies that can be applied to existing and grassroots facilities. Economic stresses drive efforts to conserve energy consumption, minimize waste, improve product qualities and, most importantly, increase yields and throughput. In further expansion, the process entries presented an expanded description of the licensed technology including a process flow diagram, product description, economic information and other vital information. Specific processing operations to be emphasized include alkylation, coking, (crude) distillation, catalytic cracking (fluid and resid), hydrocracking, hydrotreating, hydrogen, isomerization, desulfurization, lube treating, visbreaking, etc. To maintain as complete a listing as possible, the Refining Processes 2006 Handbook is available on CD-ROM and at our website for paid subscribers. Additional copies may be ordered from our website. Photo: The Valero Port Arthur, Texas, Refinery.

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Processes index - 1
Alkylation Alkylation, catalytic Alkylation--feed preparation Alkylation-HF Alkylation-sulfuric acid Aromatics Aromatics extractive distillation Aromatics recovery Benzene reduction Biodiesel Catalytic dewaxing Catalytic reforming Coking Coking, fluid Coking,flexi Crude distillation Crude topping units Deasphalting Deep catalytic cracking Deep thermal conversion Desulfurization Dewaxing

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Hydrocracking (ISOCRACKING) Hydrocracking (LC-FINING) Hydrocracking-residue Hydrodearmatization Hydrofinishing Hydrofinishing/hydrotreating Hydrogen Hydrogenation Hydrogen-HTCT and HTCR twin plants Hydrogen-HTER-p Hydrogen-methanol-to-shift Hydrogen-recovery Hydrogen-steam reforming Hydrogen-steam-methane reforming (SMR) Hydroprocessing, residue Hydroprocessing, ULSD Hydrotreating Hydrotreating (ISOTREATING) Hydrotreating diesel Dewaxing/wax deoiling Diesel-ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) Diesel-upgrading Ethers Ethers-ETBE Ethers-MTBE Flue gas denitrification Flue gas desulfurization-SNOX Fluid catalytic cracking Fluid catalytic cracking-pretreatment Gas treating-H2S removal Gasification Gasoline desulfurization Gasoline desulfurization, ultra deep H2S and SWS gas conversion H2S removal Hydroconversion-VGO & DAO Hydrocracking

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Processes index - 2
Hydrotreating/desulfurization Hydrotreating-aromatic saturation Hydrotreating-lube and wax Hydrotreating-RDS/VRDS/UFR/OCR Hydrotreating-resid Hydrotreating-residue Isomerization Isooctene/isooctane Lube and wax processing Lube extraction Lube hydrotreating Lube oil refining, spent Lube treating Mercaptan removal NOx abatement NOx reduction, low-temperature O2 enrichment for Claus units O2 enrichment for FCC units Olefin etherfication Olefins recovery

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Olefins-butenes extractive distillation Olefins-dehydrogenation of light parraffins to olefins Oligomerization-C3/C4 cuts Oligomerization-polynaphtha Paraxylene Prereforming with feed ultra purification Pressure swing adsorption-rapid cycle Refinery offgas-purification and olefins recovery Resid catalytic cracking Slack wax deoiling SO2 removal, regenerative Sour gas treatment Spent acid regneration Spent lube oil re-refining Sulfur processing Sulfur recovery Thermal gasoil Treating jet fuel/kerosine Treating-gases Treating-gasoline and LPG Treating-gasoline desulfurization, ultra deep Treating-gasoline sweetening Treating-kerosine and heavy naphtha sweetening Treating-phenolic caustic Treating-pressure swing adsorption Treating-propane Treating-reformer products Treating-spent caustic deep neutralization Vacuum distillation Visbreaking Wax hydrotreating Wet gas scrubbing Wet Scrubbing system, EDV White oil and wax hydrotreating

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ConocoPhillips Davy Process Technology DuPont ExxonMobil Engineering & Research Foster Wheeler Gas Technology Products Genoil Inc. Goar. Refining Hydrocarbon Technology LLC Shaw Stone &Webster Shell Global Solutions International BV Technip Uhde GmbH UOP LLC Sponsored by: Technology Solutions . Haldor Topsoe Kobe Steel Ltd. Inc. Inc. Axens Bechtel Belco Technologies Corp. Allison & Associates GTC Technology Inc.Company index ABB Lummus Global Air Products and Chemicals. CB&I CDTECH Chevron Lummus Global LLC. Linde AG Lurgi Merichem Chemicals & Refinery Services LLC Process Dynamics.

ABB Lummus Global Alkylation Coking Fluid catalytic cracking Hydrotreating Hydrotreating-aromatic saturation .

Air Products and Chemicals. Inc. Hydrogen-recovery Olefins recovery .

spent Oligomerization-C3/C4 cuts Oligomerization-polynaphtha Spent lube oil re-refining . ultra deep Hydroconversion-VGO & DAO Hydrocracking Hydrocracking-residue Hydrotreating diesel Hydrotreating-resid Isomerization Lube oil refining.Axens Alkylation-feed preparation Benzene reduction Catalytic reforming Ethers Gasoline desulfurization.

Bechtel Dewaxing Dewaxing/wax deoiling Lube extraction Lube extraction Lube hydrotreating Lube hydrotreating Wax hydrotreating .

low-temperature SO2 removal. EDV .Belco Technologies Corp. NOx reduction. regenerative Wet Scrubbing system.

CB&I Catalytic reforming Crude topping units Hydrogen-steam reforming Hydrotreating .

CDTECH Alkylation. catalytic Hydrogenation Hydrotreating Isomerization .

Dewaxing Hydrocracking (ISOCRACKING) Hydrocracking (LC-FINING) Hydrofinishing Hydrotreating (ISOTREATING) Hydrotreating-RDS/VRDS/UFR/OCR .Chevron Lummus Global LLC.

COPtechnologysolutions. commercial and operational expertise • Strong relationship-building and problem-solving abilities • Customer inter-facing and advocacy Industries Served Technology Solutions supports both Upstream and Downstream energy segments. 2006. Backed by modern research facilities and a strong tradition of innovation. refiners and manufacturers reach their business and operational. and oil and gas proved reserves and production. Worldwide. ConocoPhillips has the fifth-largest total of proved reserves and is the fourth-largest refiner. we develop. As of March 31. more beneficial future. Technology Solutions prepares producers. and the second largest refiner in the United States. From enhanced production methods. commercialize and license technologies that help oil and gas producers. including: • Carbon and petroleum coke • Gasification • Sulfur chemistry • Hydrocarbon processing and upgrading • Upstream technologies • Enhanced recovery Corporate Overview ConocoPhillips (NYSE:COP) is an international. to gasoline sulfur removal processes to valuable catalysts that enhance fuel cell operation. ConocoPhillips operates in more than 40 countries.Processes: Alkylation Coking Gasoline desulfurization Isomerization Technology Solutions Technology .000 employees worldwide and assets of $160 billion. is a premier provider of technology solutions for the vehicles of today and the oilfields and energy systems of tomorrow. integrated energy company. based on market capitalization. of non government-controlled companies. the company had approximately 38. Strengths of Our Business • Focused efforts on developing and commercializing technologies that enable refiners to economically produce clean fuels and upgrade hydrocarbons into higher value products • Strategic alignment with both Upstream and Downstream energy segments to effectively capitalize on extensive R&D. a division of ConocoPhillips. Texas. Headquartered in Houston. refiners and consumers alike for a cleaner. For More Information: ConocoPhillips Technology Solutions Email: Web: www. It is the third-largest integrated energy company in the United States.

Davy Process Technology Prereforming with feed ultra purification .

DuPont Alkylation .

ULSD Lube treating NOx abatement Pressure swing adsorption-rapid cycle Wet gas scrubbing . ultra deep Hydrocracking Hydroprocessing.flexi Fluid catalytic cracking Gas treating-H2S removal Gasoline desulfurization.ExxonMobil Engineering & Research Alkylation-sulfuric acid Catalytic dewaxing Coking. fluid Coking. ultra deep Gasoline desulfurization.

chemicals & petrochemicals. world-leading experts in combustion technology. LNG & gas-to-liquids. and providing cost-effective solutions for the refining industry. manufactures and erects steam generating and auxiliary equipment for power stations and industrial markets worldwide.fosterwheeler. biotechnology & healthcare industries.Processes: Coking Crude distillation Deasphalting Hydrogen-steam reforming Visbreaking Foster Wheeler is a global engineering and construction contractor and power equipment supplier. Technical articles: • Integrated hydrogen solutions: Combining hydrogen recovery and optimized steam • Upgrade refinery residuals into value-added products • Optimize turnaround projects • Drivers for additional delayed coking capacity in the refining industry • When solvent deasphalting is the most appropriate technology for upgrading residue . solvent deasphalting. on budget and with a world-class safety record. environmental. reliable facilities and equipment on Web: www. pharmaceuticals. Email: ann_hooper@fwhou. and also provides a range of after-market services. Services: • Market studies • Master planning • Feasibility studies • Concept screening • Environmental engineering • Front-end design (FEED) • Project management (PMC) • Engineering (E) • Procurement (P) • Construction (C) & construction management (Cm) • Commissioning & start-up • Validation • Plant operations & maintenance • Training Our Global Power Group. with a reputation for delivering high-quality. designs. offering world-leading technology in delayed coking.fwc. refining. technically-advanced. Foster Wheeler is a market leader in heavy oil upgrading technologies. Our Engineering & Construction Group designs and constructs leading-edge processing facilities for the upstream oil & gas. and visbreaking.

Gas Technology Products H2S removal H2S removal H2S removal .

Hydrotreating-residue .Genoil Inc.

Allison & Associates Sulfur processing Sulfur recovery .Goar.

Aromatics Aromatics recovery Desulfurization Paraxylene .GTC Technology Inc.

Haldor Topsoe Diesel-ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) Diesel-upgrading Flue gas denitrification Flue gas desulfurization-SNOX Fluid catalytic cracking-pretreatment H2S and SWS gas conversion Hydrocracking Hydrodearmatization Hydrogen-HTCT and HTCR twin plants Hydrogen-HTER-p Hydrogen-methanol-to-shift Hydrogen-steam-methane reforming (SMR) Hydrotreating Sour gas treatment Spent acid regneration .

Hydrocracking .Kobe Steel Ltd.

Linde AG O2 enrichment for Claus units O2 enrichment for FCC units .

Lurgi Biodiesel .

Merichem Chemicals & Refinery Services LLC Treating jet fuel/kerosine Treating-gases Treating-gasoline and LPG Treating-gasoline desulfurization. ultra deep Treating-gasoline sweetening Treating-kerosine and heavy naphtha sweetening Treating-phenolic caustic Treating-propane Treating-reformer products Treating-spent caustic deep neutralization .

Hydrotreating Hydrotreating-lube and wax Lube and wax processing .Process Dynamics. Inc.

Refining Hydrocarbon Technology LLC Alkylation Isooctene/isooctane Olefin etherfication .

Shaw Stone & Webster Deep catalytic cracking Fluid catalytic cracking Refinery offgas-purification and olefins recovery Resid catalytic cracking .

residue Thermal gasoil Visbreaking .Shell Global Solutions International BV Crude distillation Deep thermal conversion Fluid catalytic cracking Gasification Hydrocracking Hydroprocessing.

Technip Crude distillation Hydrogen .

Uhde GmbH Aromatics extractive distillation Ethers-ETBE Ethers-MTBE Hydrofinishing/hydrotreating Hydrogen Lube treating Olefins-butenes extractive distillation Olefins-dehydrogenation of light parraffins to olefins Slack wax deoiling Vacuum distillation White oil and wax hydrotreating .

catalyst and product testing. glues and pharmaceuticals. polystyrene foam. drying and treating gases produced from oil and gas wells and atmospheric gases. and project management. The petroleum refining industry is the largest market for UOP technology. Starting with its first breakthrough technology. For example.wilson@uop. The company employs nearly 3. For more information: jennifer. operating technical services such as process monitoring and optimization. Other technologies convert mercaptans to innocuous disulfides. petrochemical and gas processing industries. UOP’s staff of engineers provides customers with a wide range of services. UOP processes are used throughout the industry to produce clean-burning. refrigeration systems. and produces key mechanical equipment for some of its processes. UOP LLC. UOP is the largest process licensing organization in the world. UOP has contributed processes and technology that have led to advances in such diverse industries as motor fuels. Europe and Asia. plastics. UOP’s gas processing technologies are used for separating. products and services. USA (a northwest suburb of Chicago). These products form the basis of such familiar products as synthetic rubber.500 active patents. UOP offices are in Des Plaines. detergents. UOP provides engineering designs for its Technical articles: • Concepts for an overall refinery energy solution through novel integration of FCC flue gas power recovery • Changing refinery configuration for heavy and synthetic crude processing .Processes: Alkylation (2) Alkylation-HF Catalytic reforming Fluid catalytic cracking Hydrocracking Hydrotreating (2) Hydrotreating/desulfurization Isomerization (3) Mercaptan removal Treating-pressure swing adsorption For more than 90 years. UOP has been active in the development of synthetic detergent chemicals since 1947. air brake systems. procurement and facility-design services. UOP technologies produce such olefins as ethylene and propylene. cost estimation. training of customer personnel. a Honeywell company. polyester fibers. a higher performance fuel. including start-up assistance. UOP is the world’s leading producer of synthetic molecular sieve adsorbents used in purifying natural gas.000 people in its facilities in the United States. and recover high-purity hydrogen from impure gas streams. providing more than 50 licensed processes for the hydrocarbon processing industries and holding more than 2. for 60 years our Platforming process has been used to upgrade low-octane naphtha to high-octane unleaded gasoline. synthetic fibers and food preservatives. toluene and xylene (BTX) – of the aromatics-based petrochemicals industry. Molecular sieves also are used in insulating glass. has been a leader in developing and commercializing technology for license to the oil refining. automotive mufflers and deodorizing products. remove sulfur from fuel. and today almost half of the world’s soft (biodegradable) detergents are produced through UOP-developed processes. used in a range of products from contact lenses to food packaging. equipment inspection. It also offers project management. high-performance fuels from a variety of hydrocarbon products. Technologies developed by UOP are almost entirely responsible for providing the fundamental raw materials – benzene. Illinois. separating paraffins and drying air through cryogenic separation.

AlkyClean’s unique catalyst.200 0. eliminating the safety and environmental hazards associated with liquid acid technologies.000-bpsd unit) $/bpsd Operating cost. van Rooijen and H. ��������� �������� �������������� �������� �������� ������� �������� �������� ������������ ��� Products: Alkylate is a high-octane. von Broekhoven. 65–70. Simultaneously. Installation: Demonstration unit at Neste Oil’s Porvoo. D’Amico. March 19–21. J. a reactor undergoes a higher temperature vapor phase hydrogen strip (2). reactor design and process scheme allow operation at low external isobutane-to-olefin ratios while maintaining excellent product quality. which produces n-butane and alkylate products. “Consider new methods to debottleneck clean alkylate production.Alkylation Application: The AlkyClean process converts light olefins into alkylate by reacting the olefins with isobutane over a true solid acid catalyst. ���������� ������� ������ ��� ������� ������������ ��� Description: The light olefin feed is combined with the isobutane makeup and recycle and sent to the alkylation reactors which convert the olefins into alkylate using a solid acid catalyst (1). 2006. . The AlkyClean process does not produce any acid soluble oils (ASO) or require post treatment of the reactor effluent or final products.” NPRA 2006 Annual Meeting. Gieseman. Reference: “The AlkyClean process: New technology eliminates liquid acids. $/gal 4. Nousiainen. Albemarle Catalysts and Neste Oil. Product: The C5+ alkylate has a RON of 93–98 depending on processing conditions and feed composition. periodically. E. pp. Finland Refinery.08 Licensor: ABB Lummus Global. Economics: Investment (2006 USGC basis 10. V. E.. The reactor and mild regeneration effluent is sent to the product-fractionation section. The AlkyClean process uses a true solid acid catalyst to produce alkylate. low-Rvp gasoline component used for blending in all grades of gasoline. February 2006. while also recycling isobutane and recovering hydrogen used in regeneration for reuse in other refinery hydroprocessing units (3). reactors are undergoing a mild liquid-phase regeneration using isobutane and hydrogen and.” Hydrocarbon Processing.

1 6–7 170 253 93. ����������������� � ������� ���������� ����� Products: An ultra-low-sulfur.Alkylation Application: Convert propylene.175 1. � � Description: Dry liquid feed containing olefins and isobutane is charged to a combined reactor-settler (1). ����������������� ��������� ����� �������� Yields: Alkylate product Gravity.780 Installation: 147 worldwide licenses. lower Rvp and lower endpoint product than a sulfuric-acid-alkylation unit and nearly twice as many octane barrels as can be produced from a dimerization unit. bbl 1. °F ASTM 90%. bbl 1. isobutylene and amylene feedstocks • Onsite catalyst regeneration • Environmentally responsible (very low emissions/waste) • Between 60% and 90% reduction in airborne catalyst release over traditional catalysts • Can be installed in all licensors’ HF alkylation units.755 Per bbl olefin converted i-Butane consumed. ReVAP offers significant advantages over sending the isobutylene to a sulfuric-acid-alkylation unit or a dimerization plant.5 1. The reactor uses the principle of differential gravity head to effect catalyst circulation through a cooler prior to contacting highly dispersed hydrocarbon in the reactor pipe. psi ASTM 10%. Major process features are: • Gravity catalyst circulation (no catalyst circulation pumps required) • Low catalyst consumption • Low operating cost • Superior alkylate qualities from propylene. which separates LPG-quality propane. With the proposed reduction of MTBE in gasoline. amylenes and isobutane to the highest quality motor fuel using ReVAP (Reduce Volatility Alkylation Process) alkylation. A small amount of dissolved catalyst is removed from the propane product by a small stripper tower (3). The hydrocarbon phase that is produced in the settler is fed to the main fractionator (2). ReVAP alkylation produces higher octane. Licensor: ConocoPhillips. °F RONC Feed type Butylene Propylene-butylene mix 70.139 Alkylate produced. . API Rvp. high-octane and low-Rvp blending stock for motor and aviation fuels. butylenes. n-butane and alkylate products.1 6–7 185 236 96.0 71. isobutane recycle.

typical per bbl alkylate: Electricity. lb Caustic. Olefins and isobutane-rich streams along with a recycle stream of H2SO4 are charged to the STRATCO Contactor reactor (1).500 .Alkylation Application: To combine propylene. This total quantity of isobutane and all other hydrocarbons is maintained in the liquid phase throughout the Contactor reactor. Endpoint of the total alkylate from straight butylene feeds is less than 390°F. 64. butylenes and amylenes. Vol. � Description: Plants are designed to process a mixture of propylene. ���������� ����� �������� ������� �������� ����� Utilities. The liquid contents of the Contactor reactor are circulated at high velocities and an extremely large amount of interfacial area is exposed between the reacting hydrocarbons and the acid catalyst from the acid settler (2). Licensor: DuPont. $ per bpsd 4. When processing straight butylenes. Reference: Hydrocarbon Processing. 67–71. 103 gal Acid.000 bpsd installed capacity.1 Product quality: The total debutanized alkylate has RON of 92 to 96 clear and MON of 90 to 94 clear. 150 psig. lb 13.000-bpsd unit). Contactor reactor products pass through a flash drum (3) and deisobutanizer (4). The overhead from the deisobutanizer (4) and effluent refrigerant recycle (6) constitutes the total isobutane recycle to the reaction zone.85 15 0. 9. Onsite acid regeneration technology is also available. The entire volume of the liquid in the Contactor reactor is maintained at a uniform temperature. cooling (20°F rise). thereby serving to promote the alkylation reaction.5 180 1. the debutanized total alkylate has RON as high as 98 clear. kWh Steam. ������� ������� � � � � � �������� ������� Products: Branched chain hydrocarbons for use in high-octane motor fuel and aviation gasoline. and less than 420°F for mixed feeds containing amylenes in most cases. Installation: Over 600. No. pp. The refrigeration section consists of a compressor (5) and depropanizer (6). September 1985. less than 1°F between any two points within the reaction mass. lb Water. Economics (basis: butylene feed): Investment (basis: 10. butylenes and amylenes with isobutane in the presence of strong sulfuric acid to produce high-octane branched chain hydrocarbons using the Effluent Refrigeration Alkylation process.

