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Sections

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  Sections o Use of a cutting plane: To cut an object to reveal its internal features by orthographic projection of the features onto the cutting plane. Cutting-plane lines o Typical cutting-plane lines used to represent sections. For instance, the cutting plane marked B-B in a drawing will produce a section view labeled B-B in the same drawing. Full Sections: o A full section is formed by a cutting plane that passes completely through the part. Half Sections: o The cutting plane of a half section passes halfway through the object, which results in a sectional view that shows half the outside (not regular orthographic views) and half the inside o Not regular orthographic views because… hidden lines are omitted unless they unless they are needed to clarify the view. o The cutting plane can be omitted when its location is obvious. The parting line between the section and the view may be a visible line or a centerline if the part is not cylindrical. Broken-Out Sections: o When it is necessary to show only a portion of the part in section, the sectioned area is limited by a freehand break line, and the section is called a broken-out section. o Show hidden lines. Revolved Sections o An axis of revolution is shown in a given view. The cutting plane would appear as an edge in the given view if it were shown. The vertical section is revolved so that the section can be seen true size in the given view. Object lines are (optionally) discontinued by break lines and are not drawn through the revolved section. o A true size o Scale 1:1 Removed Sections o Removed sections show the special or transitional details of a part. They are like revolved sections, except that they are placed outside the principal view. In some cases, removed sections are drawn to larger scale. o Can be drawn to a different scale Offset Sections o To include features of a part not located in a straight line, the cutting plane may be stepped, or offset, at right angles to pass through these features. Offset sections reduce the number of required sections for a complicated part. o Big efficiency tool

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Spokes. spokes. etc. screws. pins. cylinders. Assembly Sections o Assembly sections show two or more mating parts in section. nuts. Cutting-plane lines are normally omitted for rotated features. balls. and arms are rotated into a plane perpendicular to the line of sight of the section. Usually rivets. o Revolve symmetrically spaced holes to show their true radial distances from their centers in sectional views o Pass through. o Hatch ribs when cutting planes pass through them showing their true thickness. bolts. No foreshortening. shafts. are not sectioned lined in assembly sections. and Lugs o Thin solid shapes are often represented without section lining or are sometimes double-spaced sectioned. o Parts not hatched:  Set Screw  Roller and ball bearings  Shaft  Rib or web  Washer Pin  Bolt  Nut  Rivet o Alternate hatching of adjacent parts o Commodity parts  we do not hatch (“monotonous” parts) Thin Parts – Webs. and the offsets are not indicated in the section view. inclined elements such as lugs. o Thin spokes are not section lined o Cross-cut web is section lines o Parallel-cut spokes are not section lined. ribs. Ribs.   o An offset section is drawn as if the offsets were in one plane. This type of section is called an aligned section. o Do not hatch a rib cut in a flatwise direction. . Aligned Sections o If the true projection of a part results in foreshortening or requires unnecessary drawing time.

8 inch high. usually 1. o Center lines  Centerlines are thin lines used to locate the centers of cylindrical parts such as cylindrical holes. Numbers places near their mid points specify a part’s size. o Leaders  Leaders are thin lines drawn from a note to feature the note applies to.0 Dimensioning Basics: o Dimension lines  Dimension lines are thin lines with arrows at each end. Chain & Datum Dimensioning o Chain: Line up dimensions arrowhead-to-arrowhead. Example: 1.  When a dimension is a whole number. Arrowheads are drawn the same length as the height of the letters of numerals.  Decimal points are placed in line with the bottom of the associated digits. o Extension lines  Thin lines that extend from a view of an object for dimension lines to end at these lines. Units of measurement are usually omitted.2M.8 inch. dense. o Arrowheads  Placed at the ends of dimension lines and leaders to indicate their endpoints.Dimensioning:  Importance of applying rules and standards in dimensioning and tolerancing for the reasons of: o Clarity o Neatness o Simplicity o Esthetics. o Datum: Stagger dimensions from common surfaces. o Dimension numbers  Placed near the middle of the dimension line and are usually 1. o Legal Responsibilities. and large enough to be clearly visible and to meet the reproduction requirements of ANSI Y14. Placement Practices o Place Dimensions OFF view o Place Dimensions BETWEEN views o Contour Dimensioning Rule  Where the shape shows best     . Using ANSI (American National Standard Institute) Standards o Standards and Rules for Decimal Points  Decimal Points must be uniform. always add a decimal and a zero.

If you give all dimensions in a chain. 8. 18. 5. Dimensions on concentric cylinders are easier to read if they are staggered within their dimension lines. 17. Leaders 21. Dimension a bent surface rounded corner by locating its theoretical point of intersection with extension lines. but dimension them in their rectangular views if necessary. 19. Successive rows should be at least two times the letter height apart. Give an overall dimension and omit one of the chain dimensions 6. 11. 10. Place angular dimensions outside angular notches by using extension lines 14.      Dimensioning Rules Dimensioning Prisms: 1. 20. mark the reference dimension (the one that would be omitted) with REF or place it in parentheses. 7. Giving a reference dimension is a way of eliminating mathematical calculations in the shop. Locate cylindrical holes in their circular views by coordinates to their centers. 9. Do not place dimensions within the views unless necessary. Place dimensions on the most descriptive views of an object 4. Place the first row of dimensions at least three times the letter height from the object. Dimension the diameter (not the radius of a cylinder in the rectangular view. Place dimensions between the views sharing these dimensions 3. Extend leaders from the first or the last of a note Arcs and Radii . Draw leaders pointing toward the centers of holes. 12. Do not duplicate dimensions on a drawing to avoid errors. Dimensioning Cylindrical Parts and Holes 15. Extension lines may cross other extension lines or object lines if necessary. not hidden features. Dimension concentric cylinders with a series of diameters.) 16. Use half views to save drawing time. 2. Dimension lines should not cross any other lines unless absolutely necessary. Dimension holes in their circular views with leaders. Dimension holes in their circular view with leaders whenever possible. Place dimensions in well-organized lines for uncluttered drawings. Dimension visible features. Leave a small gap from the edges of an object to extension lines that extend from them. Do not leave gaps where extension lines cross object lines or other extension lines. Dimensioning Angles 13.

