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A STUDY OF EMPLOYEE RETENTION IN ITeS INDUSTRY: A CASE OF NORTH INDIA

Gagan Deep Sharma Department of Management Studies BBSB Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib +91-9915233734, Email – gagan.is.sharma@gmail.com Mandeep Mahendru Department of Management Studies Gian Jyoti Institute of Management, Mohali +91-9872896504, Email – mandip129@gmail.com Sanjeet Singh Department of Management Studies BBSB Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib +91-9915644774, Email – singh.sanjeet2008@gmail.com

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1827482

A STUDY OF EMPLOYEE RETENTION IN ITeS INDUSTRY: A CASE OF NORTH INDIA
GAGANDEEP SHARMA MANDEEP MAHENDRU SANJEET SINGH

ABSTRACT
The retention of knowledge worker has become extremely critical for the success of a business organization in the present scenario especially in the service sector with lot of people interface. HR department has to play a key role in designing the policies, practices and strategies, which can enable an organization to retain the human resources contributing significantly to the business. The present study examines the phenomenon of Employee Retention in the ITeS sector in the Tri-City of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula in order to develop appropriate strategies, which can help the organizations in this sector to retain their valuable talent. The major objectives of the research are to study: employee retention strategies followed in the ITeS industry in the Tri-city of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula; significance of select HR practices in the attainment of job satisfaction amongst the employees of the industry; extent of employee attrition prevalent; significance of individual, organizational and industry related factors in determining employee retention; correlation between job satisfaction and employee retention; prevalence of Talent Management System and identify different strategies adopted to reduce the monotony of work for the executive positions. The t-test, chi square test and correlation test is used for evaluation of the data. Keywords: Employee Retention, ITeS sector, Job satisfaction, Employee attrition, T-test, Chi square test.

1. INTRODUCTION
The competencies and skills of knowledge worker have become extremely vital competitive advantage in the present day business scenario. All the professionally managed organizations make an all-out attempt to acquire, retain and develop the talent pool that they encompass. Importance of human resources has increased manifold, firstly because of their scarce availability and secondly due to an increasing demand by the growing number of business units seeking quality talent. In this context the ability of an organization to keep hold of its vital and skilled manpower becomes extremely critical. HR department has to play a key role in designing the policies and practices which can enable an organization to retain the human resources contributing significantly to the business.

1.1 EMPLOYEE RETENTION

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1827482

A pool of members who could potentially be future leaders. A pool of members who can on to help when needed.2 IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYEE RENTENTION When an organization has hired good people. work life imbalance which Compensation: Better compensation packages being offered by other companies may attract employees towards themselves. Instead it focuses on maintaining a welcome environment. This is done either directly or indirectly in the company. An employee can be directly retained when a company signs a legal Bond with the employees for a certain period of time. and organizational process. Unexpected job responsibilities lead to job dissatisfaction. Lack of appreciation: If the work is not appreciated by the supervisor. “Retention is the process for members or volunteers remain active with the organization. Lack of trust and support: Trust is the most important factor that is required for an individual to stay in the job.1 REASONS BEHIND EMPLOYEE ATTRITION There are certain circumstances that lead to employees leaving their organization. The most common reasons can be:Job is not what the employee expected to be: Sometimes the job responsibilities don’t come out to be same as expected by the candidates. “Employee Retention involves taking measures to encourage employees to remain in the organization for the maximum period of time. it does not want to loose them. A strong indicator of organizational success.” (Source: Duke University-Student Affairs-Multicultural centre) Thus.” “Employee retention is a systematic effort by employers to create & foster an environment that encourages current employees to remain employed by having policies &practices in place that address their diverse needs.2. Employee Retention is a systematic and organized effort by the management of an organization to retain the skilled and competent manpower acquired thereof. seniors and management can make office environment unfriendly and difficult to work in. 1. built them into high-performing teams. This might reduce the attrition rate to an extent but increases the Recruiting rate of keeping the position vacant for a long time. . Retention is not a particularly formal process. the employee feels demotivated and loses interest in job. then he won’t be able to perform it well and will try to find out reasons to leave the job. Stress from overwork and work life imbalance: Job stress can lead to ultimately may lead to employee leaving the organization. Non-supportive coworkers. Job and person mismatch: A candidate may be fit to do a certain type of job which matches his personality. If he is given a job which mismatches his personality. No growth opportunities: No or less learning and growth opportunities in the current job will make candidate’s job and career stagnant.Employee Retention refers to retaining the employee in the company. Given below is some of the rationale that describes the importance of the same:     A happy organizational community. member morale. trained them. 1.

HR hiring. Focused on developing capabilities. can lead an employee to leave the organization. Increasing competition from both large & small cap players. There has also been a steady growth in domestic demand. Scale and margin pressures. 1. administration. It's easier to understand by segregating it as customer interactive services and back office operations for remote customers. Scale and growth pressures. McKinsey & Co. Mainly concentrated on specific domain capabilities. a conducive business environment. BPO etc. Web sales/marketing and back-office operations such as accounting. which further contributes to this segment's standing in the Indian ITeS industry. India’s supplies constitute 53 percent of the global offshore market for IT and business services. 2007-12 . growth and learning etc. IT-enabled services in India is poised for greater heights. which facilitates delivery of services through the use of information technology.3 INDIA IT/ ITES INDUSTRY SIZE. BPO or Business Process Outsourcing is the arm of ITES.New job offer: An attractive job offer which an employee thinks is good for him with respect to job responsibility. telecommunication and manufacturing. healthcare. focus on information security and operational excellence by leading IT-ITeS vendors and relevant financial structures. biotech research. Well positioned to bag large IT contracts with scalable capabilities. HR. a specific niche domain & aspire to be a leader in that domain. accounting for nearly 60 percent of industry revenues. 1. 1.3. and data mining harness the power of IT. Exports account for a majority share of the segment revenue with the US and Western Europe as the key markets. India's edge in the off shoring domain is based on factors such as availability of skilled manpower. call centers and claims processing to medical transcription. suggests the robust growth of IT. A market research conducted jointly by The National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) and leading business Intelligence Company. Services ranging from customer care. ITeS services are diverse in nature. High client concentration. IBM etc. data processing. Competes with global IT vendors such as Accenture.3. Strong delivery capabilities across multiple verticals. Low client concentration.2 STRUCTURE OF INDIAN IT/ITeS INDUSTRY Table 1: Structure of IT/ITeS Industry REVENUE LARGE CAP Revenue>US$250 million      MID CAP Revenue US$50250million Focused on key niche areas of operations       BUSINESS MODELKEY CHARACTERISTICS Mainly concentrated on Application Development& Maintenance. limited growth available in niche areas.3 ITeS INDUSTRY ITeS refers to Information Technology Enabled Services. NICHE PLAYERS 1.3. India based service providers can deliver services in diverse areas such as finance. compensation.1 ITeS INDUSTRY IN INDIA IT services and software continues to be the mainstay of Indian IT-ITeS.

