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Duct Design

Presented by Dave Janquart

Overview of Topics
Duct design Duct insulation SMACNA Standards

Factors Influencing Duct Design


Equipment Losses Air Velocity Duct Material Duct Size & Shape Length of Duct

Friction Losses
SUPPLY SAG CONT 32W S.P. 0.04 RAG CONT G35W S.P. 0.045 RETURN AIR FILTER S.P. 0.07

A coil .25 sp

FAN COIL OR FURN ACE R.A. BOX

FURNACE NO SCALE

Air Distribution System Components


Supply fan Supply Ductwork Transition fittings Discharge grills Return grills Return ductwork

Calculate Air System Pressure Losses


The air pressure losses from both the supply and return duct systems plus the loss through external a/c coil is often referred to as the external static pressure. Manufacturers generally publish fan ratings based on external static pressure (internal losses due to coils, filters, etc. are usually accounted for in the cataloged fan ratings).

Air Velocity in Duct Design


As Air Velocity Increases Noise Increases Increasing Air Velocity Causes More Turbulence Recommended Velocity 700-900 FPM

Duct Material Roughness


Duct material roughness refers to the inside surface of the duct material. The rougher the surface, the higher the friction loss. Most duct sizing tables use the roughness factor for smooth, galvanized sheet metal as the reference value. The back side of the Duct Calculator has a conversion table for converting the material roughness from smooth sheet metal to other materials.

Select Duct Material (sheet metal, fiberglass, flex)


Decide which duct construction material to use. Common choices: fiberglass duct board, galvanized sheet metal, flex vinyl coated with helical wire core. Each material has advantages.
First cost (price & ease of installation) Performance (friction loss, fan energy) Acoustic properties Thermal properties (heat gain & loss; internal/external insulation)

Round vs. Rectangular Duct of Equal Friction Rate


Ratio of Perimeter Perimeter to Area 40.7 in. 9.03 ft2 10.65 ft. 1.18:1 Equivalent Round Duct Friction at 15,000 CFM .07 in. / 100 ft. 40.7 in.

3 ft. 3 ft.

9.0 ft2

12 ft.

1.33:1

39.4 in.

.086 in. / 100 ft.

2 ft. 4-1/2 ft.

9.0 ft2

13 ft.

1.45:1

38.7 in.

.095 in. / 100 ft.

1-1/2 ft.

6 ft.

9.0 ft2

15 ft.

1.67:1

37.2 in.

.113 in. / 100 ft.

1 ft.

9 ft.

20 ft.

2.22:1

34.5 in.

.156 in. / 100 ft.

Figure 8

Fitting Influences
Selection of the proper fittings is critical

Design Friction Rate


When sizing a duct system the designer will usually choose a design friction rate. This is the desired friction loss in inches w.g. per 100 ft. of equivalent length (in. w.g./100 ft. E.L.) of duct. The design friction rate is generally determined based on the velocity of the air in the first section of ductwork. Most designers use a design friction rate somewhere between 0.08 and 0.10 in. w.g. per 100 ft. E.L.

Determining Friction Rate/100 ft.


Equipment pressure drop Duct pressure drop Terminal device pressure drop

Terminal Device Pressure Drop


Pressure loss for supply air grill Pressure loss for return air grill

Friction Losses
SUPPLY SAG CONT 32W S.P. 0.04 RAG CONT G35W S.P. 0.045 RETURN AIR FILTER S.P. 0.07

A coil .25 sp

FAN COIL OR FURN ACE R.A. BOX

FURNACE NO SCALE

Equal Friction Method


Same friction loss per foot of ductwork Most commonly used method Accomplished by use of a Ductulator Requires less balancing
Important to have balance dampers at each outlet

Results in reasonable duct sizes

Velocity Scale Airflow (CFM)

Duct Calculator

Velocity Pressure Friction Loss

Round Duct Diameter Equivalent Rectangular Duct Sizes

Figure 7

Duct Calculator

Duct Calculator (Reverse)

Recommended & Maximum Duct Velocity Ranges

Design toward smaller end of range for quieter systems and toward larger end of range to minimize duct sizes.

Things to Consider
Aspect ratio no more than 3:1 Residential 2 times # of 6 RD take offs plus 2 for ducts that are 8 high .5 cfm per Sq Ft No more than100 cfm per 6 RD

Round vs. Rectangular Duct of Equal Friction Rate


Ratio of Perimeter Perimeter to Area 40.7 in. 9.03 ft2 10.65 ft. 1.18:1 Equivalent Round Duct Friction at 15,000 CFM .07 in. / 100 ft. 40.7 in.