The bottoms are recycled to C4 system and sent to the reactor. recycle isobutene. ��������� ��� �������������� �������� � ��������� ����������� �� ������� ��� � ������������ ��������������������� ������� ������ ��������� � ������� ���� ����������� ���������� ������� ������� � ������������� � ����� ��������� �������� �������� ��������� ���������� �������� ������������ ����������� ���������������� Description: In the RHT-Alkylation. The auto-refrigeration vapor is compressed (or first enhanced the pressure by the ejector and then absorbed in a heavy liquid — alkylate. with isobutane make-up. which is essentially sulfuric acid. which provides a low-cost option) and then condensed. advance coalescer system to remove acid from hydrocarbon (dry system). The isothermal condition lowers acid consumption and yields higher octane product due to improved selectivity of 2. In addition. C3– C5 feed from FCC or any other source including steam cracker. Reactor effluent is withdrawn from the reactor as a side draw and is sent to acid/ hydrocarbon coalescer (2) where most of the acid is removed and recycled to the reactor (1). making compressor redundant. the hydrocarbon phase is heated and flashed increasing the alkylate concentration in the hydrocarbon. This eductor mixing device is more cost-effective than other devices being used or proposed. After the coalescer. The coalescers are being used by conventional process to reduce the acid in the hydrocarbon phase to 7–15 wppm. The auto refrigeration occurs in the reactor at temperatures 25–30°F. The motive fluid is sent to the eductor nozzle from the bottom of reactor.4 trimethylpentane. ��������������� The hydrocarbon is sent to distillation column(s) (7). Some liquid is sent to depropanizer (6).4. The butane is sent to offsites or can be converted back to isobutane for processing units requirements. without revamping the compressor. the auto refrigeration vapor can be condensed by enhancing pressure and then easily absorbed in hydrocarbon liquid. The enhanced coalescer design RHT can reduce the sulfuric acid content in the hydrocarbon phase to negligible levels (below <1 wppm). which is sent through the finishing coalescer where essentially all of the remaining acid is removed.. The major advances of RHT process are threefold: eductor mixing device. Continued  . It is maintenance free and does not require replacement every two to three years. Some feed can be injected here to provide higher OSV. propane and light ends are removed. and recovered hydrocarbons from the depropanizer bottom and refrigeration vapors are collected in a surge drum — the C4 system (5). through pumps to mix the reactants with the sulfuric-acid catalyst. The mixture is pumped to the reactor (1) to the eductor suction port. etc. which is recycled.Alkylation Application: The RHT-Alkylation process is an improved method to react C3– C5 olefins with isobutane using the classical sulfuric acid alkylation process. The process has provisions to install a static mixer at the pump discharge. This process uses a unique mixing device — eductor(s) — that provides low-temperature (25 – 30°F) operations at isothermal conditions. This mixing device can be a retrofit replacement for existing contactors. to separate alkylate product and isobutane. The mixing is vigorous to move the reaction to completion. The makeup acid and acid-soluble oil (ASO) is removed from the pump discharge. which is required for C3 alkylation. and C4 autorefrigeration vapors recovery by absorption.

K.600 Commercial units: Technology is ready for commercialization.4 . References: US patent 5. kWh Water.8 – 95. MM USD Utilities ISBL costs.” Stratco. Inc. m3/ h Steam. * Power could be less for absorption application FCC Feed (about 15% isobutelene in C4 mixed stream) Licensor: Refining Hydrocarbon Technologies LLC.130593.. A. Product properties: Octane (R+M) / 2:94.095168. Handbook of Refining. Handbook of Refining. R..050* 1... 1997. US Patent 4.Alkylation.950 25. Nelson. Branzaru.2 3. cooling. kg / h 31. “Introduction to Sulfuric Acid Alkylation. Kranz.. USD/ bbl alkylate Power. 2001. New York. 2001. McGraw Hill.000 4.” Stratco. continued Economics: For a US Gulf Coast unit 1Q 2006 with a capacity of 10.000 bpd alkylate unit CAPEX ISBL. “Alkylation Chemistry. Inc. Meyers. J.

From this separator the polymer is sent to neutralization. installed facilities to use this technology in the HF Alkylation unit at their former El Dorado. Licensor: UOP LLC and Chevron Corp. Maintenance requirements are similar to equipment currently in standard operation in an HF alkylation unit in similar service. This unit began initial operations in 1994. the co-developer of the Alkad process. Heavy acid soluble oils and the concentrated HF-additive complex are sent to the additive stripper bottoms separator. . refinery. ��������������������������� ���������� �������������������� ����������������� Experience: ChevronTexaco. There is no expected increase in the need for operator manpower. The Alkad process is a passive mitigation system that will reduce aerosol from any leak that occurs while additive is in the system. water and light-acid soluble oils overhead and on to the acid regenerator. ����������������� ����������������������� ���������������� �������� �������� ������� ���������� ���� ���������� �������������� ����� �������� ���� ������������ ������ ���� Description: The additive stripper sends acid. Kansas. The water is in the form of a constant boiling mixture (CBM) of water and HF. Installation: One unit is under construction. and the HF-additive complex is recycled to the reactor section. The acid regenerator removes water and light-acid soluble oils from the additive stripper overhead stream. while maintaining unit operability and product quality.Alkylation Application: The Alkad process is used with HF alkylation technology to reduce aerosol formation in the event of an HF release.

. Licensor: UOP LLC. The resulting mixture of higher molecular weight iso-olefins may then be hydrogenated to form a high-octane paraffinic gasoline blendstock that is similar to alkylate. ����� ���� �������������� �������� ����������� ������ �������� ���������� ������� ������� �������� ������ � � � � � ��������������� �������� Feed: A wide variety of feeds can be processed in the InAlk process. Installation: The InAlk process is an extension of UOP’s catalytic condensation and olefin saturation technologies. The saturation section uses either a base-metal or noble-metal catalyst. steam-cracker olefins and iC4 dehydrogenation olefins. Either resin or solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalysts are used to polymerize the olefins.Alkylation Application: UOP’s Indirect Alkylation (InAlk) process uses solid catalysts to convert light olefins (mainly C4 but also C3 and C5) to alkylate. Currently five InAlk units are in operation. UOP has licensed and designed more than 400 catalytic condensation units for the production of polygasoline and petrochemical olefins and more than 200 hydrogenation units of various types. Resin catalyst primarily converts iso-butene. or it may be left as an olefinic high-octane gasoline blending component. but usually higher in octane. Description: The InAlk process makes premium alkylate using a combination of commercially proven technologies. Typical feeds include FCC-derived light olefins. SPA catalyst also converts n-butenes. Iso-butene reacts with itself or with other C3– C5 olefins via polymerization.

In addition. Licensor: CDTECH. clear. which substantially improves alkylate quality and lowers acid consumption. The benefits of the CDAlky process include: • Lower acid consumption • Lower utilities • Reduced operating cost • Reduced environmental exposure • Higher octane product • Lower CAPEX—simpler flowsheet with fewer pieces of equipment • Highly flexible operation range—maximum absolute product octane or maximum octane barrels ���������� ����������� �������� ������������ ���������� ������������ ���������� ���������� ��������������������������� ������������������� ���������� • Lower maintenance—no mechanical agitator or complex seals • Less corrosion due to dry system • No caustic waste stream Installation: Consistent with time-tested methodology for developing new processes. without the need for water/caustic washes or bauxite treatment. CDTECH has been operating a 2-bpd pilot plant in this novel mode of operation for an extended time period without the penalties associated with conventional technologies. . high-quality motor fuel alkylate. The process flow diagram shows the basic configuration to process a mixed C4-olefin feed and produce a bright. CDTECH has developed a novel contactor that operates at lower temperatures and substantially reduced acid consumption—50%+. conventional technologies are unable to take the full benefit of operating at lower temperature. such as fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units or from steam-cracking units. This process has been designed to make it possible to reuse equipment from idled facilities. which reduces capital and operating costs. ���� ������������������ Description: The patented CDAlky process is an advanced sulfuric acidcatalyzed alkylation process for the production of motor fuel alkylate. which can consist of a single column or two columns. and are characterized by high acid consumption. catalytic Application: CDAlky process is an advanced sulfuric acid-catalyzed alkylation process that reacts light olefin streams from refinery sources.Alkylation. Conventional sulfuric-acid alkylation units use mechanical mixing in their contactors to achieve the required contact between acid and hydrocarbon phases. The flow scheme is also less complex than conventional designs. This process yields a higher-quality product while consuming significantly less acid than conventional technologies. The CDAlky process uses conventional product fractionation. with iso-paraffins to produce motor fuel alkylate.

eliminating the need for a stabilizer. $/bpsd For an H2SO4 unit. methylacetylene and propadiene are converted to olefins. The process integrates easily with the C3/C4 splitter.and trans-2-butenes. Annual savings for a 10. °C –20 The increases in MON. �������� ������� ��������������� ����������������� Alkyfining performance and impact on HF alkylation product: The results of an Alkyfining unit treating an FCC C4 HF alkylation unit feed containing 0. $/bpsd 430 210 . Good hydrogen distribution and reactor design eliminate channeling while enabling high turndown ratios.5 million Installation: Over 90 units are operating with a total installed capacity Licensor: Axens.5 RON increase in alkylate 2 MON increase in alkylate 1 Alkylate end point reduction. Economics: Investment: New unit ISBL cost: For an HF unit. US$ H2SO4 unit.000-bpsd alkylation unit: HF unit. ppm < 10 1-butene isomerization. Butadiene and.Alkylation—feed preparation Application: Upgrades alkylation plant feeds with Alkyfining process. Additional savings are possible when pure hydrogen is available. fixed-bed reactor under mild temperature and pressure conditions.3-butadiene are: Butadiene in alkylate. The high isomerization activity of the catalyst transforms 1-butene into cis. Description: Diolefins and acetylenes in the C4 (or C3– C4) feed react se������� �������� �������� lectively with hydrogen in the liquid-phase.8% 1. RON and butenes yield are reflected in a substantial octane-barrel increase while the lower alkylate end point reduces ASO production and HF consumption. hydrogen is completely consumed and. which affords higher octane-barrel production.1 million 5. US$ of 800. % 100. essentially. no gaseous byproducts or heavier compounds are formed.000 bpsd. 4. Butene yields are maximized. if C3s are present. % 70 Butenes yield.

Efficient heat transfer conserves cooling water supply. ������� ����� �������� ���� Description: The alkylation reaction catalytically combines C3– C5 olefins with isobutane to produce motor-fuel alkylate. HF Alkylation does not require refrigeration equipment to maintain a low reactor temperature. Internal regeneration allows the refiner to shutdown the acid regenerator. In cases where MTBE and TAME raffinates are still being processed. Selective hydrogenation of butylene feedstock is recommended to reduce acid regeneration requirements. catalyst (acid) consumption and increase alkylate octane by isomerizing 1-butene to 2-butene. Licensor: UOP LLC. . Efficiency: HF Alkylation remains the most economically viable method for the production of alkylate. mid-boiling-range isoparaffins and reducing gasoline pool vapor pressure and olefin content by conversion of C3– C5 olefin components to alkylate. The acid consumption rate for HF Alkylation is less than 1/100th the rate for sulfuric alkylation units. And unlike sulfuric alkylation units.Alkylation—HF Application: HF Alkylation improves gasoline quality by adding cleanburning. Installations: Over 20 UOP licensed HF alkylation units are in operation. The reactor system is carefully designed to ensure efficient contacting and mixing of hydrocarbon feed with the acid catalyst. Alkylation takes place in the presence of HF catalyst under conditions selected to maximize alkylate yield and quality. ���������� ������� ���� ���� ������� ������� ������� �������� Feed: Alkylation feedstocks are typically treated to remove sulfur and water. thereby realizing a utility savings as well as reducing acid consumption and eliminating polymer disposal. Acid regeneration occurs in the acid regenerator or via a patented internal-acid-regeneration method. Acid inventory in the reactor system is minimized by combining high heat-transfer rates and lower total acid circulation. an oxygenate removal unit (ORU) may be desirable.

2 bbl / bbl butylene feed 97 RON / 94 MON 3 2 9 Utilities: typical per barrel of alkylate produced: . are compressed (2) and returned to the reactor. high-octane alkylate product. A depropanizer (3).000 bpd.000-bpsd at 11 locations worldwide. Hydrocarbons. sulfuric acid Application: Autorefrigerated sulfuric-acid catalyzed process that combines butylene (and propylene or pentylene if desired) with isobutane to produce high-octane gasoline components that are particularly attractive in locations that are MON limited. lb H2SO4. Olefin feed START 4 5 6 Recycle acid Makeup isobutane Alkylate product Steam. with a capacity of 83. In the deisobutanizer (5) isobutane is recovered and recycled along with makeup isobutane to the reactor. Hydrocarbon products are separated from the acid in the settler containing proprietary internals (4). A revamp has been completed at ExxonMobil’s Altona. low-Rvp. with a total operating capacity of 119. highly isoparaffinic.000 to 30. The larger units take advantage of the single reactor/settler trains with capacities up to 9. 3 Recycle isobutane 1 Butane product Propane product 2 Refrigerant Products: A low-sulfur. Unit capacities currently range from 2. India. Russia refinery is scheduled to start-up in mid2006. kWH 1. lb NaOH. Mixers provide intimate contact between the reactants and acid catalyst.Alkylation. Highly efficient autorefrigeration removes heat of reaction heat from the reactor.000 bpd. was recently announced at Reliance Petroleum Limited’s Export Refinery in Jamnagar. vaporized from the reactor to provide cooling. lb 200 19 0. Butane is removed from alkylate in the debutanizer (6) to produce a low-Rvp. Australia refinery and a new unit at TNK-BP’s Ryazan. M gal Power. which is fed by a slipstream from the refrigeration section. cooling.8 bbl C5+/ bbl butylene feed 1. is designed to remove any propane introduced to the plant with the feeds. Technology can be installed grassroots or retrofit into existing alkylation facilities.1 Operating experience: Extensive commercial experience in both ExxonMobil and licensee refineries.500 bpsd. The license of the world’s largest alkylation unit. autorefrigerated reactor (1). 100%. A small acid stream containing acid soluble oil byproducts is removed from the unit and is either regenerated on site or sent to an off-site sulfuric acid regeneration facility to recover acid strength. Description: Olefin feed and recycled isobutane are introduced into the stirred. psi Water. high-octane (especially MON) gasoline blendstock is produced from this alkylation process. Continued  Yields: Alkylate yield Isobutane required Alkylate quality Rvp.

lower mixing and compression power requirements translate into lower operating costs • Better economy of scale —Reactor system is simple and easily expandable with 9. Reference: Lerner. which favors high product quality. A. allows lower reactor temperatures. 2nd Ed. Economic advantages: • Lower capital investment—Simple reactor/settler configuration. which favor better product quality. which operate in the vapor phase. H. R. “Exxon sulfuric acid alkylation technology. . continued Technical advantages: • Autorefridgeration is thermodynamically more efficient. less compression requirements translate into a significant investment savings compared to indirect refrigeration systems • Lower operating costs—Autorefrigeration. Ed. • Staged reactor results in a high average isobutane concentration.14.3–1...500 bpsd single train capacities easily achievable. and lowers energy usage.Alkylation. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co. Meyers. pp. 1..” Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes. • Low reactor operating pressure translates into high reliability for the mechanical seals for the mixers. sulfuric acid. • Low space velocity results in high product quality and reduced ester formation eliminating corrosion problems in fractionation equipment.

reactor and product stabilization sections. is the feed to the transalkylation reactor section. the xylene yield can vary from 27 to 35% and C9 conversion from 53 to 67%. while maintaining high activity and selectivity. Depending on the feed composition. along with any toluene that may be available. The technology features a proprietary catalyst and can accommodate varying ratios of feedstock. The heavy aromatics stream (usually derived from catalytic reformate) is fed to a C10/C11 splitter.Aromatics Application: The GT-TransAlk technology produces benzene and xylenes from toluene and/or heavy aromatics streams. catalyst can be used as replacement to other transalkylation units. The combined feed is mixed with hydrogen. and fed to the reactor. or in grassroots designs • Decreased hydrogen consumption due to low cracking rates • Efficient heat integration scheme. The un-reacted hydrogen is recycled for re-use. The process reactor is charged with a proprietary catalyst. Process advantages include: • Simple. The product stream is stabilized to remove fuel gas and other light components. low cost fixed-bed reactor design • Selective toward xylene production. with high toluene/C9 conversion rates • Physically stable catalyst • Flexible to handle up to 100% C9+ components in feed • Flexible to handle benzene recycle to increase xylene yields • Moderate operating parameters. reduces energy consumption. including 100% C9+ aromatics. ������� ���������� ������������ ���������� ������ ����� ��������� ���� �������� ������� ��������� ������������ ������� ������������� ������ ������ �������� Description: The GT-TransAlk technology encompasses three main processing areas: feed preparation. vaporized. . which exhibits good flexibility to feed stream variations. ������ ���������� ���� Licensor: GTC Technology Inc. The overhead portion.

a single-compound solvent. alters the vapor pressure of the components being separated. the lean solvent is recycled to the ED column. “Uhde Morphylane Extractive Distillation—Where do we stand?” ERTC Petrochemical Conference. Gehrke. Kolbe and H. October 3–5. which is recovered in a small column that can either be mounted on the main column or installed separately. The first single-column Morphylane unit went onstream in 2004. Nonaromatics vapors leave the top of the ED column with some solvent. Consumption Steam References: Diehl. T. N-Formylmorpholine (NFM). which integrates the ED column and the stripper column of the conventional design. ���������� ������������ ������ ������������ Description: In Uhde’s proprietary extractive distillation (ED) Morphylane process. The vapor pressure of the aromatics is lowered more than that of the less soluble nonaromatics. It represents a superior process option in terms of investment and operating cost.Aromatics extractive distillation Application: Recovery of high-purity aromatics from reformate. ��������� �������� ��������� �������� ������ ������� ����������������� Economics: Pygas feedstock: Production yield Benzene Toluene Reformate feedstock with low-aromatics content (20 wt%): Benzene Quality Benzene 10 wt ppm NA* 320 kg/t ED feed Benzene 99. Prague. Uhde’s new single-column morphylane extractive distillation process uses a single-column configuration. Bottom product of the ED column is fed to the stripper to separate pure aromatics from the solvent. NFM perfectly satisfies the necessary solvent properties needed for this process including high selectivity. B..95% – 30 wt ppm NA* – 475 kg/t ED feed Benzene/toluene 99. 2005.98% 80 wt ppm NA* 600 wt ppm NA* 680 kg/t ED feed** Consumption Steam *Maximum content of nonaromatics **Including benzene/toluene splitter Quality Benzene Toluene Installation: More than 55 Morphylane plants (total capacity of more than 6 MMtpy). thermal stability and a suitable boiling point.95% 99. After intensive heat exchange. Continued  . pyrolysis gasoline or coke oven light oil using extractive distillation.

p. G. U. Gehrke. Summer 2001. continued Emmrich. “Working with an extractive distillation process..Aromatics extractive distillation.” Petroleum Technology Quarterly. . 125. Licensor: Uhde GmbH. Ranke and H.