4% 246.5 ESTABLISHED IT /ITeS HUBS IN INDIA Figure.100 2010 36.657 529.431 133.014 2008 25.834 34.5% 1.357 110.0% 27.4% 182.107 250.087 284.139 467.319 351.278 15.666 320.976 16. Crore) 2007 Domestic IT Services Domestic ITES Domestic IT/ ITES Market IT/ ITES Exports Revenue India IT/ ITES Industry Size 20.330 17.920 11.970 90.609 296.817 2012 51.698 156.177 2009 30.142 218.039 CAGR 07-12 20.3.3% 18.973 40.4 MAJOR ITeS COMPANIES IN INDIA        Tata Consultancy Services Wipro Technologies Infosys Technologies HCL GE IBM Dell 1.1 .053 2011 43.594 186.3.519 23.Table 2: India IT/ ITeS Industry Size (Rs.991 209.207 408.691 29.758 158.

another 8 mbps bandwidth is available for software exporters .3. Delhi. Construction work has already been started in an area of 46 acres in Mohali.Figure one shows the established IT hubs in India like Mumbai. which has completed its state of the art campus.6 EMERGING IT / ITES DESTINATIONS IN INDIA Figure. In addition. Bharti Airtel. Mohali: Quark Media House. a subsidiary of Quark Inc. DLF is also offering ready to use built up space and is already housing 14 IT Companies. Quark is now developing a 40 lac Sq.II. Already an investment of more than Rs 650 Cr has poured in. Ft. State-of-the-Art Integrated Special Economic Zone Park through its affiliate. Data Connectivity and STPI Centres: The Corporation has facilitated laying of OFC in the state through telecom operators and a reliable telecom infrastructure has been established to cover almost all of the districts of the state to provide data connectivity. This infrastructure would attract fresh investments by the Knowledge Industry creating employment potential for more than 7000. Tech Mahindra. Fifteen mbps bandwidth has been added to the existing capacity of 40 mbps at STPI.7 ITES INDUSTRY IN TRI-CITY OF CHANDIGARH.2 Figure 2. 1998 to provide regulatory services and Datacom facilities to the software export units located in this region. Punchkula Nagpur etc. MOHALI & PANCHKULA The development of RGCTP has been anchored by Infosys. Quark city. Bangalore.F. and an equivalent number would be directly Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park (RGCTP) is an important project for the Union Territory of Chandigarh tO provide world class integrated infrastructure necessary for the setting up of facilities/campuses by leading Technology Companies and other IT/ITES/BPO companies for the first time in this region. QUARK will develop about 5. 1. the total software exports from RGCTP alone were Rs 200 Cr out of Rs 600 Cr for the tricity. eSys alongwith13 other companies are in the process of developing their respective sites allotted to them. Mohali. 1. 2006-7. IT majors like Wipro. These state of the art buildings are already providing directly employment to more than 4000 professionals.I Associates at a cost of 447 Crores in the first Phase. shows the emerging IT destinations in India like Chandigarh. Mohali which is operational since October. USA. Phase I and Phase II would provide direct employment to more than 30000 professionals.3. which is already operating in Mohali with more than 700 professionals. Hyderabad etc. Similarly it is estimated that once completed.000 acres of Industrial Park and Township in Phase.

Jean-Marie. Kim. (2003) explored the burgeoning Indian software services industry by focusing on one of its critical challenges: human resource management. Jyotsna (2007). Mohali and Panchkula. Aggarawal. & Kvasny. has companies Intelligeshia. (2007) examine Indian KPOs for his research. To examine the correlation between job satisfaction and employee retention in the industry. RF. To study the significance of different: individual. IT and ITES industry in Panchkula. To identify the different strategies adopted by the ITeS industry to reduce the monotony of work for the executive positions. (1999). Verlander. (2007). & Balasubramanian. (1992) revealed on the impact of organizational culture on employee retention. Mohan. S. & Thite. 3. (2008) conducted his research on call centre’s in India. & Budhwar. Martin R. J. (2007) examined the talent management in organizations. Edward G & Evans. Pawan. Lynette. & Thite. Pawan S. & Dhar. G (2007) dealt with the people management issues in Indian KPOs. (2002) explored and discussed the problem of employee retention in the field of radiology. Narendra M. Bhatnagar. Jyotsna (2008). Rohin. Edward G & Evans.php?newsid=71956) 2. Budhwar. To determine the significance of select HR practices in the attainment of job satisfaction amongst the employees of the industry. (2002) examined the strategic approach to employee retention. Haryana. REVIEW OF LITERATURE To develop a thorough understanding of the conceptual constructs and empirical research for the present study. Bhatnagar. J. Narendra M. and Webart have started up. The area and scope of the studies concerning the employee retention has been mixed. Anand Kumar. Bhatnagar. G. Pawan S & Varma. Gerson. Rohin. Pawan.PUNCOM project. S. & Balasubramanian. (2005) examined the factors affecting State Government IT employee turnover intentions. RF. A number of researchers examine the effect of advertisement on sales and consumption. Bhatnagar. organizational and industry related factors in determining the employee retention. Jaiswal. Anand Kumar (2008) evaluated customer satisfaction and service quality measurement practices in call centres in India. John E. Arup & Singh. & Budhwar. Soonhee. Jyotsna (2008). (2006). Jaiswal. Raghu Raman. & Dhar. Pawan S & Varma. All these confirm the intention of the three administrations to develop the region as an IT hub. Anand Kumar (2008). Jaiswal. Arup & Singh. Gering. Sheridan. Jean-Marie. Aggarawal. Virender. Tapia. Gerson. (2002). Jyotsna (2007) study & investigated talent management and its relationship to levels of employee engagement. Hiltrop. This in turn has drawn in real estate majors. S. Hiltrop. & Varma. Andrea H. J. Lynette. (2002). . (http://www. This has not only helped in identification of the gaps in the existing body of knowledge but has also enabled to establish a relationship of the present study with what already exists. Raghu Raman. Tapia. John E. Budhwar. (1992) showed the effect of organizational culture on the employee retention. & Balasubramanian. J. Virender. (2003).com/news/fullstory. Budhwar. Andrea H. Martin R. Raghu Raman. & Kvasny. Verlander. Mohan. Gering. G (2007). (2004).through VSNL. (2004) evaluates assessment of the relevant literature addressing retention issues for women and minorities in IT workforce. & Conner. The studies of Bhatnagar. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • • • • • To identify the employee retention strategies followed in the ITeS industry in the Tri-city of Chandigarh. In majority of the studies. & Conner. extensive review of literature was undertaken. (2006) studied human resource management (HRM) systems of call centres in India. Arup. & Budhwar. the focus has remained on the different sectors but few of the studies concentrated on the ITES Sector as well. Jyotsna (2007) investigated BPO/ITeS of India. Pawan. Soonhee.expressindia. Kim. (1999) explored some of the strategies and techniques that organizations are using to attract and retain talent. (2005). Sheridan.