3 ft. 3 ft.

9.0 ft2

12 ft.

1.33:1

39.4 in.

.086 in. / 100 ft.

2 ft. 4-1/2 ft.

9.0 ft2

13 ft.

1.45:1

38.7 in.

.095 in. / 100 ft.

1-1/2 ft.

6 ft.

9.0 ft2

15 ft.

1.67:1

37.2 in.

.113 in. / 100 ft.

1 ft.

9 ft.

20 ft.

2.22:1

34.5 in.

.156 in. / 100 ft.

Figure 8

90 SQ FT 190 SQ FT 50 SF

90 SQ FT

450 SQ FT

120 SQ FT

120 SQ FT 50 SQ FT
WASHER (N.I.C.)

GAS DRYER (N.I.C.)

60 SQ FT 160 SQ FT

120 SQ FT

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 190 SQ FT 95 CFM 50 SF 25CFM

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 120 SQ FT 60 CFM

450 SQ FT 225 CFM

120 SQ FT 60 CFM 50 SQ FT 25 CFM


WASHER (N.I.C.) GAS DRYER (N.I.C.)

60 SQ FT 30 CFM 160 SQ FT 80 CFM

120 SQ FT 60 CFM

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 190 SQ FT 95 CFM 50 SF 25CFM

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 120 SQ FT 60 CFM

450 SQ FT 225 CFM

120 SQ FT 60 CFM 50 SQ FT 25 CFM


WASHER (N.I.C.) GAS DRYER (N.I.C.)

60 SQ FT 30 CFM 160 SQ FT 80 CFM

120 SQ FT 60 CFM

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 190 SQ FT 95 CFM 50 SF 25CFM

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 120 SQ FT 60 CFM

450 SQ FT 225 CFM

120 SQ FT 60 CFM 50 SQ FT 25 CFM


WASHER (N.I.C.) GAS DRYER (N.I.C.)

60 SQ FT 30 CFM 160 SQ FT 80 CFM

120 SQ FT 60 CFM

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 190 SQ FT 95 CFM 50 SF 25CFM

8/8

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 450 SQ FT 225 CFM 18/8 120 SQ FT 60 CFM 12/8 50 SQ FT 25 CFM


WASHER (N.I.C.)

120 SQ FT 60 CFM

GAS DRYER (N.I.C.)

8/8 60 SQ FT 30 CFM 160 SQ FT 80 CFM

120 SQ FT 60 CFM

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 190 SQ FT 95 CFM 50 SF 25CFM

8/8

90 SQ FT 45 CFM 120 SQ FT 60 CFM

450 SQ FT 225 CFM 12/8 120 SQ FT 60 CFM 8/8

50 SQ FT 25 CFM

WASHER (N.I.C.)

GAS DRYER (N.I.C.)

60 SQ FT 30 CFM 160 SQ FT 80 CFM

120 SQ FT 60 CFM

Select and Adjust Fan


The total static pressure is the pressure that the fan must overcome to deliver the required amount of air. This total amount is also used to select the required fan motor size or fan speed. Perform air balance next. Per Comm 23.18 Measured airflow values should be compared against the required values. Adjust fan and balancing dampers as necessary to deliver the correct amount of air to each zone.

Duct Insulation
22.17 UDC Duct system insulation. (1) except as provided in sub. (4), all heating and cooling duct systems, or portions thereof, that are located in unheated or uncooled spaces respectively, shall be provided with insulation with a thermal resistance of at least R-5.

Duct Insulation cont.


R-4.2 and R-6 are common industry standards for insulated flex R-5 and R-8 are common industry standards for duct wrap

Installation of Underground Ducts SMACNA Standards

Installation of Underground Ducts cont.

Installation of Underground Ducts cont.


23.08 UDC supply air ducts shall be insulated with a moistureproof material having a resistance value of a least R-5.

Underground Duct cont.

Underground Ducts cont.


Uninsulated duct will require 152 btuh per linear foot of duct for heating 1 insulated duct will require 91 btuh per linear foot of duct for heating (40% less energy) 2 insulated duct will require 74 btuh per linear foot of duct for heating (51% less energy)