Rich solvent from the bottom of the EDC is routed to the solvent-recovery column (SRC). The technology uses extractive distillation to remove benzene. toluene and xylene (BTX) from refinery or petrochemical aromatics streams such as catalytic reformate or pyrolysis gasoline. The process is superior to conventional liquid-liquid and other extraction processes in terms of lower capital and operating costs. simplicity of operation. where the aromatics are stripped overhead. The SRC is operated under a vacuum to reduce the boiling point at the base of the column. The SRC overhead mixed aromatics product is routed to the purification section. Stripping steam from a closed-loop water circuit facilitates hydrocarbon removal. debottlenecking or expansion of conventional extraction systems. significantly lower capital cost compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction systems • Energy integration reduces operating costs • Higher product purity and aromatic recovery • Recovers aromatics from full-range BTX feedstock without prefractionation • Distillation-based operation provides better control and simplified operation • Proprietary formulation of commercially available solvents exhibits high selectivity and capacity • Low solvent circulation rates • Insignificant fouling due to elimination of liquid-liquid contactors • Fewer hydrocarbon emission sources for environmental benefits • Flexibility of design options for grassroots plants or expansion of existing liquid-liquid extraction units • Design avoids contamination of downsream products by objectionable solvent carryover. Lean solvent from the bottom of the SRC is passed through heat exchange before returning to the EDC. Hydrocarbon feed is preheated with hot circulating solvent and fed at a midpoint into the extractive distillation column (EDC). toluene and xylenes. ������������ ����������� ���� ����� �������� ���������� ������������ ������ ������� �������� ������ � ������������ ���������� ������������� � Description: The technology has several advantages: • Less equipment required. The nonaromatic hydrocarbons exit the top of the column and pass through a condenser. A small portion of the lean circulating solvent is processed in a solvent-regeneration step to remove heavy decomposition products. Flexibility of design allows its use for grassroots aromatics recovery units. requiring no further treatment.Aromatics recovery Application: GT-BTX is an aromatics recovery process. Continued  . thus. where it is fractionated to produce chemical-grade benzene. The balance of the overhead stream is the raffinate product. range of feedstock and solvent performance. Lean solvent is fed at an upper point to selectively extract the aromatics into the column bottoms in a vapor/liquid distillation operation. A portion of the overhead stream is returned to the top of the column as ���������������������� reflux to wash out any entrained solvent.

000-bpd GT-BTX extraction unit processing BT-reformate feedstock is $12 million (US Gulf Coast 2004 basis). Installations: Fourteen licenses placed. Licensor: GTC Technology Inc.Aromatics recovery. continued Economics: Estimated installed cost for a 15. .

essentially benzene-free. The splitter operates as a dehexanizer lifting C6 and lower-boiling components to the overhead section of the column. below 1. �������� �� ����� ������ ��������������� ��������������� ��������������� Economics: Investment. thus leading to a loss of gasoline production.Benzene reduction Application: Benzene reduction from reformate. thereby ensuring that the latter components leave with the bottoms fraction of the column. The absence of benzene disrupts the benzene-iso-C7 azeotropes. . The reactor effluent. Benzene is lifted with the light ends. Benzene conversion to cyclohexane can easily be increased if even lower benzene content is desired. Description: Full-range reformate from either a semiregenerative or CCR reformer is fed to the reformate splitter column. shown above. but toluene is not. New unit ISBL cost. because iso-C7 paraffins tend to be cracked to C3 and C4 components.17 Hydrogen Stoichiometric to benzene Catalyst. Above the feed injection tray. with the Benfree process. Since benzene forms azeotropic mixtures with some C7 paraffin isomers. This is particularly advantageous when the light reformate is destined to be isomerized. thus ensuring increased solubility of hydrogen in the feed. these fractions are also entrained with the light fraction.. $/bbl 0.e. $/bpsd: 300 Combined utilities. i. $/bbl 0. is returned to the column.01 Installation: Twenty-eight benzene reduction units have been licensed. The low hydrogen flow minimizes losses of gasoline product in the offgas of the column. Licensor: Axens. A pump enables the reactor to operate at higher pressure than the column.0 vol% for many major markets. A slightly higher-than-chemical stoichiometric ratio of hydrogen to benzene is added to the feed to ensure that the benzene content of the resulting gasoline pool is below mandated levels. using integrated reactive distillation. a benzene-rich light fraction is withdrawn and pumped to the hydrogenation reactor outside the column.

kg Caustic soda (50%). evaporation. most edible oils and fats — both vegetable and animal sources— can be transesterified if suitably prepared. distillation and bleaching to either deliver crude glycerine at approximately 80% concentration or pharmaceutical-grade glycerine at >99. cooling water (t = 10°C). To counter this trend. which is suitable for recycling back to process. Only in the last five years. there is a global strong emphasis on regenerative energy such as biofuels to effectively reduce or avoid such emissions. The actual conversion occurs in the mixers. Lurgi has contracted more than 40 plants for the production of biodiesel with capacities ranging from 30. ��������� ��� ��������� ������������������ ��������� Description: The Lurgi biodiesel process is centered on the transesterification of different raw materials to methyl ester using methanol in the presence of a catalyst. kWh 12 Licensors: Lurgi AG.5 1 Installation: Lurgi has been building biodiesel plants for 20 years. optional steps are available such as chemical treatment. kg Nitrogen. The reaction occurs in two mixer-settler units. kg Hydrochloric Acid (37%).7% purity. Nm3 96 5 10 1. Any residual methanol contained in the glycerine water is removed in a rectification column.000 to 200. kg 320 3 Water.000 tpy. which operates in a counter-current mode.Biodiesel Application: Consumption of primary energy has risen substantially in recent years. In principle. After a final drying step under vacuum. and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions have increased by a substantial amount. In this unit operation. the methanol has a purity. Transesterification is based on the chemical reaction of triglycerides with methanol to methyl ester and glycerine in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Economics: The (approximate) consumption figures—without glycerine distillation and bleaching—stated below are valid for the production of one ton of rapeseed methyl ester at continuous operation and nominal capacity. kg Catalyst (Na-Methylate 100%). �������� �������� �������� �������� �������� ��������� ���������� ��������������������� ���� ������ �������������� �������������� ����������� ����� �������� Methanol. The separation of methyl ester as the light phase and glycerine water as the heavy phase occurs in the settlers due to the insolubility of both products. Steam. the biodiesel is ready for use. For further refinement of the glycerine water. Byproduct components are removed from the methyl ester in the downstream washing stage. m 25 Electrical energy. .

Main features of Axens’ regenerative technology are: • Side-by-side reactor arrangement. C5+ and aromatics yields over the entire catalyst life.” NPRA Annual Meeting. the advanced Octanizing process. The second. wt% of feed: Hydrogen C5+ RONC MONC 10 –15 2. erected cost. US$ per bpsd Utilities: typical per bbl feed: Fuel. San Francisco. BTX and LPG. trimetallic catalysts RG582 and RG682 make an excellent catalyst replacement for semi-regenerative reformers. kg Water.03 Yields: Typical for a 90°C to 170°C (176°F to 338°F) cut from light Arabian feedstock: Conventional Octanizing Oper. with the new CR401 (gasoline mode) and AR501 (aromatics production) catalysts specifically developed for ultra-low operating pressure and the very effective catalyst regeneration system.5 0. One design is conventional where the catalyst is regenerated in place at the end of each cycle. 1. Finally.. kWh Steam. boiler feed. Continued  . kg /cm2 Yield. ���� ����� � � � � ��������� Economics: Investment: Basis 25. This is made possible by smooth-flowing moving bed reactors (1–3) which use a highly stable and selective catalyst suitable for continuous regeneration (4).5 kg /cm2 (50 psig). uses continuous catalyst regeneration allowing operating pressures as low as 3.8 88 102 90. 2005. the product is 90 to 100 RONC. Operating normally in a pressure range of 12 to 25 kg /cm2 (170 to 350 psig) and with low pressure drop in the hydrogen loop. refiners operating Octanizing or Aromizing processes can obtain the highest hydrogen. press. net.96 12. Description: Two different designs are offered. 75 units are designed with continuReference: “Octanizing reformer options to optimize existing assets. With its higher selectivity.000 bpsd continuous Octanizing unit. 10 3 kcal Electricity. completely restores the catalyst activity while maintaining its specific area for more than 600 cycles.8 83 100 89 <5 3.5 Installation: Of 130 units licensed. battery limits. m3 ous regeneration technology capability. HP. • The Regen C2 catalyst regeneration system featuring the dry burn loop. which is very easy to erect and consequently leads to low investment cost.Catalytic reforming Application: Upgrade various types of naphtha to produce high-octane reformate. March 15 –17.800 65 0.

“Squeezing the most out of fixed-bed reactors. Paris. November 2002.” Hart Show Special.” Petroleum Technology Quarterly.Catalytic reforming. NPRA 2003 Annual.” Seventh ERTC. Summer 2000. . “Increase reformer performance through catalytic solutions. continued “Fixed Bed Reformer Revamp Solutions for Gasoline Pool Improvement. Licensor: Axens.

550 – 800 500 – 2. Reactor effluent is cooled. wt% C1– C4. The process uses multiple catalyst systems with multiple reactors.5 1. psig LHSV Conversion depends on feed wax content Pour point reduction as needed.5 100 – 300 Heavy neutral 96. The process can be integrated into a lube hydrocracker or lube hydrotreater. Feed and recycle gases are preheated and contact the catalyst in a down-flow-fixed-bed reactor. and the remaining aromatics are saturated in a post-treat reactor. Post-fractionation is targeted for client needs.000 – 5. Description: MSDW is targeted for hydrocracked or severely hydrotreated stocks. ° F Hydrogen partial pressures.0 Installation: Eight units are operating and four are in design.0 100 – 300 Economics: $3.500 0.0 1.5 1. . ��������� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ����� ���� �� �� ��� ��� ����� ���� ������������ �� ���������� �������� �������� ������������� ��� ������ ���� ����� ����� ����������������������� Products: High VI / low-aromatics lube base oils (light neutral through bright stocks). Byproducts include fuel gas.Catalytic dewaxing Application: Use the ExxonMobil Selective Catalytic Dewaxing (MSDW) process to make high VI lube base stock. wt% 400°F – Lube. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. Internals are proprietary (the Spider Vortex Quench Zone technology is used).500 per bpsd installed cost (US Gulf Coast).4 – 3. naphtha and low-pour diesel. Yields: Light neutral Lube yield.7 1.8 1. The improved selectivity of MSDW for the highly isoparaffinic-lube components results in higher lube yields and VIs.5 2. ��������� ����� ���� ����� ���������� �������� ������������ ��� ����� Operating conditions: Temperatures. wt% C5– 400°F. scf / bbl 94. wt% H2 cons.

Catalytic reforming Application: Increase the octane of straight-run or cracked naphthas for gasoline production. and boils from 208°F to 375°F (ASTM D86).7 RONC and average reactor pressure is 200 psig. Product octane is 99.150 scf/bbl — — — — — — 3.7 83. Hydrogen recycled to reactors at the rate of 3 mols / mol to 7 mols /mol of feed.5% naphthenes and 7. The following yields are one example. Description: Semi-regenerative multibed reforming over platinum or bimetallic catalysts.3 87. The feed contains 51. product octane and reactor pressure. gal Steam produced (175 psig sat).1 1. cooling (20°F rise). .2 Licensor: CB&I Howe-Baker. but low-sulfur feeds (<10 ppm) may be reformed without hydrotreatment. Byproducts may be LPG.000°F and 150 psig to 400 psig reactor conditions.6 2. Straight-run and /or cracked feeds are typically hydrotreated. ���� �������� ���� �������������������� Yields: Depend on feed characteristics.1 — — vol% 1.2 1. fuel gas and steam. 41.8 3.2 216 100 Component H2 C1 C2 C3 iC4 nC4 C5+ LPG Reformate wt% 2. 103 Btu release Electricity. lb 275 7.3 1. kWh Water.4% paraffins. (per bbl feed) Fuel. ��� ����� ������� Products: High-octane gasoline and hydrogen-rich gas. �������� ����� �������� ������� ����� �������� ���� �� Operating conditions: 875°F to 1.1% aromatics. Economics: Utilities.

This section is engineered to provide optimum performance. ���������� ���������� ����������� �������� ����� �������� ������������� ��������� �������� ��������������� Installation: UOP commercialized the CCR Platforming process in 1971 and now has commissioned more than 180 units (more than 3. The combined feed is then raised to reaction temperature in the charge heater and sent to the reactor section. It produces feed for an aromatics complex or a high-octane gasoline blending product and a significant amount of hydrogen. The vapor phase is hydrogen-rich.9 million bpd of capacity) with another 30 in various stages of design. ��� ����������� ������ ������� ������������ ������������� �������� ���� ��������� ������ �������� ������� ���������� �������� �������� ������� Description: Hydrotreated naphtha feed is combined with recycle hydrogen gas and heat exchanged against reactor effluent.Catalytic reforming Application: The CCR Platforming process is used throughout the world in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. A portion of the gas is compressed and recycled back to the reactors. coke builds up on the catalyst at reaction conditions. cooled and split into vapor and liquid products in a separator. Efficiency/product quality: Commercial onstream efficiencies of more than 95% are routinely achieved in CCR Platforming units. Over time. construction and commissioning. Catalyst flows vertically by gravity down the reactor stack. . The effluent from the last reactor is heat exchanged against combined feed. Licensor: UOP LLC. Radial-flow reactors are arranged in a vertical stack. The net hydrogen-rich gas is compressed and charged together with the separator liquid phase to the product recovery section. so an interheater is used between each reactor to reheat the charge to reaction temperature. The predominant reactions are endothermic. Partially deactivated catalyst is continually withdrawn from the bottom of the reactor stack and transferred to the CCR regenerator.

hydrotreated and hydrocracked resids. LPG and naphtha.000 bpsd straight-run vacuum residue feed. pitch. coke handling and a water recovery system.8 28.9 3.0 35. % 900 –950 15 –90 0 –100 Products.3 2. solvent-refined and Athabasca bitumen. wt% Gas + LPG Naphtha Gas oils Coke 7.Coking Application: Conversion of atmospheric and vacuum residuals. °F Coke drum pressure. to one of two coke drums (3). The coke that forms in one of at least two (parallel connected) drums is then removed using high-pressure water.3 27. includes vapor recovery).6 50. and the recycle that rejoins the feed. coal tar. vol/vol feed.7 9. wt% Conradson carbon. Steam or boiler feedwater is injected into the heater tubes to prevent coking in the furnace tubes. The overhead stream is sent to a vapor recovery unit (4) where the individual product streams are separated. US Gulf Coast 2006. residue 7.0 11. two gas oil sidestreams. ���� ���� � � ��� ������������� ��� ������������� ���������� ����� ���� Operating conditions: Heater outlet temperature. US$ per bpsd (typical) 6. wt% Middle East vac. psig Recycle ratio.000 Continued  . °API Sulfur.9 12. decant oil.4 4.2 20. � � � �������� ��������� ������������� Description: Feedstock is introduced (after heat exchange) to the bottom of the coker fractionator (1) where it mixes with condensed recycle.0 Vacuum residue of hydrotreated bottoms 1.9 — 31.1 44. visbroken resids. asphalt.5 48 Economics: Investment (basis: 20. Coke drum overhead vapors flow to the fractionator (1) where they are separated into an overhead stream containing the wet gas.1 Yields: Feedstock Gravity.0 65.0 0. The plant also includes a blow-down system. pyrolysis tar.6 Coal tar pitch –21. The mixture is pumped through the coker heater (2) where the desired coking temperature is achieved. fuel-grade coke.

gal Boiler feedwater. 103 Btu Electricity. March 17–19.6 1 58 38 24 Installation: More than 60 units. lb Water.Coking. lbs 123 3.” NPRA 2002 Annual Meeting. “Delayed coker design considerations and project execution. . lbs Condensate (exported). kWh Steam (exported). 2002. and G. typical/bbl of feed: Fuel. R. cooling. Licensor: ABB Lummus Global. Hamilton. continued Economics (continued): Utilities. Reference: Mallik.

solvent-deasphalter pitch and fuel oil) to more valuable liquid products (LPG. ���� ����� ���������� • Optimum heater design and operation. The reactions continue as the process stream moves to the coke drums. • Highly reliable coke handling system. naphtha. where it is condensed and fractionated into product streams—typically fuel gas. coke drums and main fractionator. ��������������� ������������ ���������� ������� ���� ������� ������������ Description: The delayed coking process is a thermal process and consists of fired heater(s). distillate and gas oil). producing both anode and fuel coke. warmed-up and made ready to receive feed while the other drum becomes full. and we design accordingly. and Brazil. LPG. distillate and gas oil. Drums designed to ConocoPhillips’ specifications provide long operating service life—more than 20 years without severe bulging or cracking—even when run on short drum cycles. ConocoPhillips ThruPlus Delayed Coking Technology provides several advantages: • Experienced owner-operator.1 million bpd and more coming online in the US. The vapor is routed to the fractionator. naphtha. The coke is removed by hydraulic cutting. the coking-reaction rate drops dramatically as coke-drum temperature decreases. Fuel gas and petroleum coke are also produced. We push the limits of reducing cycle times. The proprietary design methodology minimizes the conditions that cause coke deposits in the heater tubes. even if there is an issue with the coke handling system. The company has more than 50+ years experience and today owns and operates 17 delayed cokers worldwide. This allows the process side to operate at full capacity. cooled with steam and water and opened. The full drum is taken offline. The sloped wall also improves safety and requires little maintenance over the life of the unit. with a combined capacity of more than 650. First licensing our ThruPlus Delayed Coking Technology in 1981. there are now 31 installations worldwide. the heater outlet stream is directed to the other coke drum. Being highly endothermic. Since we’ve . The key is understanding drum fatigue at elevated temperatures. More coke has been processed by ConocoPhillips’ ThruPlus Delayed Coking Technology than by any other competing process. bitumen. Canada.000 bpd. the result is maximum furnace run-length and improved liquid yields. The cracking and coking reactions are initiated in the fired heater under controlled time-temperature-pressure conditions. • Short coke drum cycle time. with a combined capacity of 1. • Robust coke drum design. When combined with ConocoPhillips’ patented distillate recycle technology. The empty drum is then closed. Coke is deposited in the coke drums. We do understand. The sloped concrete wall and pit-pad system allows space for an entire drum of coke to be cut without moving any of it. running sustained 10-hour cycles. Success in safely reducing cycle time requires a thorough understanding of each phase of the cycle and the process.Coking Application: Upgrading of petroleum residues (vacuum residue. When one of the pair of coke drums is full of coke.