RF. Jyotsna. Martin R. Anand Kumar. and opportunities for advancement were statistically significant variables affecting state government IT employee turnover intentions. voluntary attrition. (2007) evaluated insights into the HR challenges involved and the ways in which they are addressed by KPOs through an in-depth case study of a KPO organization in India which specialized in offering complex analytics. (2007) highlighted the differences in the nature of work characteristics in such organizations as compared to call centre’s. Arup. Verlander. & Evans. The area and scope of the studies concerning the retention and turnover of employees in the organization. structured. & Dhar. (2007) studied a framework of 12 strategies to address the employee retention problem. Sheridan. Arup. S. (2005) examined the Indian government it industries. Bhatnagar. (2008) used interviews and archival data as shared by the organization. Verlander. structured and rationalized HRM systems." but he suggested that the bulk of future efforts should be focused on employee retention and "closing the back door. Narendra M. Varied results have been produced by the empirical researches regarding the employee retention in the organizations. but only for a limited time in the ITeS sector. (2002) reveals that there were staff shortages in radiology because not enough people were entering the profession." Employee retention must be . He also found that much of the work has been focused on recruitment and getting more people "in the front door. Virender. John E. & Singh. higher-paying jobs or jobs with less stress. G. & Budhwar. Virender. Anand Kumar. Martin R. Tapia. Researchers used a variety of techniques and model for collection and evaluation of data. Pawan. Sheridan. Virender. & Kvasny. Kim. Aggarawal. America and Native America. & Evans. and human resource management practices influence their turnover intentions. Jyotsna (2007) analyze focus group interview discussion was based on reasons for attrition and the unique problems of employee engagement. Budhwar. Narendra M. Edward G. John E. work preferences and maintaining workfamily balance. Customer orientation in assessing service performance is either low or absent in most call centre’s. The need for a more rigorous employee engagement construct is essential. Jyotsna (2007) observed that a good level of engagement may lead to high retention. Jaiswal. difficulties with teamwork. (2007) finds that the formation of a deep bonding between employees and management would help in long-term employment retention. (2004) examined IT workforce women of Africa. Rohin. and there were not enough opportunities for career advancement. (2005) reveals that work exhaustion. (2003) reveals the characteristics of Indian software professionals and some of the key human-resource related issues and challenges in the industry: namely. (1992) focused on college graduates hired in 6 public accounting firms over a 6-yr period. & Dhar. S. Rohin. Jaiswal. Bhatnagar. & Balasubramanian. Narendra M. an emphasis on participatory management. & Varma. Kim. lack of managerial skills. & Kvasny. Kim. Bhatnagar. Budhwar. Pawan S. and that salary satisfaction was not a statistically significant factor. (2003) studied in-depth interviews of various stakeholders from a representative range of Indian software services organizations. Jyotsna. (2005) used Survey questionnaires filled from IT employees to analyze how job characteristics. G. & Thite. Aggarawal. The respondents were senior managers belonging to quality or operation divisions in four large call centre’s in India. The study also highlighted some of the key people management challenges that these organizations faced like attracting and retaining talent. (2004) observe the need to deepen an understanding of retention issues for women and minorities in order to form intervention strategies. work environment. Andrea H.& Singh. transparent and innovative human resource practices and the study indicated that such enlightened human resource practices stand on the foundations laid by an open work environment and facilitative leadership. Aggarawal. (2008) reveals that a good level of engagement may lead to high retention and grooming of future leaders for the organization. Lynette. (2006) examined the nature and pattern of HRM systems and phase two the emerging issue of attrition. The case company adopted formal. Mohan. Pawan S. (2006) finds the existence of formal. Lynette. & Thite. Raghu Raman. & Thite. Pawan. Soonhee. Soonhee. accounting and support services to the real estate and financial services industries. (2008) used qualitative methodology involving in-depth interviews. Tapia. too many people were leaving the profession for retirement. (2006) done his research on Indian call centre’s. (2008) conclude that call centre managers overly depend on operational measures. (2003) explored the burgeoning Indian software services industry. & Varma. & Balasubramanian. & Budhwar. Raghu Raman. Edward G. & Singh. A mixed research approach comprising in-depth interviews and questionnaire survey was adopted to conduct the investigation. Andrea H. Mohan. (1992) observed the retention rates of 904 college graduates hired in 6 public accounting firms over a 6-yr period. Bhatnagar. Soonhee. Mohan. & Dhar. reluctance to make a transition from technical to management positions. Gerson. Rohin.

