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IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 15, NO.

11, NOVEMBER 2005

823

ANN Based Electromagnetic Models for the Design of RF MEMS Switches
Yongjae Lee, Student Member, IEEE, and Dejan S. Filipovic, Member, IEEE
Abstract—Artificial neural network (ANN)-based modeling approach for the design of radio frequency microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is presented. In the proposed methodology, a finite element method analysis is performed for the switch characterization and for the creation of training and testing sets for the ANN. Developed full-wave/ANN models allow for circuit level design, simulation, and optimization in a schematic of a circuit simulator. The simulation time is reduced for two orders of magnitude, while the accuracy of the full-wave method is maintained. Index Terms—Computer aided design (CAD), electromagnetic (EM) analysis, feedforward neural network, finite element methods (FEMs), microelectromechanical system (MEMS).
Fig. 1. ANN based modeling procedure for RF MEMS devices.

I. INTRODUCTION

R

ADIO FREQUENCY microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS) switches inherently have broad bandwidth, high isolation, low power consumption, and other properties making them viable candidates for various applications including reconfigurable antennas, filters, phase shifters, and related circuits [1]. To analyze, design, and optimize these complex configurations, several computer aided design (CAD) methodologies have been proposed. For example, nonlinear dynamics and static simulations are performed using equivalent circuit models [2], [3]. Although computationally efficient, these techniques sometimes fail to accurately model complex structures. As an alternative, hybrid approaches combining two or more methods [4] typically provide improved accuracy in modeling MEMS devices. However, the full-wave based design and optimization of MEMS devices, particularly the integration within a circuit simulator and design of complex integrated circuits with MEMS components remain challenging research tasks. To eliminate these limitations, we generalize the previously proposed scheme in [5] by eliminating the need for an equivalent electrical network model and propose an artificial neural network (ANN)-based modeling approach schematically depicted in Fig. 1. A coplanar waveguide (CPW) shunt RF MEMS switch [6] is selected as an example for which the methodology will be demonstrated. Full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulations are performed using an Ansoft high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) [7]. Device characterization and generation of training and testing datasets are realized from this analysis. Insertion loss and return loss are computed as the size of structural parameters is varied. Obtained input and output relationships are mapped
Manuscript received March 9, 2005; revised August 30, 2005. The review of this letter was arranged by Associate Editor A. Weisshaar. The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0425 USA (e-mail: yongjae@colorado.edu; dejan@colorado.edu). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LMWC.2005.859001

Fig. 2. Schematic of a CPW MEMS shunt switch in (a) top view and (b) cross section view.

using the ANN technique. Given a valid range of input variables, ANNs are trained and tested using CU-ANN [8]. It is important to note that ANNs are tested against both the training set and examples that the ANNs have not been trained with. Thus, both generalization and accuracy of the scheme are attained. Developed ANN model maintains the accuracy of the full-wave analysis while significantly saving the running time. Therefore, it allows design, simulation, and optimization of RF circuits with embedded MEMS devices with extremely low computational overhead. II. FULL-WAVE MODELING OF RF MEMS SWITCHES A. CPW Shunt RF MEMS Switch A drawing of a CPW RF MEMS shunt switch [6] with appropriate geometrical parameters and material properties is shown in Fig. 2. The switch is composed of a metallic membrane suspended over the CPW line. Both ends of the membrane are fixed to the ground. When the switch is at up-state position, all RF signal pass through the signal line. In contrast, it becomes a reflective

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Comparison of S -parameters between the HFSS model and the measurements at (a) down-state position and (b) up-state position. we utilized the measurements from [6] for validation. TABLE I RANGE SELECTION OF ANN INPUT VARIABLES Fig.5%. Fig. In a solution setup. (b) down-state position and (c). adaptive refinement process is performed iteratively until the errors in the -parameters converged to 0. VOL. NO. switch when the membrane collapses on a thin dielectric layer. (d) up-state position. This dynamics is simulated in HFSS. B. Feedforward ANN architecture with input and output parameters. Model Validation To demonstrate the accuracy of the realized full-wave EM model. 2) Ls 146 m and parameters: 1) Ls W s 63 m. and (3) Ls 154 m and W s 88 m. Validation of ANNs with HFSS model for the selected input 106 m and W s 48 m. 3. 5. The magnitude and phase of S -parameters are computed for the switch at (a). NOVEMBER 2005 Fig. 15. 4.824 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS. 11. = = = = = = .