. Licensor: ConocoPhillips. condenses most steam and recovers water. • Shot coke handling. • Dust suppression is achieved by surrounding the coke storage area with high walls and eliminates wheeled equipment.Coking. The coke is handled by overhead crane—a safer alternative.000-bpd day coker. virtually eliminates hydrocarbon discharge. With a widely-used technology. Economics: The economic benefits of the increase in liquid yields offered by the ConocoPhillips process are substantial. Other distinguishing features that improve emissions include: • Advanced closed blowdown system. oily solids are recovered. and the solids are combined with the coke. The design and operating procedures allow minimizing risks associated with handling shot coke. • Reuse of drilling and quench water uses an effective fines removal system to improve water quality. With a very conservative estimated price of $1. Installation: Low investment cost and attractive yield structure has made delayed coking the technology of choice for bottom-of-the-barrel upgrading. continued been cycling drums since 1953. we understand every step. The recovered water is returned to the drilling and quench system.50 US/gallon of transportation fuels. The oil is contained within the coker process. Numerous delayed coking units are operating in petroleum refineries worldwide. while maximizing profits. annual earnings for a 2% increase in liquid yields can exceed US$15 million for a 40. • Processing of oil bearing solid waste.

pp. psig 15 – 100 Recycle ratio. decreases liquid yield and gas oil end point. � ��� � ������� ����� Description: Charge is fed directly to the fractionator (1) where it combines with recycle and is pumped to the coker heater. June 2006.0 48.6 40. gal a total installed capacity over 2. naphtha. water recovery and blowdown system.3 29. increases liquid yield and gas oil end point. Economics: Investment (basis 65. The vapor-liquid mix enters a coke drum (2 or 3) for further cracking. ºF 900 – 950 Coke drum pressure. September 2004.” Hydrocarbon Processing.4 21. Drum overhead enters the fractionator (1) to be separated into gas. 2006.33 –12.4 41.8 26. wt% Gas Naphtha Gas oil Coke Max dist.000 –5.000 bpsd) 2Q 2005 US Gulf). � ������� � ����� ������������� ������������� ���� ����� Operating conditions: Typical ranges are: Heater outlet temperature. coke cutting.3 Anode coke 8.” Hydrocarbon Processing. “Delayed coking revamps. causing partial vaporization and mild cracking.8 8. cooling. fresh feed 0 – 1. typical per bbl feed: Fuel. lb Water.6 43.” AIChE Spring National Meeting. The coking unit also includes a coke handling.2 Needle coke 9.2 Graw-Hill. 103 Btu Electricity. The mixture is heated to coking temperature. Third Ed. Gas and naphtha enter the vapor recovery unit (VRU)(4). Orlando. equiv.. “Residue upgrading with SYDEC Delayed Coking: Benefits & Economics.200 Licensor: Foster Wheeler/UOP LLC.7 14. Increasing pressure and/or recycle ratio increases gas and coke make. Utilities.0 Increased coking temperature decreases coke production. Vent gas from the blowdown system is recovered in the VRU.Coking Application: Upgrade residues to lighter hydrocarbon fractions using the Selective Yield Delayed Coking (SYDEC) process. . and light and heavy gas oils. 8. 52 delayed cokers are installed worldwide with References: Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes. kWh Steam (exported). $ per bpsd 3.5 million bpsd 120 3 35 36 Installations: Currently.000 –10.89. Mc- Yields: Operation: Products. April 23–27. “Upgrade refinery residuals into value-added products. one coking while the other is decoked using high-pressure water jets. There are at least two coking drums. 12.

wt % Coke consumed for heat. C5+ liquids. greater than other processes • Process wide range of feeds. including stand alone or integrated cogeneration facilities. Product coke can be sold as fuel or burned in an integrated fluid bed boiler to produce steam and power.8 11.1 39. with particular advantages in cement kilns and in fluid-bed boilers. Properties of the fluid coke enable ease of transport and direct use in fuel applications. The heat for the thermal cracking reactions is supplied by circulating coke between the burner (3) and reactor (2). The scrubber typically cuts 975°F+ higher boiling reactor effluent hydrocarbons for recycle back to the reactor with fresh feed. feed is thermally cracked to a full range of lighter products and coke. wt% Net product coke.5 32. sulfur and CCR • Internally heat integrated.050°F+ vacuum resid) enters the scrubber (1) for heat exchange with reactor overhead effluent vapors. Description: Feed (typically 1.4 Investment: TPC. ~5 wt% sulfur): Light ends. fluid Application: Continuous fluid.7 4. US Gulf Coast. wt% Distillate (350 – 650°F). wt% Recycle 11. The rest of the coke is withdrawn and either sold as a product or burned in a fluid bed boiler. wt% Naphtha (C5-350°F).4 9.5 14. Reactor products to fractionator Flue gas to CO boiler START 1 3 2 Net coke Air blower Cold coke Hot coke Air Products: Liquid products can be upgraded through conventional hydrotreating.Coking. wt% Heavy gas oil (650°F+). eliminating the need for an external fuel supply. bed coking technology to convert heavy hydrocarbons (vacuum residuum. $/bp/sd 3. About 20% of the coke is burned with air to supply process heat requirements. typical Middle East vacuum resid (~25 wt% Concarbon. minimal use of fuel gas.1 Once-Through 10.1 25.7 Competitive advantages: • Single train capacities >100 Mbpsd.4 62.3 23.9 3. and lower coke production than delayed coking Continued  . coke handling and wet gas scrubbing for removing SOx from the burner overhead Capital investment. extra heavy oil or bitumen) to fullrange lighter liquid products and fluid coke. wt% 58. 2Q 2003 estimate including gas processing.5 13. In the reactor (2).300 Yields: Example. Fluid coke is widely used as a solid fuel. Lighter overhead vapors from the scrubber are sent to conventional fractionation and light ends recovery. especially high metals. Alternative scrubber configurations provide process flexibility by integrating the recycle stream with the VPS or by operating once-through which produces higher liquid yields.

Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. fluid.Coking. . continued • Lower investment and better economy of scale than delayed coking • Efficient integration with fluid bed boilers for cogeneration of steam and electric power.

3 4 Description: FLEXICOKING has essentially the same reactor (1)/scrubber (2) sections as FLUID COKING. flexi Application: Continuous fluid-bed coking technology to convert heavy hydrocarbons (vacuum residuum. ~5 wt% sulfur): Light ends. and locations where low-cost clean fuel is needed or where natural gas has high value. for heavy feed conversion at the resource. typical Middle East vacuum resid (~25 wt% Concarbon.7 62. Reactor products to fractionator Steam generation 5 START Tertiary cyclones Low heating value coke gas 5 Direct contact cooler Coke fines Steam Sour water 1 2 Products: Liquid products can be upgraded through conventional hydrotreating.1 58. and the gasifier (4). Coke reacts with air and steam in the gasifier (4) to produce heat and lower BTU gas that is cleaned with FLEXSORB hinder amine treating to <10 vppm of H2S. wt% Distillate (350 – 650°F). wt% C5+ Liquids. About 97% of the coke generated is consumed in the process. US Gulf Coast. wt% Heavy gas oil (650°F+). a small amount of purge coke is withdrawn from the heater (3) and fines system (5). Clean Flexigas with <10 vppm H2S can be burned in furnaces or boilers. wt% Flexigas. and also has the same process flexibility options: recycle. 2Q03 estimate including gas processing. once-through and VPS integrated. $/bp/sd 4.5 14. Flexigas treating and distribution Capital investment. Process heat for the coking and gasification reactions is supplied by circulating hot coke between the heater (3) the reactor (2). extra heavy oil or bitumen) to fullrange lighter liquid products and Flexigas—a valuable lower Btu fuel gas. Applicable for complete conversion of resid in refineries with limited outlets for coke. replacing fuel oil. Cold coke Hot coke Air Air blower Purge coke. wt% Recycle 11.1 39.5 13.3 Competitive advantages: • Fully continuous commercially proven integrated fluid bed coking and fluid bed gasification process that produces valuable liquid products and gaseous fuels.100 Investment: TPC.Coking. (C4 ). Continued  .1 Once-through 10.700 Yields: Example.4 9.wt% Naphtha (C5-350°F). which can be burned in cement kilns or used for vanadium recovery.5 32.8 11. fuel gas or natural gasfuels. • Low value coke is converted in the process to clean product Flexigas fuel gas for use within the refinery or by nearby third-party power plants or other consumers.200 ~1 1. coke handling. MBtu/kbbl of feed ~1 1. Partial gasification/coke withdrawal and oxygen-enrichment can be used to provide additional process flexibility.

continued • Particularly attractive for SAGD tar sands upgrading with large fuel requirements. Much lower investment and more reliable than delayed coking plus partial oxidation or direct gasification of solids or heavy feeds. . flexi.Coking. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co.

vac.g.2 4.0 24. desalted (2) and directed to a preheat train (3) where it recovers heat from product and reflux streams. From the heater outlet. heavy naphtha. gas oil Hvy. Stm. The vacuum flasher processes the crude distillation bottoms to produce an increased yield of liquid distillates and a heavy residual material. 2nd Q. vac. Heater effluent then enters a crude distillation column (5) where light naphtha is drawn off the tower overhead (6). The two sidestreams are combined to form cracking feedstock. diesel and cracking stock are sidestream drawoffs. bottoms 6. Total 100. lb 24 Fuel (liberated). (cracker feed) Asphalt Economics: Investment ( basis: 100. vac. 230 – 249. while the outlet temperature is on the order of 675°F to 725°F.9 2. vac. Two circulating reflux streams serve as heat removal media for the tower.19 wt% sulfur. The atmospheric residue is charged to a fired heater (11) where the typical outlet temperature is on the order of 725 °F to 775°F.4 19. 2005.6 Water.. gas oil Description: The charge is preheated (1). *Softening point.400 Utility requirements. 10 3 Btu ( 80 – 120 ) Power. .Crude distillation Application: Separates and recovers the relatively lighter fractions (e.0 23. kerosine.4 30.000 bpsd. MarcelDekker.9 °API 58. 12 Hvy. where the distillate is condensed in two sections and withdrawn as two sidestreams. The typical crude fired heater (4) inlet temperature is on the order of 550 ° F. kWh 0.6 10. diesel and cracking stock) from a fresh crude oil charge. kerosine. 11 Stm.0 8. 1997.0 3.5 18. pp. An asphalt base stock is pumped from the bottom of the tower.0 41. gas oil Vac.91 wt% sulfur.000–50. Vacuum unit feed is 2.8 Pour. External reflux for the tower is provided by pumparound streams (7–10). °F Note: Crude unit feed is 2. 6 Flash gas Light naphtha Heavy naphtha 7 3 4 5 8 9 10 2 1 Crude START Kerosine Diesel Cracker feed To vac.7 85 Licensor: Foster Wheeler. cooling. Reference: Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design. naphtha. gas oil Stm.5 5. $ per bpsd 900 – 1. system Lt. gas oil Vac. typical per bbl fresh feed Steam. gal 300 – 400 Yields: Typical for Merey crude oil: Crude unit products wt% Overhead & naphtha Kerosine Diesel Gas oil Lt. °F — – 85 – 10 20 35 85 (120)* Installation: Foster Wheeler has designed and constructed crude units having a total crude capacity in excess of 15 MMbpsd. US Gulf ). the stream is fed into a vacuum tower (12).9 53.

� �� � �� � ������� ��� Economics: Due to the incorporation of Shell high capacity internals and the deeply integrated designs. The long residue is routed hot to a feedprep HVU. spray sections to obtain a lower flashzone pressure. After desulfurization in the HDS unit. high vacuum unit (HVU) and a visbreaker (VBU) results in a 50% reduction in equipment count and significantly reduced operating costs. a total of some 50 HVU units have been built while a similar number has been debottlenecked. which recovers the waxy distillate fraction from long residue as the feedstock for a cat-cracker or hydrocracker unit (HCU). The Shell design features a deentrainment section.4 18. For each application. Compared with stand-alone units.7 15.3 3.2 17. . waxy distillate.V.Crude distillation Application: The Shell Bulk CDU is a highly integrated concept.8 16. which is routed to the HDS. and a VGO recovery section to recover up to 10 wt% as automotive diesel. an attractive CAPEX reduction can be achieved. % 0. Investment costs are dependent on the required configuration and process objectives. It separates the crude in long residue. including many third-party designs of feedprep and lube oil HVUs. which consists of a main atmospheric fractionator with side strippers. A prominent feature embedded in this design is the Shell deepflash HVU technology. final product separation of the bulk middle distillate stream from the CDU takes place in the HDS fractionator (HDF).6 28. Installation: Over 100 Shell CDUs have been designed and operated since the early 1900s. middle distillates and a naphtha minus fraction. The Shell furnace design prevents excessive cracking and enables a 5-year run length between decoke. ��� ��� �� ��� ���� ����� � � � ��� ��� ��� � � � ���� ��� ��� ��� ��� ������������ ������� ���� �� ����� ������� Description: The basic concept of the bulk CDU is the separation of the naphtha minus and the long residue from the middle distillate fraction. Additionally.0 Licensor: Shell Global Solutions International B. Yields: Typical for Arabian light crude Products Gas Gasoline Kerosine Gasoil (GO) VGO Waxy distillate (WD) Residue C1 – C4 C5 – 150°C 150 – 250°C 250 – 350°C 350 – 370°C 370 – 575°C 575°C+ wt. hydrodesulfurization unit (HDS). tailor-made designs can be produced. This technology can also be provided in cost-effective process designs for both feedprep and lube oil HVUs as stand-alone units. Typical flashzone conditions are 415°C and 24 mbara. the overall integration of a crude distillation unit (CDU).

103 btu Power. one vacuum gas oil cut. This process is particularly suitable for large crude capacity from 150. � � � ���� � ����������������������� ���������������� �������������� � ���������� ������������������ ������ ������� Description: The crude is preheated and desalted (1).000 bpsd. lb Water cooling.25 tons of fuel per 100 tons of Crude 1.Crude distillation Application: The D2000 process is progressive distillation to minimize the total energy consumption required to separate crude oils or condensates into hydrocarbon cuts. (15°C rise) gal 50–65 0.15 tons of fuel per 100 tons of Crude Total primary energy consumption: for Arabian Light or Russian Export Blend: for Arabian Heavy Economics: Investment (basis 230. typical per bbl of crude feed: Fuel fired. one or two kerosine cuts. two atmospheric gas oil cuts. The overhead products of the two pre-flash towers are then fractionated as required in a gas plant and rectification towers (4).9–1. ���� ����� ��� ������������� � �������������� ������������� Products: This process is particularly suitable when more than two naphtha cuts are to be produced. It is fed to a first dry reboiled pre-flash tower (2) and then to a wet pre-flash tower (3). Utility requirements. kWh Steam 65 psig. and one vacuum residue. which number and properties are optimized to fit with sophisticated refining schemes and future regulations. This process is applied normally for new topping units or new integrated topping/vacuum units but the concept can be used for debottlenecking purpose.000 to 250. The latest revamp projContinued  .000 bpsd including atmospheric and vacuum distillation. The topped crude typically reduced by 2/3 of the total naphtha cut is then heated in a conventional heater and conventional topping column (5). Extensive use of pinch technology minimizes heat supplied by heaters and heat removed by air and water coolers. It is also available for condensates and light crudes progressive distillation with a slightly adapted scheme. gas plant and rectification tower) $750 to $950 per bpsd (US Gulf Coast 2000). Installation: Technip has designed and constructed one crude unit and one condensate unit with the D2000 concept.2 0–5 50–100 1. two vacuum distillates cuts. two vacuum distillates (6) and a vacuum residue. which could be also a road bitumen. Typically the process is optimized to produce three naphtha cuts or more. If necessary the reduced crude is fractionated in one deep vacuum column designed for a sharp fractionation between vacuum gas oil.

Licensor: TOTAL and Technip.Crude distillation. . continued ect currently in operation shows an increase of capacity of the existing crude unit of 30% without heater addition.

Heat integration reduces emissions and minimizes process-energy requirements.Crude topping units Application: Crude topping units are typically installed in remote areas to provide fuel for local consumption. °F 0 – 20 550 – 650 Licensor: CB&I Howe-Baker. Description: Crude topping units comprise of four main sections: preheat/heat recovery section. but kerosine. These units are typically custom designed to meet individual customer requirements. Modular units also allow installation in remote areas with minimal mobilization. which reduces construction cost and complexity. wastewater treatment facilities and other associated offsites are often supplied. psig Temperature. distillate product. and control corrosion in the fractionation section. or combinations of these fuels. Utility packages. . ���������� ������� �������� ���������� ������������� Operating conditions: Column pressure. Crude topping units are modularized. depending on the individual site requirements. fired heater. natural gas. ��� ������� ������������ ����� ����� ������ ��������� Products: Diesel is typically the desired product. crude fractionation (distillation). an electrostatic desalter may be required to prevent fouling and plugging. requiring few utilities for operation. often for use at pipeline pumping stations and at production facilities. Crude topping units are self-contained. Fuel for the heater can be residual products. turbine fuel and naphtha are also produced. The fired heater provides heat for the plant. offgas. and product cooling and accumulation. depending on the installation. Depending on the individual site.