It enabled identification of the prevalent gaps in the existing literature.3 DATA COLLECTION TOOLS Data collection tools include the various methods used by the researcher in the project.. Jean-Marie. Descriptive Research Design has been employed in the present study to define the answers to what. Gering. & Conner. Following research methodology was adopted for the present study. Primary sources: HR Managers of the select organizations of the ITeS industry in the Tri-City of Chandigarh. The application of method for collecting the data mainly depends upon the type of project the researcher is going to undertake. Employee turnover destroys a customer's confidence in the company.e. including the level of teamwork and openness between co-workers. rewarding employees for their successes and taking corrective action as necessary. not much research has been undertaken on the employee retention in the case of Indian ITES companies and specially in the north India like. to collect data for the present study to have first hand account of different dimensions of employee retention in the ITeS industry. 4. Mohali and Panchkula. John E. Books. the training and development opportunities they offer to employees. Magazines. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a design or plan as a guide for conducting research and to systematically solve the research problem. Internet and Newspapers was undertaken to know the contemporary employee retention scenario and the research undertaken in the field so far.1 RESEARCH DESIGN Research design is a blue print or framework which specifies the details of the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure or solve research problems. Customers prefer dealing with the same employees over and over again. In case of survey project. Journals.2 SOURCES OF DATA Both primary and secondary data has been collected and analyzed to present a comprehensive analysis of the phenomenon of employee retention in the ITeS industry. the key is to keep employees so they in turn will help you keep your customers. And. Retention rate targets must be at a level that will achieve a competitive advantage in the served market. (1992) reveals that the cultural effects were stronger than the combined exogenous influences of the labor market and the new employees' demographic characteristics. 4. It includes research design. there is a service/satisfaction link between employee retention and higher levels of customer satisfaction. Hiltrop. The present study will investigate the said topic with respect to the ITES companies working in north India: Chandigarh. 4. 4. Secondary sources: Comprehensive review of existing literature i. J. standardized questionnaire is the best tool for collecting the data. why and how of the different dimensions of the employee retention in the ITeS industry in the Tri-City of Chandigarh. Mohali and Panchkula were personally interviewed by administering the standard questionnaire as schedules. Developing this capability begins with the realization that effective human resource management underpins the competitiveness of organizations.an ongoing process. sampling procedures. J. Panchkula and Mohali. . and the degree of pro-activity in HR planning. The process must be a benefits-based approach. He pointed out that the best way to retain the employees is to treat them like customers. not a program. Researchers have studied the Employee Retention in different countries. So. Sheridan. (2002) finds that the best managers require accountability. The employee retention processes must focus on what the employee gets out of the job. (1999) observe that high performance organizations are consistently outperforming their competitors on a number of human resource factors. However. data collection method and analysis procedure.

divided by the expected data in all possible categories. d). FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS To conduct the present study. T-test: The One-Sample T Test procedure tests whether the mean of a single variable differs from a specified constant.(∑Y)^2 / n]} 5.1 ORGANIZATIONS IN THE ITeS INDUSTRY SELECTED FOR THE PRESENT STUDY Table 3: Respondent Organizations from ITeS Industry S. were employed to test the drafted hypotheses and statistically validating the analysis.4 DATA ANALYSIS TOOLS To arrive at pertinent analysis. The formula for calculating chi-square ( X2) is: X2= ∑ (o-e)2/e That is.(∑X)^2 / n] [∑ Y^2 . Name of the Organization Dr.. the stronger the positive(or negative) linear relationship between the two variables. t-test. Mohali and Panchkula as the schedules. there is no linear relation. Averages. 1.No. 3: 5. These questionnaires were administered to HR Managers of the select organizations of the ITeS industry in the Tri-City of Chandigarh. 2. The names of the organizations are presented below in the Table No.∑X ∑Y / n ) / SQRT { [∑ X^2 . The closer it is to 1( or -1). the following organizations in the ITeS industry were examined to know their HR practices that affect the phenomenon of Employee Retention. percentage. The One-Sample T Test procedure: • Tests the difference between a sample mean and a known or hypothesized value • Allows you to specify the level of confidence for the difference • Produces a table of descriptive statistics for each test variable Chi-square test Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data with data we would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. ratios were also used to analyze and present the data in a clear and understandable manner. r = ( ∑ XY . Carl Pearson Coefficient of correlation Carl Pearson Coefficient of correlation is a measure of linear relationship between two variables. It lies between -1 and 1. IT Planets Excel Callnet Services Offered Call Center Services Call Center Services . If it is close to 0. the collected data was put to planned and rigorous statistical analysis. For this purpose. following statistical tools: Descriptive statistics chi-square test. chi-square is the sum of the squared difference between observed (o) and the expected (e) data (or the deviation.Primary data has been collected through standardized questionnaires for the purpose of the study. Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation. 4.