” in IEEE MTT-S Int. and P. “Lumped element modeling of coplanar series RF MEMS switches. Lee et al.com [8] M. 302–316.. pp. J. P.” Int. Discrepancy in predicted -parameters is likely attributed to the dynamic range of measurement setup. “Analysis of RF-MEMS switches using finite element-boundary integration with moment method. 1272–1274.. 2000. pp. 2123–2126. Note that the measurements in [6] are performed up to 40 GHz. and is the mean of the ANN model. CAE. and Technology. and R. Selected range of input parameters is given in Table I. pp. CONCLUSION An efficient approach for the analysis and design of RF MEMS switches and related circuits is presented. and possible differences in electrical parameters between the fabricated and modeled devices.” Electron. III. 2004. ANNs are trained with testing datasets simultaneously. no. 5.” IEEE Trans. arbitrarily selected physical input parameters within a range of training sets are used for validation. Neural Networks for RF and Microwave Design. IEEE Antennas Propagation Soc. Rebeiz. Marcelli et al. “An electromechanical model for MEMS switches. 1996. This term is often called “Correlation coefficient” ( ) (1) where ( 106) is the number of training datasets. Available: http://www. Jun. The performance is evaluated by computing the difference between outputs from ANNs and training datasets.. “Integrated neural network modeling for electronic manufacturing. “Artificial neural network modeling of RF MEMS resonators. REFERENCES [1] G. Blondy. 20. 2003.. [9] Q.LEE AND FILIPOVIC: ANN BASED ELECTROMAGNETIC MODELS 825 TABLE II CORRELATION AND ERROR RESULTS FOR THE ANN MODEL IV. (2005) High Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS). RF Microw. Inc. Saitou. J.7 s for the ANN model. Volakis. [2] D. pp. Note that for a single run.. Li. Manufact. Modeling. Design. vol. 79–71. Microw. 2003. pp. no. 3. Mahajan. B. 4. May 2001. It is shown that the developed ANN model preserves the accuracy of the finite element method (FEM) while reducing running time for two orders of magnitude. L. Int. no. 1045–1052. “High-isolation CPW MEMS shunt switches. Marwah. New York: Wiley. 6. Gupta. Kurabayashi. 1. pp. Norwood. Wang. Steepest gradient method [9] is utilized for training algorithm. B. Cros. C. Tech. the surface roughness of dielectric layers and the electrode. Mercier.. Jul. 2000. 173–176. Muldavin and G. The ANN architecture consisting of two hidden layers with 11 neurons in each layer is shown in Fig. J. excellent agreement between the ANN and HFSS model is obtained. Jensen. [Online]. vol. Lett. M. 40. [4] Z. Dig.. respectively. Sep. [5] Y. Guillon.ansoft. Fig. vol. 3 depicts excellent prediction capability of the solver. [7] Ansoft. K. the execution in the HFSS model takes 420 s compared to only 0. As seen. [3] R. ANN MODEL ) and length ( ) are selected as input The switch’s width ( variables while the insertion and return loss for up to the W-band are output variables.” J. [6] J.” in Proc. V. vol. Electron. J. and K. To avoid overfitting. Y. MA: Artech House. Rebeiz. Total of 106 training and 28 testing datasets are generated. vol. RESULTS To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the developed modeling approach. 4. RF MEMS Theory. and are outputs from the HFSS and the ANN model. M. 2004. thus giving rise to 600 reduction. 2. . Rep. D. Jun. Theory Tech. is the number of samplings in output variables.. The CAD and optimization of MEMS switches and corresponding RF/microwave circuits are now straightforward. 14. Symp. Zhang and K. 48. The summary of correlation and error results is given in Table II and the magnitude and phase of the predicted -parameters for both positions of the switch are shown in Fig.