SSU@210ºF Ni/V.5/10.000 56 – 100 1. wt% Visc.4). resins for specification asphalts.1 2. R&B. 103 Btu (hot oil) Electricity. wt% CCR.0 21. wt% Visc.2 6. lb Water.% of feed Gravity. vol. 150 psig. A second extraction stage is utililized if resins are to be produced.5 3. cooling (25ºF rise). ������ ������� ������ ������� � ��������� ����� �������� � ��� ��������� Description: Feed and light paraffinic solvent are mixed and then charged to the extractor (1).9 20.9 – 2. The DAO and pitch phases. psig Temp.7 1.6 4. type Gravity. °F Solvent to oil ratio: various blends of C3– C7 hydrocarbons including light naphthas 300 – 600 120 – 450 4/1 to 13/1 Lube oil 6. and pitch for specification asphalts and residue fuels. typical per bbl feed: Fuel.3 240 0 Economics: Investment (basis: 40.2 540 Yields: Feed.25/0.. $/bpsd Utilities. ºAPI Sulfur. US Gulf.Deasphalting Application: Prepare quality feed for FCC units and hydrocrackers from vacuum residue. SSU@210ºF Ni/V.000 bpsd) 2Q 2005. wt% CCR. ºAPI Sulfur.4 165 Cracking stock 6.300 29/100 30 20. wppm 0.1 7. kWh Steam.720 46/125 65 15.000 –2. and blending stocks for lube oil and asphalt manufacturing.0 6–9 10 Continued  .3 2. gal 800 – 3. Both the pitch and DAO products are stripped of entrained solvent (3.8 8. � ������� ����� � ��� �������� ��� Operating conditions: Typical ranges are: Solvent Pressure. wppm DAO Yield.37 Pitch Softening point. both containing solvents. exit the extractor.. Products: Deasphalted oil (DAO) for catalytic cracking and hydrocracking feedstocks. The DAO and solvent mixture is separated under supercritical conditions (2). ºF 149 Penetration@77ºF 12 4.

. London.37–10. continued Installations: Over 50 units installed.61.” International Downstream Technology Conference. References: Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes. pp. McGraw Hill. Licensor: Foster Wheeler/UOP LLC. 10. 2003. 2006.. this also includes both UOP and Foster Wheeler units originally licensed separately before merging the technologies in 1996. “When Solvent Deasphalting is the Most Appropriate Technology for Upgrading Residue.Deasphalting. Third Ed. February 15 –16.

61–66.5 FCC 0. due to the fundamental differences in the reaction mechanisms involved. However.3 14.8 11. The integrated DCC/steam cracking complex offers significant capital savings over a conventional stand-alone refinery for propylene production. Each operational mode utilizes unique catalyst as well as reaction conditions. . et al. Maximum propylene DCC uses both riser and bed cracking at severe reactor conditions while Type II DDC uses only riser cracking like a modern FCC unit at milder conditions. aromatic-rich. April 2004.3 5. as shown in the schematic.3 Installation: Six units are currently operating in China and one in Thailand.8 6. pp. Several more units are under design in China and one in Saudi Arabia.5 14. Description: DCC is a fluidized process for selectively cracking a wide variety of feedstocks to light olefins. The DCC unit may be operated in two operational modes: maximum propylene (Type I) or maximum iso-olefins (Type II).. Sinopec. process variable selection and severity and gas plant design enables the DCC to produce significantly more olefins than FCC in a maximum olefins mode of operation. Feed enters the unit through proprietary feed nozzles.0 3. Products: C2– C5 olefins.3 8.5 4. The combination of thermal and catalytic cracking mechanisms is the only way to increase total olefins from heavier feeds while meeting the need for an increased propylene to ethylene ratio. In a market requiring both propylene and ethylene. This technology is quite suitable for revamps as well as grassroot applications. Licensor: Shaw Stone & Webster and Research Institute of Petroleum Processing.4 — — DCC Type II 2.6 6.” Hydrocarbon Processing. Integrating DCC technology into existing refineries as either a grassroots or revamp application can offer an attractive opportunity to produce large quantities of light olefins. Products (wt% of fresh feed) Ethylene Propylene Butylene in which IC4= Amylene in which IC5= DCC Type I 6. Reference: Dharia.3 14. use of both thermal and catalytic processes is essential.. The overall flow scheme of DCC is very similar to that of a conventional FCC. D.Deep catalytic cracking Application: Selective conversion of gasoil and paraffinic residual feedstocks. A traditional reactor/regenerator unit design uses a catalyst with physical properties similar to traditional FCC catalyst. innovations in the areas of catalyst development. Propylene yields over 24 wt% are achievable with paraffinic feeds. “Increase light olefins production.1 9.1 20. high-octane gasoline and distillate.9 6.

The cyclone overheads are charged to an atmospheric fractionator (4) to produce the desired products like gas. ECP 520°C Residue ECP 520°C+ Utilities. where the deep conversion takes place. The residual liquid coke is routed for further processing depending on the outlet. The process yields a maximum of distillates by applying deep thermal conversion of the vacuum residue feed and by vacuum flashing the cracked residue. Post startup services and technical services for existing units are available from Shell Global Solutions.g. cSt @100°C Middle East 615 3. The soaker effluent is routed to a cyclone (3). e. typical consumption/production for a 25. In four cases. dependent on configuration and a site’s marginal econmic values for steam and fuel: Fuel as fuel oil equivalent. kero and gasoil. Reference: Hydrocarbon Engineering. to generate power and/or hydrogen. tpd 370 Installation: To date. MW 1. naphtha. LPG. vacuum residue Viscosity. gasification and/or combustion. and ABB Lummus Global B. this has involved revamping an existing Shell Soaker Visbreaker unit. The cyclone and fractionator bottoms are subsequently routed to a vacuum flasher (5).000-bpd unit will be about $1. The conversion is maximized by controlling the operating temperature and pressure.900 to $2. ������������� ��������������� Yields: Depend on feed type and product specifications.V. while still producing a stable liquid residual product.8 8.2 19 22.8 46.300/bbl installed. ECP 165°C Gas oil. 2004.000-bpd unit. ��� ������� � ����� ��� ��� ����� � � ���� � � Description: The preheated short residue is charged to the heater (1) and from there to the soaker (2). Economics: The typical investment for a 25. (Basis: Western Europe. is used for speciality products. Licensor: Shell Global Solutions International B. High-distillate yields are obtained. Feed.Deep thermal conversion Application: The Shell Deep Thermal Conversion process closes the gap between visbreaking and coking..). six Shell Deep Thermal Conversion units have been licensed. not suitable for blending to commercial fuel. on feed Gas Gasoline. which recovers additional gasoil and waxy distillate. ECP 350°C Waxy distillate. . referred to as liquid coke. September 2003. The liquid coke.V.2 Net steam production (18 bar). bpd 417 Power.2 Products in % wt. excluding treating facilities.

Desulfurization Application: GT-BTXPlus addresses overall plant profitability by desulfurizing the FCC stream with no octane loss and decreased hydrogen consumption by using a proprietary solvent in an extractive distillation system. Lean solvent from the SRC bottoms are treated and recycled back to the EDC. ������������� ������������� ������������������� ������������ ���� ����� Description: FCC gasoline. Because the portion of gasoline being hydrotreated is reduced in volume and free of olefins. containing aromatics and sulfur compounds. In a vapor-liquid operation. hydrogen consumption and operating costs are greatly reduced. That method inevitably results in olefin saturation. (SRC). Rich solvent. or to aromatizing unit. conventional desulfurization schemes process the majority of the gasoline through hydrotreating and caustic-washing units to eliminate the sulfur. or directed to an aromatics production plant.50 / bbl of feed for desulfurization and dearomatization. The raffinate stream can be op- � ���������� ������������ ������ ������� �������� ������ ������������� � ������������ ���������������� ������������ tionally caustic washed before routing to the gasoline pool. and thus. the solvent extracts the sulfur compounds into the bottoms of the column along with the aromatic components. including olefins. are effectively separated into the raffinate stream. In contrast. The sulfur and aromatic components are processed in a conventional hydrotreater to convert the sulfur into H 2S. is routed to the solvent recovery column. GT-BTXPlus has these advantages: • Segregates and eliminates FCC-gasoline sulfur species to meet a pool gasoline target of 20 ppm • Preserves more than 90% of the olefins from being hydrotreated in the HDS unit. octane downgrade and yield loss. and lean solvent is recovered in columns bottoms. Economics: Estimated installed cost of $1.000 / bpd of feed and production cost of $0. . Olefinrich raffinate can be recycled to FCC or to aromatizing unit. where the hydrocarbons and sulfur species are separated. This process also recovers valuable aromatics compounds. FCC gasoline is fed to the extractive distillation column (EDC). with endpoint up to 210 °C. prevents significant octane loss and reduces hydrogen consumption • Fewer components are sent to the HDS unit. The SRC overhead is hydrotreated by conventional means and used as desulfurized gasoline. Licensor: GTC Technology Inc. a smaller HDS unit is needed and there is less yield loss • High-purity BTX products can be produced from the aromatic-rich extract stream after hydrotreating • Olefin-rich raffinate stream (from the ED unit) can be recycled to the FCC unit to increase the light olefin production. which extracts sulfur and aromatics from the hydrocarbon stream. is fed to the GTBTXPlus unit. while rejecting the olefins and nonaromatics into the overhead as raffinate. consequently. Nearly all of the nonaromatics.

cooling (25°F rise). The repulp filtrate is reused as dilution solvent in the feed chilling train. gal 11. distillate or deasphalted oil) is mixed with a binary-solvent system and chilled in a very closely controlled manner in scraped-surface double-pipe exchangers (1) and refrigerated chillers (2) to form a wax/oil/solvent slurry. dried (7) and recycled back to the chilling and filtration sections. . � � ����������� Description: Waxy feedstock (raffinate. typical per bbl feed: Fuel. The recovered solvent is collected. Licensor: Bechtel Corp. $/bpsd Utilities. Wax from the primary stage is slurried with cold solvent and filtered again in the repulp filter (4) to reduce the oil content to approximately 10%. the primary filtrate is used to cool the feed/solvent mixture (1).100 Installation: Over 100 have been licensed and built.Dewaxing Application: Bechtel’s Dewaxing process is used to remove waxy components from lubrication base-oil streams to simultaneously meet desired low-temperature properties for dewaxed oils and produce slack wax as a byproduct. The slurry is filtered through the primary filter stage (3) and dewaxed oil mixture is routed to the dewaxed oil recovery section (5) to separate solvent from oil. The wax mixture is routed to a solvent-recovery section (6) to remove solvent from the product streams (hard wax and soft wax).200 160 15 35 1.000-bpsd feedrate capacity. kWh Steam. Prior to solvent recovery. 103 Btu (absorbed) Electricity. 2006 US Gulf Coast). ����������� � � � � ����� ��������� ������� ��� ����� ����� � ������� �������� ����� ����������� �������������� ��������� Economics: Investment (Basis: 7. lb Water.

The products are highquality base oils that can meet stringent cold flow properties. March 2005. ��� ������ � �������������� � � ���������� ������ �������� �������������� Utilities: Typical per bbl feed: Power.Dewaxing Application: Selectively convert feedstock’s waxy molecules by isomerization in the presence of ISODEWAXING Catalysts. slack wax. superheated. the capital for ISBL is about 6. hydrotreated DAO and unconverted oil from hydrocracking. Licensor: Chevron Lummus Global LLC. Higher wax feed will have a little lower base oil yield. the effluent from a dewaxing reactor is cooled down and sent to a finishing reactor (2) where the remaining single ring and multiple ring aromatics are further saturated by the ISOFINISHING Catalysts. depending on the operating severity. Economics: Investment: This is a moderate investment process. . kcal Steam. foots oil. heated and charged to a reactor containing ISODEWAXING Catalyst (1). Paper AM-05-39. ��������������� ����������� ������� � � � Description: ISODEWAXING Catalysts are very special catalysts that convert feedstocks with waxy molecules (containing long. In a typical configuration.4 x 103 5. the base oil yield can be 90–95%. kg Steam.3 2. As shown in the simplified flow diagram. Nm3/m3 oil various stages of design or construction. waxy feedstocks are mixed with recycle hydrogen and fresh makeup hydrogen. 4). for a typical size ISODEWAXING/ISOFINISHING Unit. kg Water. paraffinic chains) into two or three main branch isomers that have low-pour points. The product also has low aromatics content. San Francisco.000 $/bpsd. The effluent is flashed in high-pressure and lowpressure separators (3. For a typical low wax content feedstock. produced. kg Chemical-hydrogen consumption.4 192 30~50 Yields: The base oil yields strongly depend on the feedstocks.3 13. the aromatics content is reduced by 50– 80% in the dewaxing reactor. kW Fuel . 3. hydrotreated VGO. cooling. Small amounts of light products are recovered in a fractionation system (5). Installation: More than twelve units are in operation and six units are in Reference: NPRA Annual Meeting. required. Typical feeds are: raffinates. The effluent will have a much lower pour point and. saturated.

the primary filtrate is used to cool the feed/solvent mixture (1).500 Installation: Seven in service.Dewaxing/wax deoiling Application: Bechtel’s Dewaxing/Wax Fractionation processes are used to remove waxy components from lubrication base-oil streams to simultaneously meet desired low-temperature properties for dewaxed oils and produce hard wax as a premium byproduct.8) to remove solvent from the product streams (hard wax and soft wax).200 . gal 230 25 25 1. The hard and soft wax mixtures are each routed to solvent recovery sections (7. 2006 US Gulf Coast). cooling (25°F rise). ����������� � � � �������� ������� �������� ����� ����� ����� ����������� �������������� � � ����� ������� ��� � ��������� �������� Utilities. � � � ����������� Description: Bechtel’s two-stage solvent dewaxing process can be expanded to simultaneously produce hard wax by adding a third deoiling stage using the Wax Fractionation process. Wax from the primary stage is slurried with cold solvent and filtered again in the repulp filter (4) to reduce the oil content to approximately 10%. Prior to solvent recovery. Licensor: Bechtel Corp. distillate or deasphalted oil) is mixed with a binary-solvent system and chilled in a very closely controlled manner in scraped-surface doublepipe exchangers (1) and refrigerated chillers (2) to form a wax/oil/solvent slurry. Economics: Investment (Basis: 7. typical per bbl feed: Fuel. lb Water. The repulp filtrate is reused as dilution solvent in the feed chilling train.000-bpsd feedrate capacity. Waxy feedstock (raffinate. The slurry is filtered through the primary filter stage (3) and dewaxed oil mixture is routed to the dewaxed oil recovery section (6) to separate solvent from oil. The low-oil content slack wax is warmed by mixing with warm solvent to melt the low-melting-point waxes (soft wax) and is filtered in a third stage filtration (5) to separate the hard wax from the soft wax. dried (9) and recycled back to the chilling and filtration sections. kWh Steam. The recovered solvent is collected. 103 Btu (absorbed) Electricity. $/bpsd 13.

high-activity catalyst. The highest activity BRIM catalyst is suitable at higher pressure when secondary objectives such as cetane improvement and density reduction are required. Paris. This catalyst is suitable for revamping existing low-pressure hydrotreaters or in new units when minimizing hydrogen consumption. M.Diesel—ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) Application: Topsøe ULSD process is designed to produce ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) (5–50 wppm S) from cracked and straight-run distillates. The ULSD process can be applied over a very wide range of reactor pressures. and engineering expertise in the design of new and revamped ULSD units. ������ �������� ������� ������� ���������� ���������� ����� ����������� ���������� �������� ���������� Description: Topsøe ULSD process is a hydrotreating process that combines Topsøe’s understanding of deep-desulfurization kinetics. B. Cooper. product.” NPRA Annual Meeting.. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. reactor design package. state-of-the-art reactor internal. or engineering design package. P. By selecting the proper catalyst and operating conditions. “Systematic approach for the revamp of a low-pressure hydrotreater to produce 10-ppm. Our offerings include process scoping study. Vasalos and S. K. L. “ULSD Production in Practice.” 9th ERTC. Shooter. Our highest activity BRIM catalyst is specifically formulated with high-desulfurization activity and stability at low reactor pressure (~ 500 psig) to produce 5 wppm diesel. G. References: Low. November 2002. Installation: Topsøe has licensed more than 50 ULSD hydrotreaters of which more than 40 units are designed for less than 10 wppm sulfur in the diesel.” 7th ERTC. Sarup. “ULSD: Ensuring the unit makes on-spec. cetane. Knudsen. Townsend and T. J. ����������� ���������� ������������� ���������������������� ������������� ��������� Hoekstra. Vousvoukis. Skyum and B. Prague. Pradhan.. Johansen.. Our reactor internals are installed in more than 60 ULSD units. process design package. V. . Christensen. the process can be designed to produce 5 wppm S diesel at low reactor pressures (<500 psig) or at higher reactor pressure when products with improved density. G. I. November 2004. March 2006. Salt Lake City. Topsøe offers a wide range of engineering deliverables to meet the needs of the refiners. sulfur-free diesel at BP Conyton Refinery. and polyaromatics are required.

Johansen. cold-flow properties. San Antonio.. March 2003. the treating section uses Topsøe’s high-activity CoMo or NiMo catalyst. The process is suitable for new units or revamps of existing hydrotreating units. one in the Middle East. including reduction of diesel specific gravity. Every unit is individually designed to improve the diesel property that requires upgrading. ��������������� ����������� ���������� ��������� ������� ������� �������� ������� �������� ���������� ���������� ������� ��� ������������� ��������� ������������ ��������� ������� ������������� Description: Topsøe’s Diesel Upgrading process is a combination of treating and upgrading. This is done by selecting the optimum processing parameters. reduction of T90 and T95 distillation (Back-end-shift). R. Christensen. Feeds can range from blends of straight-run and cracked gas oils up to heavy distillates. and improvements of cetane. Topsøe’s graded-bed technology and the use of shape-optimized inert topping material and catalyst minimize the pressure drop build-up. Installations: A total of 16 units. six in Asia-Pacific region. reduction of aromatics.. ���������� References: Patel. including unit pressure and LHSV and determining the appropriate Topsøe high-activity catalysts and plant lay-out.” 4th ERTC. “How are refiners meeting the ultra-low-sulfur diesel challenge?” NPRA Annual Meeting. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. including light vacuum gas oil. Reactor section is followed by separation and stripping/fractionation where final products are produced. such as TK-575 BRIM or TK-576 BRIM. “Options for meeting EU year 2005 fuels specifications. to remove feed impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen. two in Europe and seven HDS/HDA units (see Hydrodearomatization). November 1999. E. thereby reducing catalyst skimming requirements and ensuring long catalyst cycle lengths. and M. clouds point. high-activity treating catalyst and proprietary diesel upgrading catalyst. Fuente. In the reactor system. engineering expertise in quality design. and the purified stream is treated in the downstream upgrading reactor. Topsøe’s high-efficiency internals are effective for a wide range of liquid loading. Like the conventional Topsøe hydrotreating process. viscosity and CFPP) and diesel color reduction (poly shift). The technology combines state-of-the-art reactor internals.Diesel upgrading Application: Topsøe’s Diesel Upgrading process can be applied for improvement of a variety of diesel properties. the diesel upgrading process uses Topsøe’s graded-bed loading and high-efficiency patented reactor internals to provide optimal reactor performance and catalyst utilization. Reactor catalyst used in the application is dependent on the specific diesel property that requires upgrading. These compounds limit the downstream upgrading catalyst performance. . (pour point. P.