The findings from such a wide range of organizations would enable a comprehensive analysis of the employee retention phenomenon in the ITeS Sector. a) Exit Interviews.3. c) Career growth. 7. 3.2 EMPLOYEE RETENTION STRATEGIES PRACTICED BY RESPONDENT ORGANIZATIONS The HR managers of the select ITeS organizations were enquired to outline the various employee retention strategies that were being currently implemented in their organizations. Organization Dr. c) Job rotation.No. b) Salary hike. 2. NA a) Friendly Environment for New Joiners. a) Public Recognition of achievements. b) Incentives. a) Exit Interviews. 12. 4. b) Weekly Feedback from Employees. b) Periodic Entertainment & Excursions. 6. c) Training programs. 3. a) Best Salary Packages b) Regular Employee feedback sessions. b) Incentives. 8. b) Better Work Environment. 6. c) Rewards. 9. 4. 8. a) Motivational Atmosphere. c) Monthly Tracking of Employees. 11. 12. 11. b) Incentives. 1. 9. IT Planets Excel Callnet Pugmarks Interweb OSI-Info-Solutions (I) Vismaad Mediatech KDMS Seasia Omnia BPO Services Tata Business Solutions Competent Synergies Techno Beez Ecologic Corporation Support Employee Retention Strategies a) Performance Appraisal. a cross-section of ITeS organizations have been examined in the present study. b) Incentives. 5. a) Salary Hikes. . a) Job Rotation & Job Enrichment. 7. b) Incentives Oriented Targets. Pugmarks Interweb OSI-Info-Solutions (I) Vismaad Mediatech Kinerk Direct Marketing Solutions: KDMS Seasia Consulting Omnia BPO Services Tata Business Support Solutions Competent Synergies Techno Beez Ecologic Corporation Design Development and Web Support BPO Services in Finance Domain Media and Animation BPO Services Tech Support Services Call Center Services Call Center Services Call Center Services Tech Support Services Web Support Services As it is evident from the information reported in Table No. c) Regular Rewards and Recognitions. 10. c) Get Together. a) Salary Hike. 5. a) Exit Interviews. The responses for the same are tabulated below in Table No. 10. 5. 4: Table 4: Employee Retention Strategies Practiced by Respondent Organizations S.

3 FACTORS RELATED WITH INDIVIDUAL AFFECTING EMPLOYEE RETENTION It has been observed that the demographic profile of the employees can have an impact on the retention of the employees. the probability of his attrition rises significantly. it is evident that as the employee gains more and more experience of working in this sector. 5: Table 5: Number of Respondents Reporting Level of Significance of Factors Related with Individual Affecting Employee Retention Number of Respondents Highly Insignificant 1 0 1 0 0 4 1 1 Level of Significance Somewhat Neither Insignificant Insignificant Nor Significant 2 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 3 2 2 0 2 2 6 2 Reporting Particular Somewhat Significant 4 5 5 4 5 4 2 5 Highly Significant 5 4 2 7 4 2 3 3 Factors Related with Individual Age Gender Experience in the job Educational Qualification Marital Status Family Circumstances Desire for Change As per the findings reported in Table No. The primary data in Table 5 was put to hypothesis testing process by applying one-tailed T-Test to know whether there exists a significant relationship between the two select variables. Work Experience. d) Fringe Benefits. c) Participation in Management. 5. Educational Qualification and Employee Retention were examined to determine the statistical significance of the relationship amongst them. Age and Educational Qualifications were also reported to be relatively more significant factors affecting the employee retention in this industry. The HR managers of the select ITeS organizations were asked to highlight the significance of factors related with individuals that have an impact on Employee Retention. 4. Marital Status was reported to be as highly insignificant factor by one-third of the respondents.b) Transparency. (By Applying T- .3. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The relationship amongst different individual factors: Age. The test statistics are as following: (A) Significance of Relationship between Age and Employee Test) Retention. The responses of the same are presented below in the Table No. an attempt has been made to understand the impact of different individual related factors in determining the employee retention in the ITeS sector. Contrary to the prevalent belief. Thus.

05.In order to statistically examine the significance of relationship between Age and Employee Retention amongst the respondents. the following hypotheses were developed. (H1: Xs > 4) The findings of the statistical test of hypotheses are presented as following: . (Applying T-Test) In order to statistically examine the significance of relationship between Experience in the Job and Employee Retention. N Level of Confidence (LOC) Level of Significance (LOS) One/Two-Tailed Test Degree of freedom (n-1) Sample mean(Xs)= ∑ ƒx/∑ ƒ Standard Deviation ∑ ƒx²/n-(∑ ƒx/n)² Standard Error= σ/√n-1 tc= | Xs-4|/ Standard Error t 0. 6 X 1 2 3 4 5 Total ƒ 0 1 2 5 4 ∑ ƒ=12 ƒx 0 2 6 20 20 ∑ ƒx=48 ƒx² 0 4 18 80 100 ∑ ƒx²=202 Table. Thus.65 (B) Significance of Relationship between Experience in the Job and Employee Retention.7 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Result: tc < t 0. we can statistically conclude with 95% confidence level that there exists statistically an insignificant relationship between Age and Employee Retention and both are independent of one another. (H0: Xs ≤ 4) H1: There exists a significant relationship between and Experience in the Job and Employee Retention and both are dependent on one another.89 0. (H1: Xs > 4) The findings of the statistical test of hypotheses are presented as following: Table. 11 4 0. Therefore. H0: There exists an insignificant relationship between Experience in the Job and Employee Retention and both are independent of one another.05 (σ )= √ 12 95% 5% One-Tailed T-test. the following hypotheses were developed. (Ho: Xs ≤ 4) H1: There exists a significant relationship between Age and Employee Retention and both are dependent on one another. Statistical Inference: The value of t calculated is less than standard table value. Ho: There exists an insignificant relationship between Age and Employee Retention and both are independent of one another.08 0 1. H1 is rejected and Ho is accepted.

(H1: Xs > 4) The findings of the statistical test of hypotheses are presented as following: Table.Table.65 (C) Significance of Relationship between Educational Qualification and Employee Retention.8 X 1 2 3 4 5 Total ƒ 0 1 0 4 7 ∑ ƒ=12 ƒx 0 2 0 16 35 ∑ ƒx=53 ƒx² 0 4 0 64 175 ∑ ƒx²=243 Table. the following hypotheses were developed.85 0.9 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) N Level of Confidence (LOC) Level of Significance (LOS) One/Two-Tailed Test Degree of freedom (n-1) Sample mean(Xs)= ∑ ƒx/∑ ƒ Standard Deviation ∑ ƒx²/n-(∑ ƒx/n)² Standard Error= σ/√n-1 tc= | Xs-4|/ Standard Error t 0.42 0. 11 4.08 5. Statistical Inference: The value of t calculated is more than standard table value. Thus. we can statistically conclude with 95% confidence level that there exists statistically a significant relationship between Experience in the Job and Employee Retention and both are independent of one another.05 Result: tc > t 0. H o: H 1: There exists an insignificant relationship between Educational Qualification and Employee Retention and both are independent of one another.25 1. H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Therefore. (σ )= √ 12 95% 5% One-Tailed T-test. (Applying T-Test) In order to statistically examine the significance of relationship between Educational Qualification and Employee Retention.05. 10 X 1 2 3 4 5 Total Ƒ 0 1 2 5 4 ∑ ƒ=12 ƒx 0 2 6 20 20 ∑ ƒx=48 ƒx² 0 4 18 80 100 ∑ ƒx²=202 . (Ho: Xs ≤ 4) There exists an insignificant relationship between Educational Qualification and Employee Retention and both are dependent on one another.