but not their sizes. o Locate multiple holes from center to center. 27. Locating Cylinders o Locate cylindrical holes in their circular views from two surfaces of the object. Fillets and Rounds 26. even if the finished surfaces are hidden. place both the dimension and arrow outside the arc with a leader. Indicate fillets and rounds by notes or use separate leaders and dimensions. When space permits. Baseline Dimensioning o Measuring holes from two datum planes is the most accurate way to locate them and reduces the accumulation of errors possible in chain dimensioning. Location Dimensions o Location dimension give the positions of geometric features with respect to other geometric features. o Locate holes from finished surfaces. If there is no space for the arrow inside. Show its false center on the centerline of the true center. When space is not available for the number. 25. 24. Use notes to indicate that identical features are repeated on drawings to avoid having to dimension them individually. place the arrow between the center and the arc number outside. Dimension parts comprising a combination of tangent arcs and lines by using radii. Never use confusing leaders. . Small Radii: Specify fillets and rounds with a note to reduce repetitive dimensions of small arcs. Large Radius: Show a long radius with a false radius ( a line with a zigzag) to indicate that it is not true length. 23.    22. place dimensions and arrows between the center and the arc.

Allowance o The tightest fit between two mating parts. the allowance between a pair of mating shaft and hole is calculated by the smallest hole dimension – the largest shaft dimension.500.         . There are four types of fit:  Clearance fit: a fit that gives a clearance between two assembled mating parts.500. unilateral tolerance: 2.250 ± . the large limits are placed either above or to the right of the small limits. Bilateral tolerance: 2. and angular tolerance ± . 1. For example. General Tolerance Notes o Except where stated otherwise tolerances on dimensions ± .1 Fit o Signifies the type of fit between two mating parts when assembled. Dimensions should be given as large a tolerance as possible without interfering with the function of the part to reduce production costs. a shaft with limit dimensions (1. bilateral. (1.000.495) and a hole.490. 2. or a tolerance. The tolerance is the difference between the limits prescribed for a single part. Each dimension is allowed a certain degree of variation within a specified zone. There is no basic diameter if this is expressed with limits. and limit form tolerance: (2. ± . 1. Actual Size o Actual size is the measured size of the finishe part.  Interference fit: a fit that results in interference between the two assembled parts. (1.003. a part’s dimension might be expressed as 100 ± 0.005). 1.010 o Unless otherwise specified ± . a shaft with limit dimensions (1. When limit dimensions are given. 1.Tolerancing and Tolerances  The technique of dimensioning parts to ensure interchangeability is called tolerancing. In plus-and-minus tolerancing. Nominal Size o Nominal size is an approximate size that is usually expressed with common fractions. Manufacturing to close tolerances is expensive. for example. which yields a tolerance of 1.250. the plus tolerances are placed above the minus tolerances. For instance. For example.245).502) form a clearance fit.506.5.10 tolerance on cast dimensions.485).250 (+. Tolerances can be specified in unilateral. -. For example. and limits.00 mm. form interference fit.495) and a hole. Basic Size o Basic Size is the exact theoretical size from which limits are derived by the application of plus-minus tolerances.007 tolerance on machined dimensions.

506). result in to a transition fit. These are usually caused by the manufacturing process used to smooth the surface. Bushing must have a force fit inside hole in pulley. form a line fit. Roughness may be regarded as superimposed on a wavy surface. Waviness width: o Spacing between peaks or wave valleys measured in inches or millimeters. a shaft with limit dimensions (1. Roughness height o Average deviation from the mean plane of the surface. Cylindrical fits: Shaft must have a clearance fit inside hole in bushing. and the like. Unless otherwise specified.500. Roughness width o The width between successive peaks and valleys that forms the roughness measured in micro-inches or micrometers. Roughness: o Describes the finest of the irregularities in the surface. Waviness: o Widely spaced variation that exceeds the roughness width cutoff. blow holes.  . Waviness height: o Peak-to valley distance between waves. and flaws. lay.498). a shaft with limit dimensions (1. These include cracks. the effects of flaws in not included in roughness height measurements.500. Surface textures are sometimes needed to be specified in the drawings.500. It is measured in inches or millimeters.495) and a hole. It is measured in micro-inches or micrometers.502. Surface Texture: o The variation in the surface. Contact Area o Surface that will make contact with its mating surface. respectively millionths of an inch and of a meter.495) and a hole (1. 1. For example. 1. ridges.           Transition fit: can result in either an interference fit or a clearance. 1.  Line fit: results in a contact of surfaces between them. 1. including roughness. Waviness is measured in inches or millimeters. (1. For example. Lay: o Direction of surface pattern and is determined by the production method used Flaws: o Irregularities or defects that occur infrequently or at widely varying intervals on a surface. waviness. scratches. These parts must be assembled with cylindrical fits that give a clearance and an interference fit.