�������� Description: Different arrangements have been demonstrated depending on the nature of the feeds. operated like a conventional distillation column. Twenty-four units. are in operation. Reactants are converted at moderate well-controlled temperatures and moderate pressures. Licensor: Axens. The last part of the unit removes alcohol from the crude raffinate using a conventional waterwash system (5) and a standard distillation column (6). ETBE. including ETBE and TAME. More than 90% of the total per pass conversion occurs in the expanded-bed reactor. . Catacol. for downstream 1-butene extraction) are achieved. This system. followed by the main reaction section. The same inexpensive (purchased in bulk quantities) and long-lived. if any. maximizing yield and catalyst life. The main effluents are purified for further applications or recycle. The effluent then flows to a reactive distillation system (4).Ethers Application: Production of high-octane reformulated gasoline components (MTBE. hydrocarbon purification (2). combines catalysis and distillation. ������������ � � � � � ������� ������ � Installation: Over 25 units. have been licensed. non-sophisticated catalysts are used in the main reactor section catalytic region of the Catacol column. including four Catacol units. The catalytic zones of the Catacol use fixed-bed arrangements of an inexpensive acidic resin catalyst that is available in bulk quantities and easy to load and unload. Yields: Ether yields are not only highly dependent on the reactive olefins’ content and the alcohol’s chemical structure. TAME and/or higher molecular-weight ethers) from C1 to C2 alcohols and reactive hydrocarbons in C4 to C6 cuts. All use acid resins in the reaction section. The process includes alcohol purification (1). but also on operating goals: maximum ether production and/or high final raffinate purity (for instance. This main reactor (3) operates under adiabatic upflow conditions using an expanded-bed technology and cooled recycle. Economics: Plants and their operations are simple.

ETBE. kg Electricity. Isobutene conversions of 94% are typical for FCC feedstocks. The reactor inlet temperature ranges from 50°C at start-of-run to about 65°C at end-of-run conditions. most important. Licensor: Uhde GmbH. an ethanol / water azeotrope is recycled to the reactor section. One important feature of the twostage system is that the catalyst can be replaced in each reactor separately. The isobutene-depleted C4 stream may be sent to a raffinate stripper or to a molsieve-based unit to remove oxygenates such as DEE.butanol. avoids hot spot formation. Water is used to extract excess ethanol and recycle it back to process. Undesired side reactions. kWh Water. converting existing MTBE units. such as the formation of di-ethyl ether (DEE). without shutting down the ETBE unit. With this method. At the top of the ethanol / water separation column. per metric ton of ETBE): Steam. The catalyst used in this process is a cation-exchange resin and is available from several manufacturers. The ethanol-rich C4 distillate is sent to the ethanol recovery section. Higher conversions are attainable when processing steamcracker C4 cuts that contain isobutene concentrations of about 25%. LP. kg Steam. ������������ ������� ������������� ��������� Description: The Uhde (Edeleanu) technology features a two-stage reactor system of which the first reactor is operated in the recycle mode. m3 110 1. ���� ������� ����������� ����� ���� ������������� ���������� ����������� Feeds: C4 cuts from steam cracker and FCC units with isobutene contents ranging from 12% to 30%. cooling. ������������ Utility requirements: (C4 feed containing 21% isobutene. a slight expansion of the catalyst bed is achieved that ensures very uniform concentration profiles in the reactor and.000 35 24 Installation: The Uhde (Edeleanu) proprietary ETBE process has been successfully applied in three refineries. ETBE is recovered as the bottoms product of the distillation unit. Products: ETBE and other tertiary alkyl ethers are primarily used in gasoline blending as an octane enhancer to improve hydrocarbon combustion efficiency.Ethers—ETBE Application: The Uhde (Edeleanu) ETBE process combines ethanol and isobutene to produce the high-octane oxygenate ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). blending of ETBE to the gasoline pool will lower vapor pressure (Rvp). are minimized. ethanol and tert. Moreover. MP. Two other MTBE plants are in the conversion stage. .

methanol and tert-butanol. can be achieved through a debutanizer column with structured packings containing additional catalyst. MP. The methanol-rich C4 distillate is sent to the methanol-recovery section. . are minimized. kWh Water. most important. The reactor inlet temperature ranges from 45°C at start-of-run to about 60°C at end-of-run conditions. without shutting down the MTBE unit. This reactive distillation technique is particularly suited when the raffinate-stream from the MTBE unit will be used to produce a high-purity butene-1 product. avoids hot spot formation. m3 Steam. Water is used to extract excess methanol and recycle it back to process. Products: MTBE and other tertiary alkyl ethers are primarily used in gasoline blending as an octane enhancer to improve hydrocarbon combustion efficiency. Utility requirements. in excess of 99%. MTBE is recovered as the bottoms product of the distillation unit. Licensor: Uhde GmbH. Very high isobutene conversion. the isobutene conversion may exceed 98% at a selectivity for MTBE of 99. Isobutene conversions of 97% are typical for FCC feedstocks. MTBE. The isobutene-depleted C4 stream may be sent to a raffinate stripper or to a molsieve-based unit to remove other oxygenates such as DME.Ethers—MTBE Application: The Uhde (Edeleanu) MTBE process combines methanol and isobutene to produce the high-octane oxygenate—methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). a slight expansion of the catalyst bed is achieved which ensures very uniform concentration profiles within the reactor and. kg 100 35 15 900 Installation: The Uhde (Edeleanu) proprietary MTBE process has been successfully applied in five refineries. ������������ ����������� ����� ���� �������������� ���������� ����������� Feeds: C4-cuts from steam cracker and FCC units with isobutene contents range from 12% to 30%. cooling. ������������ �������� ������������ Description: The technology features a two-stage reactor system of which the first reactor is operated in the recycle mode. Higher conversions are attainable when processing steam-cracker C4 cuts that contain isobutene concentrations of 25%. For a C4 cut containing 22% isobutene. The accumulated licensed capacity exceeds 1 MMtpy. kg Electricity. LP. With this method. The catalyst used in this process is a cation-exchange resin and is available from several catalyst manufacturers. One important factor of the twostage system is that the catalyst may be replaced in each reactor separately. (C4 feed containing 21% isobutene.5%. such as the formation of dimethyl ether (DME). per metric ton of MTBE): Steam. Undesired side reactions.

B. L. The DNX catalyst is based on a fiber-reinforced ceramic carrier. the process covers a wide range of operating conditions and flue-gas dust contents and may be applied to practically all types of refinery units including furnaces. The high micro-porosity provides a superior resistance to catalyst poisons and low weight. References: Damgaard. Description: The reducing agent such as ammonia or urea. DNX is manufactured in small units. which gives a unique combination of a high strength and a high micro-porosity. Schröter: “Control refinery NOx with SCRs. boilers. By carefully selecting the catalyst parameters. which may be combined into larger modules to match any requirement in terms of vessel dimensions and pressure drop. up to 3 bar (44 psia) and up to 50 g/Nm3 of dust in the flue gas. aqueous or pure. controlled by measurement of flue gas flow and NOx concentration.. November 2004. Products: The Topsøe SCR DeNOx converts NOx into inert nitrogen and water vapor. The injection takes place in a grid over the entire cross-section of the flue-gas duct to ensure a uniform distribution of NOx and ammonia upstream the SCR catalyst vessel. Installation: More than 50 refinery units use Topsøe SCR DeNOx catalyst and technology. and in both horizontal and vertical vessel configurations.” Hydrocarbon Processing. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. Operating conditions: Typical operating conditions range from 300°C to 500°C (570–930°F). . The fibers add flexibility to the catalyst so that it can tolerate a wide range of heating and cooling rates. Widroth and M.Flue gas denitrification Application: The Topsøe SCR DeNOx process removes NOx from flue ������� �� ������������ �������������� ��� ������� �� �� �� ����������� ��������������� ����� �������� �� ��� �� �� ������� ���� gases through reactions with an ammonia-based reducing agent over a specially designed fixed-bed monolithic catalyst. is injected into the flue gas stream in stoichiometric proportion to the amount of NOx in the flue gas. The applications range from low-dust furnaces to highdust FCC units and temperatures up to 500°C (930°F). The process may be designed for NOx reductions in excess of 95% and with an ammonia leakage of just a few ppm. The process incorporates Topsøe’s well-proven corrugated monolithic DNX catalyst. channel size and chemical composition. crackers and FCC units.

These are similar to SNOX plants. The WSA condenser is cooled by atmospheric air. The SNOX process is a combination of the Topsøe WSA process and the Topsøe SCR DeNOx process. The first catalyst makes the NOx react with ammonia to form N2 and water vapor. for other applications than flue gas cleaning. Installation: Four SNOX units have been contracted for cleaning of a total of more than three million Nm3/ h of flue gas. During the cooling in the gas/gas heat exchanger.Flue gas desulfurization—SNOX Application: The SNOX process treats boiler flue gases from the combustion of high-sulfur fuels. The flue gas is preheated in a gas/gas heat exchanger. it is further heated to approximately 400°C and ammonia is added. Thereafter. SO3 and NOx as well as dust. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. the only products are cleaned flue gas and concentrated commercial-grade sulfuric acid. before it enters the reactor. The SNOX process is distinctly different from most other flue gas desulfurization processes in that its economy increases with increasing sulfur content in the flue gas. . Besides dust removed from the flue gas. and the second catalyst makes the SO2 react with oxygen to form SO3. only smaller. The cooling air can be used as preheated combustion air in the boiler. which is a heat exchanger with vertical glass tubes. most of the SO3 reacts with water vapor to form sulfuric acid vapor. ������� ��� ������ ��� ��������� ������� ������� ����� Description: Dust is removed from the flue gas by means of an electrostatic precipitator or a bag filter. The sulfur is recovered in the form of concentrated commercial-grade sulfuric acid. where two different catalysts are installed. The process removes SO2. such as heavy residual oil and petroleum coke. Cleaned flue gas leaves the WSA condenser at 100°C and can be sent to the stack without further treatment. Concentrated commercial-grade sulfuric acid is collected in the bottom of the WSA condenser and is cooled and pumped to storage. The second catalyst also removes any dust traces remaining. This process can achieve up to 98% sulfur removal and about 96% NOx removal. • High degree of heat efficiency • Modest utility consumption �������� ������ ������� ���� ���� ����� ��������� �������������� ��� ��������� �������� �������� �� ������ ���������� • Attractive operating economy • Simple. and some without NOx removal. 50 WSA plants have been contracted. Other features of the SNOX process are: • No absorbent is applied • No waste products are produced. The sulfuric acid vapor is condensed via further cooling in the WSA condenser. Additionally. reliable and flexible process.

Product vapors are routed directly to fractionation. The catalyst flows down into the stripper containing proprietary modular grid (MG) baffles (5). the formulation for maximizing light olefins (Indmax operation) is a multi-component mixture that promotes the selective cracking of molecules of different sizes and shapes to provide very high conversion and yield of light olefins. Catalyst from the stripper flows down the spent-catalyst standpipe and through the slide valve (6). The MG stripper efficiently removes hydrocarbons at low steam rate. The new commercially proven FCC/ Indmax technology selectively cracks molecules of different sizes and shapes. the optional catalyst cooler is integrated with the regenerator. Typical feedstocks are virgin or hydrotreated gas oils but may also include lube oil extract. high-efficiency catalyst stripper and a mechanically robust. The well allows independent optimization of catalyst density in the regenerated catalyst standpipe. Trace hydrocarbons entrained with spent catalyst are removed in the MG stripper using stripping steam. Flexibility of mode of operation allows for maximizing the most desirable product. The resulting flue gas exits via cyclones (9) to energy recovery/flue gas treating. The spent catalyst is then transported in dilute phase to the center of the regenerator (8) through a unique square-bend-spent catalyst transfer line (7). Catalyst and oil vapor flow upwards through a short-contact time. � � � � Products: High-octane gasoline. � � �� �� � � � Description: The Lummus process incorporates an advanced reaction system. Catalyst is regenerated by efficient contacting with air for complete combustion of coke. coker gas oil and resid. thereby eliminating nonselective. Reaction products exiting the riser are separated from the spent catalyst in a patented. direct-coupled cyclone system (3). Continued  . all-vertical riser (2) where raw oil feedstock is cracked under optimum conditions. Spent catalyst containing only minute quantities of hydrocarbon is discharged from the diplegs of the direct-coupled cyclones into the cyclone containment vessel (4).Fluid catalytic cracking Application: Selective conversion of a wide range of gas oils into highvalue products. For example. This arrangement provides the lowest overall unit elevation. thus maximizing light olefins (propylene and ethylene) production. For resid-containing feeds. The catalyst formulation can be tailored to maximize the most desired product. maximizes slide valve (11) pressure drop and ensures stable catalyst flow back to the riser feed injection zone. The net stripper vapors are routed to the fractionator via specially designed vents in the direct-coupled cyclones. Oil is injected into the base of the riser via proprietary Micro-Jet feed injection nozzles (1). light olefins and distillate. The hot regenerated catalyst is withdrawn via an external withdrawal well (10). post-riser cracking and maintaining the optimum product yield slate. single-stage fast fluidized bed regenerator.

Fluid catalytic cracking, continued
Economics: Investment (basis: 30,000 bpsd including reaction/regeneration
system and product recovery. Excluding offsites, power recovery and flue gas scrubbing US Gulf Coast 2006.) $/bpsd (typical) 2,400–3,500 Utilities, typical per bbl fresh feed: Electricity, kWh 0.8–1.0 Steam, 600 psig (produced) 50–200 Maintenance, % of investment per year 2–3

Installation: Fifteen grassroots units licensed. Twenty-eight units revamped, with five revamps in design stage.

Licensor: ABB Lummus Global.

Fluid catalytic cracking
Application: FLEXICRACKING IIIR converts high-boiling hydrocarbons including residues, gas oils, lube extracts and/or deasphalted oils to higher value products.
� � � � � � � � � ��������������������� ��������

Products: Light olefins for gasoline processes and petrochemicals, LPG,
blend stocks for high-octane gasoline, distillates and fuel oils.

Description: The FLEXICRACKING IIIR technology includes process design, hardware details, special mechanical and safety features, control systems, flue gas processing options and a full range of technical services and support. The reactor (1) incorporates many features to enhance performance, reliability and flexibility, including a riser (2) with patented high-efficiency close-coupled riser termination (3), enhanced feed injection system (4) and efficient stripper design (5). The reactor design and operation maximizes the selectivity of desired products, such as naphtha and propylene. The technology uses an improved catalyst circulation system with advanced control features, including cold-walled slide valves (6). The single vessel regenerator (7) has proprietary process and mechanical features for maximum reliability and efficient air/catalyst distribution and contacting (8). Either full or partial combustion is used. With increasing residue processing and the need for additional heat balance control, partial burn operation with outboard CO combustion is possible, or KBR dense phase catalyst cooler technology may be applied. The ExxonMobil wet gas scrubbing or the ExxonMobil-KBR Cyclofines TSS technologies can meet flue gas emission requirements.

Yields: Typical examples: Resid feed mogas operation Feed

VGO + lube extracts distillate operation

VGO feed mogas operation

Gravity, °API 22.9 22.2 25.4 Con carbon, wt% 3.9 0.7 0.4 Quality 80% Atm. Resid 20% Lube Extracts 50% TBP – 794°F (Hydrotreated)

Product yields
Naphtha, lv% ff 78.2 (C4 / FBP) (C4 / 430°F) Mid Dist., lv% ff 13.7 (IBP / FBP) (430 / 645°F) 40.6 (C 4 / 260°F) 49.5 (260 / 745°F) 77.6 (C4 / 430°F) 19.2 (430 / 629°F) Continued 

Fluid catalytic cracking, continued
Installation: More than 70 units with a design capacity of over 2.5-million bpd fresh feed.

References: Ladwig, P. K., “Exxon FLEXICRACKING IIIR fluid catalytic
cracking technology,” Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes, Second Ed., R. A. Meyers, Ed., pp. 3.3–3.28.

Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. and Kellogg Brown
& Root, Inc. (KBR).