Statistical Inference: The value of t calculated is less than standard table value.Table.65 5.08 0 1.r. Therefore. 11 4 0.05 Result: tc < t 0. Organization Affecting Employee Retention Highly Insignificant 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Number of Respondents Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Insignificant Significant 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 3 0 2 2 0 1 2 3 2 1 4 4 6 3 7 6 5 6 6 4 Highly Significant 5 8 4 7 5 5 4 1 3 6 Factors Related with Organization Fair & Competitive salaries Fringe Benefits (free transportation.89 0. Thus.11 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) N Level of Confidence (LOC) Level of Significance (LOS) One/Two-Tailed Test Degree of freedom (n-1) Sample mean(Xs)= ∑ ƒx/∑ ƒ Standard Deviation ∑ ƒx²/n-(∑ ƒx/n)² Standard Error= σ/√n-1 tc= | Xs-4|/ Standard Error T 0.05. subsidized lunch) Career Growth & Advancement Performance Related Incentives Rewards and Recognition Provision of Job Related Training Opportunities for Higher Education Open Channels of Communication Nature of Supervision by the Boss . H1 is rejected and Ho is accepted. (σ )= √ 12 95% 5% One-Tailed T-test. 12: Table 12: Number of Respondents Reporting Level of Significance of Factors w.4 EMPLOYEE RETENTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS The HR managers of the select ITeS organizations were enquired to report the significance of factors related with organization that have an impact on Employee Retention.t. The responses of the same are presented in the Table No. we can statistically conclude with 95% confidence level that there exists statistically an insignificant relationship between Educational Qualification and Employee Retention and both are independent of one another.

5. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The relationship amongst Employee Retention and Job satisfaction was examined on the basis of Fair and Competitive Compensation and Nature of Supervision to determine the statistical significance of the relationship amongst them.08 0.34 0.92 -0.01 1.34 -0. Total 0.66 0.No.31 1.12 0. 7. it can be inferred that the provision of Fair and Competitive salaries and Performance related Incentives emerged as the leading factors of Employee Retention in the present study.44 0.34 -0.85 ∑dx2 0.03 -0.37 0.31 0.33 4.08 0. 8. Fair Compensation Fair-Competitive as constituent of Salaries as dx Work constituent of (X – X) Environment Employee Retention.12 0.92 0.37 -0.08 -0.34 0. 12. 3. 9.85 4.01 0. 4.12 0.12 0.34 0.85 0.92 0.33 0.12 0. (X) (Y) 5 5 4 3 5 2 2 4 5 4 5 5 X= ∑X/N 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 Y=∑Y/N 0.34 0.34 -0.66 -0.12 0.34 0.66 0.03 0.61 ∑dxdy .92 -2. 2.85 0. (Using Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation) In order to statistically examine the significance of relationship between Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction on the basis of Fair-Competitive Salaries as a constituent of Employee Retention and Fair Compensation as a constituent of Work Environment.44 0.61 -0.01 0.05 -0.31 -0.08 0.13 S.44 0. The findings of the statistical analysis are presented as following: (A) Significance of Relationship between Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction on the basis of Fair-Competitive Salaries as a constituent of Employee Retention and Fair Compensation as a constituent of Work Environment. 12.08 -1.85 0. Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation was calculated. 11. 6. The relationship between the select variables of the primary data in Table 12 and Table 13 was put to statistical testing process by applying Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation to know whether there exists a significant relationship between them.Y) 0.31 -0.92 ∑dx dy ( Y.85 0.12 0. 10.12 0.92 -0.17 0.71 0.08 -2. The findings are presented below: Table.Job Rotation and New assignments Recognition of Work/Life balance Employee Suggestion Program Organization Values & Beliefs 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 4 0 2 1 4 9 4 3 3 2 4 7 As per the observations mentioned above in Table No.66 ∑dy dx2 dy2 Dxdy 1.44 ∑dy2 0.

30 Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation: r = N ∑dx dy . (B) Significance of Relationship between Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction on the basis of Nature of Supervision as a constituent of Employee Retention as well as Work Environment.83 -0.05 0.047 Statistical Inference: The Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation calculated above indicates that there is a very low degree of positive correlation between Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction on the basis of Fair-Competitive Salaries and Compensation.83 ∑dy -0.04 0. r = N ∑dx dy .03 0.03 0.83 0.68 -0.83 0.83 -3.69 ∑dxdy -0.0.83 -0.17 0.69 0.03 0. 3.96 2.83 -0.17 -0.69 0.14 0.023 .69 ∑dy2 15.04 dy (Y.17 0.03 0.37 0. 11.17 dx (X – X ) 0.03 0.17 -0.69 0.08 14. 9.69 0.17 0.17 0. 6.68 0. 7. Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation was calculated.03 0.∑dxdy/√ N ∑dx2 – (∑dx) 2 √ N ∑dy2 – (∑dy) 2 r=0.83 -0.No. 2.63 0.14 0.17 -0.03 0.17 Nature of Supervision as a constituent of Employee Retention. Total 0. 8. (X) 5 4 5 4 4 4 1 4 5 5 4 5 X= ∑X/N 4.03 0.72 0.03 0.4.83 -0.69 0.03 0.04 dx2 dy2 Dxdy 1.69 1.83 -0. 4. (Y) 4 4 5 3 5 1 5 4 5 4 5 5 Y=∑Y/N 4.69 0.17 -0.17 0.69 0.14 0.08 4.20 -0.32 Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation. Nature of Supervision as constituent of Work Environment. 10. 14 S.69 0. The findings of the same are presented below: Table. (Using Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation) In order to statistically examine the significance of relationship between Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction on the basis of Nature of Supervision as a constituent of Employee Retention as well as Work Environment.05 0. 12.14 -0.03 10.17 0.03 0.∑dxdy/√ N ∑dx2 – (∑dx) 2 √ N ∑dy2 – (∑dy) 2 r = .83 ∑dx -0.69 10.69 -0.17 -3.66 0.17 0.69 ∑dx2 13. 5.Y) -0.54 -2.17 0.

The responses of the same are tabulated as follows in the Table No. 15. 4. 5. we can conclude that the select HR managers believe that these two factors of HR management are related to a great extent with one another. 12. 10. 3. Thus. 5.Statistical Inference: The Karl Pearson’s coefficient of Correlation calculated above indicates that there is a very low degree of negative correlation between Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction an the basis of Nature of Supervision as a constituent of Employee Retention as well as Work Environment. 6. Dr.No. 9. .7 PERCEIVED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE RETENTION AND JOB SATISFACTION An attempt has been made to determine the extent to which employee retention and job satisfaction were perceived by select HR managers to be related to one another by enquiring their response on a five point scale. Table 15: Extent of Perceived Relatedness of Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction by the Respondents S. 7. 15. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The perceived relationship among Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction was examined to determine the statistical significance of the relationship among them. 8. Organizations Number of Respondents Reporting Extent of Relatedness of Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction Highly Somewhat Neutral Somewhat Highly Unrelated Unrelated Related Related 1 2 3 4 5             0 0 0 4 8 1. 2. it can be said that two-third of the respondents perceive the Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction to be highly related and the other one-third perceive it to be somewhat related. IT Planets Excel Callnet Pugmarks Interweb OSI-InfoSolutions (I) Vismaad Mediatech KDMS Seasia Omnia BPO Services Tata Business Support Solutions Competent Synergies Techno Beez Ecologic Corporation Total As per the frequencies tabulated above in Table No. 11.

The primary data in Table 15 was put to hypothesis testing process by applying one-tailed T-Test to know whether there exists a significant relationship between the two select variables. (Applying T-Test) In order to statistically examine the significance of relatedness between Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention. 17 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) N Level of Confidence (LOC) Level of Significance (LOS) One/Two-Tailed Test Degree of freedom (n-1) Sample mean(Xs)= ∑ ƒx/∑ ƒ Standard Deviation ƒx²/n-(∑ ƒx/n)² Standard Error= σ/√n-1 tc= | Xs-4|/ Standard Error t 0. (H1: Xs > 4) The findings of the statistical test of hypotheses are presented as following: Table. 11 3. Thus. we can statistically conclude with 95% confidence level that there exists statistically an insignificant relationship between Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention and both are independent of one another. Ho: There exists an insignificant relationship between Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention and both are independent of one another. Therefore.05 Result: tc < t 0. (σ )= √ ∑ 12 95% 5% One-Tailed T-test. (Ho: Xs ≤ 4) H1: There exists a significant relationship between and Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention and both are independent of one another.004 0.33 3.05. 16 X 1 2 3 4 5 Total ƒ 0 0 0 4 8 ∑ ƒ=12 ƒx 0 0 0 16 40 ∑ ƒx=56 ƒx² 0 0 0 64 200 ∑ ƒx²=264 Table. The findings of the statistical test are presented as following: (A) Significance of Perceived Relatedness between Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention. Statistical Inference: The value of t calculated is less than standard table value.65 5.8 EXTENT OF EMPLOYEE ATTRITION IN SELECT ITeS ORGANIZATIONS . H1 is rejected and Ho is accepted. the following hypotheses were developed.33 1.667 1.

5. 1. 7. The responses of the HR managers are mentioned in the following Table No. 4. we can say that the %age of Employee Attrition varies considerably across select ITeS organizations which could be the result of the different Employee Retention strategies followed by these organizations. IT Planets Excel Callnet Pugmarks Interweb OSI-Info-Solutions (I) Vismaad Mediatech KDMS Seasia Omnia BPO Services Tata Business Support Solutions Competent Synergies . Name of Organization Dr. 8. 2. 18: Table 18: Extent of Employee Attrition in Select ITeS Organizations S. 5.9 LEVEL OF EMPLOYEE ATTRITION IN SELECT ITeS ORGANIZATIONS The HR managers of the select ITeS organizations were interviewed to know about their perception regarding the level of employee attrition in their organizations: less than industry average or same as industry average or more than industry average. 12. 10. Name of Organization Levels of Employee Attrition Less than Same as More than Industry Industry Industry Average Average Average           1. The responses of the same are presented in the following Table No. 8. 5. Thus. 7. 2. 19: Table 19: Level of Employee Attrition in Select ITeS Organizations S.The HR managers of the respondent organization were asked to provide the percentage of the employee attrition for Call Centre/Tech Support employees. 6. 3. 9. 9.No. 3. Dr.18. it can be inferred that the %age of Employee Attrition in the select ITeS organizations varies between 5% to 70%. 4. IT Planets Excel Callnet Pugmarks Interweb OSI-Info-Solutions (I) Vismaad Mediatech KDMS Seasia Omnia BPO Services Tata Business Support Solutions Competent Synergies Techno Beez Ecologic Corporation Employee Attrition in terms of %age 7.No.5% DNP* 60% DNP 5% 70% DNP 43% 30% 40% DNP 20% * DNP – Data Not Provided by the Respondent As per the observations mentioned above in Table No. 6. 10. 11.