. Products: High-octane gasoline. The riser temperature profile can be optimized with the proprietary mixed temperature control (MTC) system. Revamps incorporating proprietary feed injection and riser termination devices and vapor quench result in substantial improvements in capacity. Handbook of Petroleum Refining Process. Available options include power recovery. Reaction products exit the riser-reactor through a high-efficiency. Heat removal for heavier feedstocks may be accomplished by using reliable dense-phase catalyst cooler. Spent catalyst is pre-stripped followed by an advanced highefficiency packed stripper prior to regeneration. and may be operated for either full or partial CO combustion. Reliable operation is ensured through the use of advanced fluidization technology combined with a proprietary reaction system. Licensor: Shaw Stone & Webster and Axens. Final recovery of catalyst particles occurs in cyclones before the product vapor is transferred to the fractionation section. The converter vessels use a cold-wall design that results in minimum capital investment and maximum mechanical reliability and safety.Fluid catalytic cracking Application: Selective conversion of gas oil feedstocks. The reaction product vapor may be quenched to give the lowest possible dry gas and maximum gasoline yield. . close-coupled. Description: Catalytic and selective cracking in a short-contact-time riser where oil feed is effectively dispersed and vaporized through a proprietary feed-injection system. wasteheat recovery. flue gas treatment and slurry filtration. As an alternative to catalyst cooling. yields and feedstock flexibility within the mechanical limits of the existing unit. proprietary riser termination device RSS (Riser Separator Stripper). this unit can easily be retrofitted to a two-regenerator system in the event that a future resid operation is desired. Reference: Meyers. Unit design is tailored to the refiner’s needs and can include wide turndown flexibility. Operation is carried out at a temperature consistent with targeted yields. Third Ed. Installation: Shaw Stone & Webster and Axens have licensed 27 fulltechnology units and performed more than 150 revamp projects. which has been commercially proven in over 56 units. distillate and C3– C4 olefins. Catalyst regeneration is carried out in a single regenerator equipped with proprietary air and catalyst distribution systems. R. IFP Group Technologies.

followed by a highcapacity baffle structure. and the catalyst outlet to provide significant catalyst circulation enhancement. this design ensures good mixing and rapid vaporization into the hot catalyst stream. Catalyst coolers can be added for more feedstock flexibility. Cyclone-systems in the reactor and regenerator use a proprietary design. A single-stage partial or full-burn regenerator delivers excellent performance at low cost. the Shell External Reactor is preferred for heavy feeds with high coking tendencies. which reduce catalyst back mixing while reducing overall riser pressure drop. The Shell 2 Vessel design is recommended to handle less heavy feeds with mild coking tendencies. thus providing reliability. Installations: Over 30 grassroots units designed/licensed.V. Two FCC design options are available. and over 30 units revamped. Supplier: Shell Global Solutions International B. efficiency and robustness. Cracking selectivity is enhanced by the feed nozzles and proprietary riser-internals. Shell’s high-performance feed nozzle system feeds hydrocarbons to a short contact-time riser. These designs are proven reliability champions due to simplicity of components and incorporation of Shell’s extensive operating experience. including selective propylene production when required. using the Shell FCC Process. Riser termination design incorporates reliable close-couple cyclones that provide rapid catalyst/hydrocarbon separation. Proprietary internals are used at the catalyst inlet to disperse catalyst. Flue gas cleanup can be incorporated with Shell’s third-stage separator. ��������������������� ��������������� �������� ��� �������� ��������� ������������ ������� ������� ������ �������� ������������ ����� ������� �������� ������ ��������� ����� ��������� ���� ����������� ������� ����������������������������� �������� �������� ��������������� ���� ��������� ������� ������� ������ ��������� ������� ������� ����� �������� ������������ ����� ��������� ���������������� ������� Description: In this process. with no slurry clean up required. It minimizes post riser cracking and maximizes desired product yields. Stripping begins inside the first cyclone. . including 7 to handle residue feeds.Fluid catalytic cracking Application: To convert heavy distillates and residues into high-value products.

because the catalyst delivered to the regenerator has a higher coke content. Continued  . a portion of the catalyst that is pre-stripped by the riser termination device can be recycled back to the riser via a standpipe and the MxR chamber. Catalyst coolers can be added to new and existing units to reduce catalyst temperature and increase unit flexibility for commercial operations of feeds up to 6 wt% Conradson carbon. Furthermore. wherein a portion of the pre-stripped (carbonized) catalyst from the riser termination device is blended with the hotter regenerated catalyst in a proprietary mixing chamber (MxR) for delivery to the riser. ������� ����������� Products: Light olefins (for alkylation. Since coke yield can be decreased at constant conversion. and CO2 emissions reduced. this technology does not affect the total heat balance and. which terminates in a vortex separation system (VSS).Fluid catalytic cracking Application: Selectively convert gas oils and residue feedstocks into higher value products using the FCC/RFCC/PetroFCC process. etherification or petrochemicals). with high hydrocarbon containment (VSS/VDS technology) and RxCat technology. The combustor-style regenerator burns coke in a fast-fluidized environment completely to CO2 with very low levels of CO. The circulation of hot catalyst from the upper section to the combustor provides added control over the burn-zone temperature and kinetics and enhances radial mixing. olefins or distillate operating modes. which is then reactivated in a combustor-style regenerator. does not increase coke yield. therefore. polymerization. A recent study of eight different combustor-style regenerators and 15 bubbling-bed regenerators clearly demonstrated that at a given excess oxygen level. The ability to vary the carbonized/regenerated catalyst ratio provides considerable flexibility to handle changes in feedstock quality and shortens the time for operating adjustments by enabling rapid switches between gasoline. high-octane gasoline. The first unit to incorporate RxCat technology has been operating successfully since the second quarter of 2005. capacity and reaction severity can be increased. LPG. Unlike other approaches to increasing the catalyst-to-oil ratio. RxCat technology ��������������������������� ����������� has been licensed for use in four units. less NOx is emitted from the combustor-style regenerators than other available technologies. thus improving product selectivity. The reactor zone features a short-contact-time riser. distillates and fuel oils. The reactor temperature can be lowered to reduce thermal cracking with no negative impact on conversion. state-of theart riser termination device for quick separation of catalyst and vapor. Description: UOP’s process uses a side-by-side reactor/regenerator configuration and a patented pre-acceleration zone to condition the regenerated catalyst. A highefficiency stripper then separates the remaining hydrocarbons from the catalyst. Modern Optimix feed distributors inject the feed into the riser. With RxCat technology. two of which are currently in construction. it requires less excess oxygen at a given temperature to sustain the same kinetic combustion rate.

A catalyst cooler is located between the stages. which avoids costly multiple flue gas systems and creates a hydraulically-simple.0 LV% and 2. UOP’s Advanced Fluidization (AF) spent catalyst stripper internals provide a family of options (trays. Resid FCC and MSCC process units. producing low levels of carbon on regenerated catalyst. One application of AF trays resulted in a 0. forming a mixture of CO and CO2. In the first stage. high severity processing conditions and selected catalyst and additives to produce high yields of propylene. The installation of AF grids in a small unit increased conversion and gasoline yield by 3.5 wt% Conradson carbon. light olefins and aromatics for petrochemical applications. lower regenerator temperature. In addition to applying our technology and skills to new units. the bulk of the carbon is burned from the catalyst. paying back the investment in less than three months. UOP’s FCC Engineering department has undertaken 40 to 60 revamp projects or studies per year. UOP has been an active designer and licensor of FCC technology since the early 1940s and has licensed more than 215 FCC. Another FCC unit utilizes these trays to handle a high catalyst flux rate of over 2-M lb/ft2 min. the two-stage regenerator is used. site constructability and inspection issues. continued For heavier residue feeds. Licensor: UOP LLC. Often the optimal selection is dependent on the unique configuration of the unit. and a 2.3 LV% boost in conversion. a 14°F (8°C) drop in the regenerator temperature. UOP is also extensively involved in the revamping of existing units.04 wt% reduction in coke. The benefits provided by the AF internals include reduced coke. This configuration maximizes oxygen use. The two stage regenerator system has processed feeds up to 8. During the past 15 years. . higher catalyst circulation.Fluid catalytic cracking. grids and packing) all with state of the art efficiency. lower zone. requires only one train of cyclones and one flue gas stream. PETROFCC is a customized application using mechanical features such as RxCAT technology for recontacting carbonized catalyst. where the remaining coke is burned in complete combustion. Catalyst is transferred to the second stage. the ability to operate at high catalyst flux and increased capacity. higher selectivity for desired products. lower dry gas make. upper zone. Within residence constraints. More than 150 of these units are operating worldwide. the new designs can save about 10 feet in length compared to 1990s units of the same capacity and diameter.8 LV% respectively. Installation: All of UOP’s technology and equipment are commercially proven for both process performance and mechanical reliability. and lower steam consumption. increased conversion. UOP’s stripper technology has been implemented in more than 36 FCC units with a combined on-stream capacity exceeding 1MM bpsd.

state-of-the-art internals and engineering skills. P. ������������� ��������� Operating conditions: Typical operating pressures range from 60 to 125 bar (900 to 1. “Advanced FCC feed pretreatment technology and catalysts improves FCC profitability. References: Andonov. the quality of the FCC gasoline is improved. Zeuthen and low-pressure units for deep desulfurization. Petrov. reactor design packages and process design packages to engineering design packages.” NPRA Annual Meeting. S. This pretreatment process can maximize FCC unit performance. March 2004. The Aroshift process increases the FCC conversion. Topsøe offers a wide range of engineering scopes from full scoping studies. to denitrogenation and metals removal.. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. Such efforts enable refiners to directly blend gasoline produced from the FCC and meet future low-sulfur (less than 15 ppm) gasoline specifications. ������� ���������� ���������� ����� ����������� ����������� �������������������� ������������ ��������� Description: The Topsøe FCC Pretreatment technology combines understanding of kinetics. G.” 10th ERTC. Stratiev and P. R.. Schaldemose. . “MCHC mode vs. The catalyst types cover TK-558 BRIM. H. ������ �������� ������� �������� ����������� ���������� ���������� Objectives: The processing objectives range from deep desulfurization for meeting gasoline-sulfur specifications from the FCC products. The unit can be designed to meet specific processing objectives in a cost-effective manner by utilizing the combination of processing severity and catalyst activity. March 2002. November 2005. Furthermore. “FCC hydrotreater revamp for lowsulfur gasoline. high-activity catalysts. Patel R. Patel.” NPRA Annual Meeting.800 psi). Hamari. Vienna. San Antonio. Installations: Four units in the US. and TK-559 BRIM. a NiMo catalyst with hydrodesulfurization and high hydrodenitrogenation activity.. Zeuthen. and temperatures from 300°C to 430°C (575°F to 800°F). An additional option is Topsøe’s Aroshift process that maximizes the conversion of polyaromatics which can be equilibrium limited at high operating temperatures.Fluid catalytic cracking—pretreatment Application: Topsøe’s FCC pretreatment technology is designed to treat a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from gas oils through heavy-vacuum gas oils and coker streams to resids. a CoMo catalyst with high desulfurization activity. while reducing the amount of light.and heavy-cycle oil. Topsøe has experience in revamping moderate. Moore and B. D. San Antonio. and the yield of gasoline and C3 /C4 olefins. HDS mode in an FCC unit in relation to Euro IV fuels specifications. Additional objectives can include Conradson carbon reduction and saturation of polyaromatics to maximize gasoline yields. Topsøe has a wide variety of catalysts for FCC pretreatment service. thus maximizing FCC catalyst activity.

Lean solvent from the regenerator is sent through rich/lean solvent exchangers and coolers before returning to the absorber. et al. The feed gas contacts the treating solvent in the absorber (1). FLEXSORB SE—31 plants operating.. Regenerator heat is supplied by any suitable heat source. a physical solvent and water.25 gr/100 scf. Adams-Smith. May 2005.. nine in design Hybrid FLEXSORB SE—two plants operating. Hybrid FLEXSORB SE solvent is a hybrid solution containing FLEXSORB SE amine.” Sulphur. natural gas production facilities and petrochemical operations.” 2002 Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference. Reference: Garrison... CS2 and mercaptans) from a variety of streams.. “Solvent changeover benefits. May 2004.. “Carter Creek Gas Plant FLEXSORB tail gas treating unit. Hybrid FLEXSORB SE solvent is used to selectively remove H2S.. or FLEXICOKING low-Btu fuel gas.” Hydrocarbon Engineering. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co.. The resulting acid gas byproduct stream is rich in H2S. Installations: Total gases treated by FLEXSORB solvents are about 2 billion scfd and the total sulfur recovery is about 900 long tpd. which has improved H2S regenerability yielding <10 vppm H2S in the treated gas.. depending on the solvent used. “High recovery tail gas treating.. Oklahoma. et al. three in design Over 60 plants operating or in design. et al. 10. Chevron USA Production Company. as well as organic sulfur impurities commonly found in natural gas. 5. pipeline natural gas to give H2S <0. January 2006. Vol. ranging down to H2S <10 ppmv. Connock. FLEXSORB SE solvent is an aqueous solution of a hindered amine. B. R.” Hydrocarbon Processing. L. COS. The resulting rich solvent bottom stream is heated and sent to the regenerator (2). CO2. or remove a group of acidic impurities (H2S. J. compared to conventional amines. “Selective H2S Removal. No. 296. FLEXSORB SE Plus solvent is an enhanced aqueous solution. R. et al.” 2002 GPA Annual Meeting. . Fedich. Fedich. No. “Gas Processes 2006. “Keyspan Energy Canada Rimbey acid gas enrichment with FLEXSORB SE Plus technology. three in design FLEXSORB SE Plus—19 plants operating. Dallas.Gas treating—H2S removal Application: Remove H2S selectively. November/ December 2004. ����������� ���������� �������� � �������� �������� ���������� � Description: A typical amine system flow scheme is used. Norman. FLEXSORB SE or SE Plus solvent is used on: hydrogenated Claus plant tail gas to give H2S. et al. J.” Hydrocarbon Engineering. FLEXSORB SE technology has been used in refineries. Economics: Lower investment and energy requirements based primarily on requiring 30% to 50% lower solution circulation rates.

SGP uses refractory-lined reactors that are fitted with both burners and a heat-recovery-steam generator. The reactor is different. the ash components are recovered as valuable oxides—principally vanadium pentoxide. Process description: Liquid hydrocarbon feedstock (from very light such as natural gas to very heavy such as vacuum flashed cracked residue. Installation: Over the past 40 years. flagship installation is in the Shell Pernis refinery near Rotterdam. The Netherlands produces 250 Mwe based on the SCGP process. sulfur and metal oxides. further heat recovery occurs in an economizer. Malaysia. thus. A related process—the Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP)—gasifies solids such as coal or petroleum coke. Sulfur (S) is removed by normal gas treating processes and sold as elemental S. The process converts residual streams with virtually zero value as fuel-blending components into valuable. It is one of the few ultimate. Soot (unconverted carbon) and ash are removed from the raw gas by a two-stage waterwash. clean gas and byproducts. The Netherlands. the gas is virtually particulate-free. The Shell middle distillate synthesis plant in Bintulu. By controlled oxidation of the filtercake. uses SGP to convert 100 million scfd of natural gas into synthesis gas that is used for petrochemical applications. The (clean) filtrate is returned to the scrubber. The Demkolec Power plant at Buggenum. designed to produce high-pressure steam—over 100 bar (about 2. ranging from atmospheric up to 65 bar. can easily be accommodated. environmentally acceptable solutions for residual hydrocarbon streams. The net reaction is exothermic and produces a gas primarily containing CO and H2. Depending on the final syngas application. Gases leaving the steam generator are at a temperature approaching the steam temperature. more than 150 SGP units have been installed that convert residue feedstock into synthesis gas for chemical applications. Similar projects are underway in Canada and Italy. Net water from the scrubber section is routed to the soot ash removal unit (SARU) to filter out soot and ash from the slurry. The latest.5 tons per ton feedstock). and gasified with pure O2 and steam. This gas can be used to generate power in gas turbines and for making H2 by the well-known shift and PSA technology. ������� ����� ������ ��� ����� ������ �������� ��� ������������ ������ ������� ������� ������ ����������� ���������� ���������� �������� ������� Products: Synthesis gas (CO+H2). but main process layout and work-up are similar. operating pressures. After the final scrubbing.Gasification Application: The Shell Gasification Process (SGP) converts the heaviest residual liquid hydrocarbon streams with high-sulfur and metals content into a clean synthesis gas and valuable metal oxides. Continued  . This highly complex refinery depends on the SGP process for its H2 supply. it is then routed to a selective-acid-gas-removal system. VFCR and ashphalt) is fed into a reactor.

San Francisco. “Shell Gasification Process for Upgrading Gdansk Refinery.Gasification.V. Licensor: Shell Global Solutions International B.” The 6th European Gasification Conference IChemE. . June 1–2.” Conference Defining the Future. “Overview of Shell Global Solutions Worldwide Gasification Developments. Bahrain.” 2003 Gasification Technologies Conference. 2004. Oct. 2004. Brighton. May 10–12. 2003. 12–15. continued Reference: “Shell Gasification Process.

whsv Hydrogen purity. Description: Gasoline from the fluid catalytic cracker unit is combined with a small hydrogen stream and heated. �������� ������ ������ ������� ���������� ���������� ����� ���� �������� ������������ ������� Regeneration: The sorbent (catalyst) is continuously withdrawn from the reactor and transferred to the regenerator section (2). Licensor: ConocoPhillips.1 <0. Installation: Forty-three sites licensed as of 1Q 2004. ������� ��������� Economics: Typical operating conditions: Temperature.9 Case study premises: * Includes utilities. where the sulfur is removed as SO2 and sent to a sulfur-recovery unit. Vaporized gasoline is injected into the fluid-bed reactor (1). vol% of feed Lights yield. wt% of feed (R+M) loss 2 Operating cost. A disengaging zone in the reactor removes suspended sorbent from the vapor. °F Pressure.Gasoline desulfurization Application: Convert high-sulfur gasoline streams into a low-sulfur gasoline blendstock while minimizing octane loss. yield loss and operating cost using S Zorb sulfur removal technology.bpd feed 775 . % Total H2 usage.000 .3 0. ¢/gal* >100% < 0.ppm product sulfur ( 97% removal ) No cat gasoline splitter 750 – 825 100 – 500 4–8 70 – 99 40 – 60 Results: C5+ yield. 4% per year maintenance and sorbent costs. The rate of sorbent circulation is controlled to help maintain the desired sulfur concentration in the product. which exits the reactor to be cooled. scf / bbl 25. The cleansed sorbent is reconditioned and returned to the reactor. psig Space velocity.ppm feed sulfur 25 . . �������� � � ������ ��� �������� ��������� ������ �������� Products: Load-sulfur blending stock for gasoline motor fuels. where the proprietary sorbent removes sulfur from the feed.

The selective hydrogenation reactor effluent is then usually split to produce an LCN (light cat naphtha) cut and an HCN (heavy cat naphtha). San Antonio. 40°C–220°C Feed Prime-G+ Product OATS process: In addition to Prime-G+ TAME and TAEE etherification technology. Seventy Prime-G+ units are already in operation.100 50* (RON + MON) / 2 87. ��������� ������ ���� ����� ���������� ��� ��������� ������ �������� �������� ������ Industrial results: Full-range FCC Gasoline. Sulfur. 126 units have been licensed for a total capacity of 3. steam cracker naphtha or light straight-run naphtha. diolefins are selectively hydrogenated and mercaptans are converted to heavier sulfur species. producing ultra-low-sulfur gasoline. enabling further processing in an etherification or alkylation unit. ppm 2.” NPRA Annual Meeting. 2002. . ultra-deep Application: Ultra-deep desulfurization of FCC gasoline with minimal octane penalty using Prime-G+ process. is also exclusively offered for license by Axens for ultra-low-sulfur gasoline production.6  30 ppm pool sulfur after blending Pool sulfur specifications as low as less than 10 ppm are attained with the Prime-G+ process in two units in Germany. ������������������������� �������� ���������� �������� ������������� �������������� �������� Description: FCC debutanizer bottoms are fed directly to a first reactor wherein.5  (RON + MON) / 2 1. The LCN stream is mercaptans-free with a low-sulfur and diolefin concentration.5 86. the OATS (olefins alkylation of thiophenic sulfur) process. The HCN then enters the main Prime-G+ section where it undergoes in a dual catalyst reactor system. March 17–19.3 million bpsd. $/bpsd 600–800 Installation: Currently. Economics: Investment: Grassroots ISBL cost. initially developed by BP.0 % HDS 97. The process provides flexibility to advantageously co-process other sulfur-containing naphthas such as light coker naphtha. under mild conditions.Gasoline desulfurization. Licensor: Axens. a deep HDS with very limited olefins saturation and no aromatics losses produces an ultralow-sulfur gasoline. Reference: “Prime-G+: From pilot to start-up of world’s first commercial 10 ppm FCC gasoline desulfurization process.