1. Total Name of Organization Dr.t. 3. 12. Total Techno Beez Ecologic Corporation  5  5 2 As per the responses of the HR managers tabulated above in Table No. Thus.No. 5. 5. 9. 6. the HR managers of the select ITeS organizations were asked to describe the extent to which exit interviews are beneficial in reducing the employee attrition and improving employee retention in their respective organizations. 7. it can be inferred that Exit Interviews is a highly effective tool for improving the level of Employee Retention. 2. 8. 20: Table 20: Exit Interviews in Select ITeS Organizations S.r. it can be said that the perception of the HR managers across the select ITeS organizations w. 19. The responses of the HR managers are mentioned in the following Table No. level of Employee Attrition varies considerably as around 40% of them perceive that the level of Employee Attrition is Less than Industry Average. 4.6% believe that the level of Employee Attrition is More than the Industry Average. 5. Number of Respondents Highly Somewhat Disadvantageous Disadvantageous 1 2 Neutral 3 Somewhat Advantageous 4 Highly Advantageous 5 . other 40% think that it is Same as Industry Average and only 16.11 ROLE OF EXIT INTERVIEWS IN IMPROVING EMPLOYEE RETENTION In order to ascertain the role of Exit Interviews.10 EXIT INTERVIEWS IN RESPONDENT ORGANIZATIONS The HR managers were surveyed in the present study to report whether their respective organizations conduct exit interviews or not.No. 11.11. The responses are presented in the following Table No. 21: Table 21: Extent to which Exit Interviews help to Reduce Employee Attrition and Improve Employee Retention S. IT Planets Excel Callnet Pugmarks Interweb OSI-Info-Solutions(I) Vismaad Mediatech KDMS Seasia Omnia BPO Services Tata Business Support Solutions Competent Synergies Techno Beez Ecologic Corporation Existence of Exit Interviews in Respondent Organizations Yes No             12 0 As per the responses tabulated above in Table No. 10. 20. it is evident that all the select ITeS organizations conduct Exit Interviews. 12. These findings are based on the perceptions of the HR managers of the respondent organizations and are not based on any factual data collected by the researcher.

majority of the organizations are employing the monetary strategies such as Performance Linked Incentives. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter includes the conclusions followed by the recommendations. it can be said that around three-fourth of the respondents believe in the utility of Exit Interviews as a tool to reduce Employee Attrition and improve Employee Retention. Contrary to the prevalent belief. Participation in Management. it can be inferred that around 40% of the respondent organizations reported that the Exit Interviews were highly advantageous in reducing the level of Employee Attrition and improving the level of Employee Retention. 9. 4. 7. Total 0 0 2  4           5 As per the findings mentioned in the above Table No. the respondent organizations were observed to be closely monitoring and tracking the performance of the new employees. 6. Rewards. 1. Job Enrichment. Although. 3. Increment in Salary. Exit Interviews. Therefore.1. 4. On the basis of the frequency distribution. 2. Employee Retention strategies can be broadly classified into two categories i. It has been found statistically that as the employee gains more and more experience of working in this sector. Public Recognition of Achievements etc. the probability of his attrition rises significantly. . Marital Status was reported to be as highly insignificant factor by one-third of the respondents. Initial handholding is critical for retaining the manpower in this industry. 6. 10.15.e. 4. yet good number of innovative non-monetary practices are also being implemented to retain the manpower. These practices include Job Rotation. This response was closely followed by other one-third of the respondents who briefed that the Exit Interviews were somewhat advantageous in improving Employee Retention. A wide range of Employee Retention strategies have been employed in different organizations to retain their manpower and they vary from one organization to another. monetary and nonmonetary strategies. 2. Age and Educational Qualifications were also reported to be relatively significant factors affecting the employee retention in this industry. 3. 8. 5. Thus. providing them with weekly feedback and ensuring a friendly environment.

Thus. 5. Around three-fourth of the respondents believe in the utility of Exit Interviews as a tool to reduce Employee Attrition and improve Employee Retention. Majority of the organizations reported that they have put in specific women related practices in order to retain the female employees. The Employee Attrition is relatively higher at the initial period of three months and then subsequently after some years when an employee gains significant work experience. As no single factor can be considered detrimental for attaining high rate of employee retention. 4. (b) Similarly. As Educational Qualifications are reported to be significantly related with reduction in the retention of the employees at the Call Center/Tech Support level. 6. All the select ITeS organizations conduct Exit Interviews. The non-monetary factors of Organizational Values and Beliefs also emerged as the other leading factors of Employee Retention.5. The provision of Fair and Equitable Treatment as well as Security at Work Place were reported as the most significant practices implemented by the respondent organizations for retaining their female work force. Provision of Concession in the Number of Night Shifts for the women employees was not felt to be of greater significance in relation to the other factors that were examined in the present study. The provision of Fair and Competitive salaries and Performance related Incentives emerged as the leading factors of Employee Retention in the present study on the basis of the frequency distribution. 2. it is recommended that the organizations should look for variety of effective and suitable employee retention strategies and practices so that their combined effect can enable the organizations in the ITeS sector to retain their employees. it can be inferred that Exit Interviews is a highly effective tool for improving the level of Employee Retention. the organizations should develop effective career planning programs for the employees after they attain significant work experience in order to ensure professional developmental opportunities within the organization itself so that the employees do not have to look for professional growth opportunities outside their organization. the organizations should constantly monitor the salary structures and performance oriented incentives offered by the competing organizations in the same region so as to maintain parity with the competitors. 6. it is recommended that the organizations in the ITeS sector should not hire over qualified candidates for these positions as they are less likely to be a part of the organization for a longer time period. 7. it is suggested that the organizations should implement a well-defined Talent Management System according to their business environment so as to acquire. Since Fair and Competitive Salaries as well as Performance Related Incentives have been reported as highly significant factors of employee retention. In view of the fact that majority of the respondents have reported that they have an existence of a comprehensive Talent Management System in their organizations. thus reducing the chances of high employee attrition.1 RECOMMENDATIONS 1. develop and retain the required level of talent for their overall long-term growth and success. Therefore. it is strongly recommended that: (a) The organizations should provide handholding. 3. The organizations should employ the Women Related HR Practices to attain the female workforce. care and support to the new joiners for a period when they are relatively new to the job. 6. It is recommended that the organizations should provide Fair and Equitable Treatment as well as Security . This support will help the organizations to improve employee retention and avoid the cost of recruiting the new employees time and again.

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