Gasoline desulfurization. compressed and recycled. Reference: Halbert. over a different catalyst. The vapor from the separators is combined with makeup gas. The liquid from the separators is sent to the product stripper where the light ends are recovered overhead and desulfurized naphtha from the bottoms. et al. T. “Technology Options For Meeting Low-Sulfur Mogas Targets. March 2000. EMRE has an alliance with Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) to provide this technology to refiners. . octane is recovered by cracking and isomerization reactions.. the sulfur in the feed is converted to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with near complete olefin saturation.and low-temperature separators.” NPRA Annual Meeting. The reactor effluent is cooled and the liquid product separated from the recycle gas using high.. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. In the second bed. The OCTGAIN process can be retrofitted into existing refinery hydrotreating units. Feed and recycle hydrogen mix is preheated in feed/effluent exchangers and a fired heater then introduced into a fixed-bed reactor. Installations: Commercial experience with two operating units. The design and operation permit the desired level of octane recovery and yields. The product sulfur level can be as low as 5 ppm. ���������������� ��������� Yields: Yield depends on feed olefins and desired product octane. Over the first catalyst bed. ultra-deep Application: Reduce sulfur in gasoline to less than 10 ppm by hydrodesulfurization followed by cracking and isomerization to recover octane with the OCTGAIN process. ����������� ���������� ����� ������������� ��� ���� ������� ������ ���� ����������� ��������� ���������� ������� �������� ����������� ����������� ����������� �������� ���������� Description: The basic flow scheme of the OCTGAIN process is similar to that of a conventional naphtha hydrotreater.

Ellis. A. SCANfining technology also features ExxonMobil’s proprietary reactor internals such as Automatic Bed Bypass Technology for onstream mitigation of reactor plugging/pressure drop buildup.Gasoline desulfurization. E. ����������� ���������� ����� ������������� ��� ���� ������� ������ ���� ����������� ��������� ���������� ������� �������� ����������� ����������� ����������� �������� ���������� Description: The feed is mixed with hydrogen. construction or operation having combined capacity of over 1.. “Case History: Desulfurization of FCC naphtha. In this section of the plant. the hydrocarbon/hydrogen mixture enters the main reaction section which features ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. sulfur is removed in the form of H2S under tailored process conditions.. which strongly favor hydrodesulfurization while minimizing olefin saturation. steam cracker or light straight-run naphthas can also be processed with FCC naphthas. (EMRE) proprietary selective catalyst systems. March 2002. For high-sulfur feeds and/or very low-sulfur product. et al. The feed may be full-range. Installation: Thirty-seven units under design. February 2004. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. Yields: Yield of C5+ liquid product is typically over 100 LV%. ���������������� ��������� References: Sapre.1 million bpsd.. with low levels of product mercaptans variations in the plant design from SCANfining I Process to the SCANfining II Process for greater HDS selectivity.V. After further heat exchange with reactor effluent and preheat using a utility.” Hydrocarbon Processing. S. or addition of an EXOMER process unit for mercaptan extraction. Other sulfur-containing streams such as light-coker naphtha. heated with reactor effluent exchange and passed through a pretreat reactor for diolefin saturation.. . et al.” World Refining Association Third European Fuels Conference. ultra-deep Application: Reduce sulfur in FCC gasoline to levels as low as <10 wppm by selective hydrotreating to maximize octane retention with the SCANfining technology. or addition of a ZEROMER process step for mercaptan conversion. EMRE has an alliance with Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) to provide SCANfining technology to refiners and an alliance with Merichem Chemicals & Refinery Services LLC to provide EXOMER technology to refiners. “Meeting the Low Sulfur Mogas Challenge. intermediate or heavy FCC-naphtha fraction. SCANfining technology can be retrofitted to existing units such as naphtha or diesel hydrotreaters and reformers.

Typical emission values are: SOx <100 ppmv NOx <50 ppmv H 2S <1 ppmv NH3 <20 ppmv ������������� ��������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������� Installation: One Topsøe 30. The AHS absorber and ATS reactor systems are chilled with cooling water.0 -26S) for direct application and as a component in liquid fertilizer formulations. Unreacted H 2S is returned to the H 2S burner. The ATS process can be combined with a Claus unit.95% of the sulfur and practically 100% of the ammonia contained in the feed gas streams are recovered. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. The ATS process can also handle SWS gas alone without ammonia import while the S / N balance is adjusted by exchanging H 2S surplus and deficit with a Claus unit.95%. all process steps occur in the liquid phase at moderate temperatures and neutral pressure. thus increasing processing capacity while obtaining a total sulfur recovery of > 99. More than 99. NH3 and H 2 S contained in the SWS gas plus imported ammonia (if required) is reacted with the AHS solution in the ATS reactor. . ��� ������� ����� ��� ��������� ��� �������� ��������� ������������������ ��� ������� ��� ��� ������������ ����������� Description: Amine regenerator off gas is combusted in a burner / waste heat boiler. ATS is increasingly used as a fertilizer (12. The resulting SO2 is absorbed with ammonia in a two-stage absorber to form ammonium hydrogen sulfite (AHS).0 . which is the standard commercial specification.H2S and SWS gas conversion Application: The ATS process recovers H2S and NH3 in amine regenerator offgas and sour water stripper gas (SWS gas) as a 60% aqueous solution of ATS – ammonium thiosulfate (NH 4 )2S 2 O 3.000 mtpy ATS plant is operating in Northern Europe. The ATS product is withdrawn as a 60% aqueous solution that meets all commercial specifications for usage as a fertilizer. Except for the H 2S burner / waste heat boiler.

proprietary. a division of Merichem Chemical & Refinery Services LLC. Sparging of the sour gas and regeneration air into the specially designed baffle system creates a series of “gas lift” pumps. but separated internally by baffles. pp. however. amine acid gas. 53–57.000 psi. sour-water-stripper gas. some contaminants. such as SO2. No . filter cake or high-purity molten sulfur.H2S removal Application: LO-CAT removes H2S from gas streams and produces elemental sulfur. iron chelate catalyst solution in an absorber (1). The catalyst solution is returned to the absorber. Watson. Operating conditions: Operating pressures range from vacuum conditions to 1. G. W. hydrodesulfurization offgas. and flexible operation. Installations: Presently. The sulfur cake is increasingly being used in agriculture. If desired. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations range from a few ppm to 100%. Sour gas contacts the dilute. where the H2S is absorbed and oxidized to solid sulfur. Sweet gas leaves the absorber for use by the refinery. This configuration is ideally suited for treating amine acid gas and sour-water-stripper gas streams. Key benefits of operation are high (99. Reference: Nagl. Licensor: Gas Technology Products. Sulfur loadings range from a few pounds per day to 25+ tons per day. Sulfur is recovered as a slurry. with virtually 100% turndown capability of H2S composition and total gas flow.9%) H2S removal efficiency..” Hydrocarbon Processing. Sulfur capacities are typically less than 25 ltpd down to several pounds per day. The reduced catalyst solution returns to the oxidizer (2). restrictions on type of gas to be treated. the absorber (1) and oxidizer (2) are combined in one vessel. claus tail gas and sulfur tank vent gas. eliminating the external circulation pumps. “Consider optimized Iron-Redox processes to remove sulfur. where sparged air reoxidizes the catalyst solution.. LO-CAT units are in service treating refinery fuel gas. In both configurations. but can also be deposited in a nonhazardous landfill. January 2003. ��������� ��������� ���� � � �������� �������� ���� �������� ���������� ������������ �������� Description: The conventional configuration is used to process combustible gas and product gas streams. 160 licensed units are in operation with four units under construction. Continuous regeneration of the catalyst solution allows for very low chemical operating costs. the filter cake can be further washed and melted to produce pure molten sulfur. may increase operating costs. Operating temperatures range from 40°F to 140°F. In the patented autocirculation configuration. which can produce filter cake as high as 85% sulfur. Rouleau and J. sulfur is concentrated in the oxidizer cone and sent to a sulfur filter.

the vessel must be bypassed. The two vessels operate in series. In the single-vessel configuration. Licensor: Gas Technology Products.H2S removal Applications: Sulfur-Rite is a solid-bed scavenger for removal of H2S from aerobic and anaerobic gas streams. a division of Merichem Chemical & Refinery Services LLC. the gas flow is changed and the vessels reverse rolls. or backup insurance for other refinery sulfur-removal systems are examples. flows over media where H2S is removed and reacted. a dual “lead-lag” configuration is desirable. and is suitable for disposition in nonhazardous landfills. so that the “lag” vessel becomes the “lead” vessel. When the H2S level at the outlet of the lead vessel equals the inlet H2S level (the media is completely spent). and/or remote refinery locations. The media is replaced. fresh media installed and vessel returned to service. and the vessel with fresh media is returned to service in the “lag” position. Sour gas is saturated prior to entering media bed. �������� ��������� ������ Operating conditions: Gas streams up to 400°F can be treated. when the H2S level exceeds the level allowed. Gas streams should be at least 50% water saturated. Suitable applications are generally sulfur loads below 200 lb/d sulfur. media removed through the lower manway. For continuous operation. with one vessel in the lead position. Sulfur vents. The spent media is nonpyrophoric. loading and unloading facilities. Gas enters vessel top. . Installations: Sixteen units installed. ���������� ����� �������� ��� �������� Description: Single-bed (shown) or dual “lead-lag” configurations are possible. Sweet gas exits the bottom of vessel. The vessel with the spent media is bypassed. the other in the lag position.

environmentally friendly and easy to operate manner.H2S removal Application: ELIMINATOR technology consisting of a full line of ELIMINATOR products removes hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and light mercaptans from a variety of process gas streams in a safe. packed-bed scrubber. • Line injection—ELIMINATOR can be sprayed directly into a gas stream with removal of the spent product in a downstream knockout pot. • Packed tower—Sour gas is contacted with circulating solution of ELIMINATOR in a counter. H2S concentrations of less than 1 ppm can easily be achieved on a continuous basis. Description: The ELIMINATOR technology is extremely versatile. the removal of spent solution and the addition of fresh solution without shutting down. . efficient. Installation: Fifteen units in operation. A lead-lag vessel arrangement can be installed to allow for Economics: Operating costs are very favorable for removing less than 250 kg/d of H2S. Licensor: Gas Technology Products. and its performance is not sensitive to operating pressure. a division of Merichem Chemicals & Refinery Services LLC. In properly designed systems. This arrangement also results in the optimum utilization of the solution. • Sparge tower—Sour gas is bubbled up through a static volume of ELIMINATOR. Products: A full line of ELIMINATOR products can treat any type of gas streams. A number of different treatment methodologies may be used to treat sour gas streams.

103 Btu Power.000 60 3 0.900 bpsd. wt% 750– 820 600 –1. Installation: The H-OilDC process has two references. This technology has been commercially demonstrated based on the ebullated bed reactor making a total of nine references for residue and VGO hydroconversion.3 Example: VGO + DAO feed: a blend of heavy VGO and C5 DAO containing close to 100 ppm metals is processed at 80% conversion at an overall desulfurization rate of over 96%. The typical battery limits scheme includes oil. psi LHSV. for cases of feeds with low metal contents. one in operation and one under construction. Licensor: Axens. hr –1 Conversion. the catalyst can be regenerated onsite to reduce catalyst consumption.500 – 4. a recycle gas scrubber and product separation and fractionation. �������� ������ ���������� ���� ��������� �������� ������� �������� ����������� ���������������� �������� ������ Operating conditions: Temperature. It is best suited for high severity operations and applications requiring long run lengths. ���������������� ���������� ��������������� �������� ��������� ������� ����� ���������������� ��������� ��� ����� �������� �������� ���� �������� ��������� ���������� ������� ���������� Description: The flow diagram includes integrated mid-distillate hydrotreating for an ultra-low-sulfur-diesel product.Hydroconversion—VGO and DAO Application: An ebullated-bed process H-OilDC is used for hydroconversion (hydrocracking and hydrotreating) of heavy vacuum gasoil and DAO having high Conradson carbon residue and metal contents and low asphaltene content. . an advanced design hot high-pressure separator and ebullating pump recycle system. An H-OilDC unit can operate for four-year run lengths at constant catalyst activity with conversion in the 20-80% range in once-through mode and to more than 95% in recycle mode with up to 99% hydrodesulfurization. Catalyst in the reactor is replaced periodically without shutdown and. kWh Catalyst makeup. per bbl of feed Fuel. with a total cumulative capacity of 139. °F Hydrogen partial pressure.500 0.and hydrogen-fired heaters.01– 0. lb 2. Various catalysts are available as a function of the feedstock and the required objectives.0 20 –80 in once-through mode Economics: Basis—2005 US Gulf Coast Investment in $ per bpsd Utilities.5 –3.

� � Description: This process uses a refining catalyst usually followed by an amorphous and/or zeolite-type hydrocracking catalyst. engineering fees included. Three different process arrangements are available: single-step/ once-through. °C Sulfur. °C Smoke pt. EOR Aromatics. 2000 Gulf Coast). typical per bbl feed: Fuel oil. cooling. $ per bpsd 2.800 140 –225 <10 <5 – –  40 26–28 < 12 – 0. extra-quality FCC feed with limited or no FCC gasoline post-treatment or high VI lube base stocks. gas separator (3). ��������� ����� ������� � � � �������� ������ ������������ �������� Products: Jet fuel.9 3 Water. allowing for 3–4 year cycle lengths and products with low aromatics content until end of cycle. m 0. cSt PAH. EOR 0. deasphalted oil. kg 5. gr. wt%.3 Electricity. ppm Cetane index Flash pt. visbreaker or coker gasoil). erected. vol%. TBP cut point. Main features of this process are: • High tolerance toward feedstock nitrogen • High selectivity toward middle distillates • High activity of the zeolite.. cumulative capacity exceeding 1 million bpsd. 2).. battery limits. MP balance Installation: More than 50 references. stripper (4) and product fractionator (5). EOR Viscosity @ 38°C.3 <2 Economics: Investment: (Basis: 40. mm. Licensor: Axens. diesel. single-step/total conversion with liquid recycle.500 –3.700 853 <2 – – – – 110 0. once-through. ���� ����� �������������� Product quality: Typical for HVGO (50/50 Arabian light/heavy): Feed. and twostep hydrocracking.64 Steam. ppm Nitrogen. 90% conversion. conversions up to 99%.500 Utilities. The process consists of: reaction section (1.826 225 –360 <10 <5 – 62 125 – <8 5.932 405– 565 31.Hydrocracking Application: Upgrade vacuum gas oil alone or blended with various feedstocks (light-cycle oil. very-low-sulfur fuel oil. Jet HVGO fuel Diesel Sp. . kWh 6.000-bpsd unit. ppm Metals.

wppm Diesel cetane no. wt% Diesel. Reactor effluent is flashed in high. wt% H2 consumption. lube-oil basestock production. 4 6 22 65 1. steam cracking and lowsulfur fuel oil. de-asphalted oil (DAO). coker gas oils.0 –1. high-octane gasoline. wt% LSGO (FCC feed). ��� Description: The process uses a multiple catalyst system in multi-bed reactor(s) that incorporates proprietary advanced quench and redistribution internals (Spider Vortex).250 Continued  . low cost stripper/fractionator arrangement is used for product recovery. low-sulfur distillates and blending stocks including LPG. �������� ������� ���������� ���� ��� ���� ������ ������� ��� ���������� �������� ������� ���� ����� ����������� �������� ������ ������������ Products: Products include a wide range of high-quality. Unconverted bottoms product from the MPHC unit is very low in sulfur and is an excellent feedstock for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC).3 –1. wt% Kero sulfur. When higher-quality distillates are required.and low-temperature separators. highly integrated distillate post-treating unit (PTU) can be incorporated in the design to meet or exceed high-pressure hydrocracking product quality at lower capital cost and hydrogen consumption ������������� �������� Yields: Naphtha. low-sulfur fuels using ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company’s (EMRE) moderate pressure hydrocracking (MPHC) process.Hydrocracking Application: Convert a wide variety of feedstocks including vacuum deep-cut gas oil. the addition of a lowcost. % H2 pressure. mm Diesel sulfur. An optimized.5 20 – 200 13 – 18 30 – 500 45 – 50 10 10 26 50 1. wppm Kero smoke Pt.8 20 – 200 15 – 20 30 – 300 47 – 52 10 10 27 50 1. An amine scrubber removes H2S from the recycle gas before it gets compressed and re-circulated back to the unit.0 20 – 200 17 – 22 30 – 200 50 – 55 Operating conditions and yields: Typical operating conditions on a Middle East VGO for a once-through MPHC operation are shown: Product quality: Operation conditions: Configuration Nominal conversion. and FCC cycle oils into high-quality. wt% Kero/jet. Heavy hydrocarbons and recycle gas are preheated and contact the catalyst in the trickle-phase fixed-bed reactor(s). psig MPHC 35 800 MPHC 50 800 MPHC 50 1. highquality reformer naphtha.5 – 2.

2 69.5 36.2 36. MP (export).100 (15. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co.9) 101 1. two in construction. gal Lean amine. EMRE has an alliance with Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) to provide MPHC technology to refiners. per bbl of feed: Electric power. .1 67.1 EMRE’s MPHC process is equally amenable to revamp or grassroots applications. gal 4. kW Fuel (absorbed). lb Water. Btu Steam.1 7.600 (21.000 Installation: Four operating units.1) 178 2.Hydrocracking. gal Wash water. Economics: Investment $/ bpsd 2. continued Utilities.000 – 3. cooling.

of . Operating conditions: Typical operating pressure and temperatures range from 55 to 170 bar (800 to 2500 psig) and 340 to 420°C (645 to 780°F). and catalysts. The process uses recycle hydrogen and can be configured in partial conversion once-through feed mode or with recycle of partially converted oil to obtain 100% conversion to diesel and lighter products. In addition. the Topsøe hydrocracking process can be designed for high conversion to produce high smoke point kerosine and high cetane diesel. ���������� ������������� ��������� ����������� ������� ��� ������� ������������ ������� ������ ���������� ������������ ��������� ���������� Description: Topsøe’s hydrocracking process uses well proven co-current downflow fixed bed reactors with state . . The process can also be designed for lower conversion/ upgrade mode to produce low sulfur FCC feed with the optimum hydrogen uptake or high VI (>145) lube stock. Installations: One operating licensed hydrocracking unit. and FCC feed. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. kerosene. meeting current and future regulatory reactor internals and catalysts. process configuration. high VI lube stocks and petrochemical feedstock can be produced to increase the refinery’s profitability.Hydrocracking Application: Topsøe’s hydrocracking process can be used to convert straight run vacuum gas oils and heavy cracked gas oils to high quality “sulfur-free” naphtha. diesel.the . Topsøe hydrocracking catalysts have been supplied to eight hydrocrackers. Topsøe’s zeolitic and amorphous hydrocracking catalysts have been proven in several commercial hydrocrackers. The FCC gasoline produced from a Topsøe hydrocracking unit does not require post-treatment for sulfur removal. ��������������� ����������� ���������� ������������� ������� ������� ���� �������� ������� Product: By proper selection of operating conditions.