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Photo (Statfjord A): Statoil, Oyvind Hagen

Produced Water

Separation Systems

Furthermore.Produced Water Produced water handling is a key challenge at most production facilities. Produced Water Solutions The produced water solutions include all technologies required to separate water from the well-stream and to deliver clean water that can either be discharged to sea or re-injected back to the reservoir:        Separator vessel internals InLine separation Sand handling Hydrocyclones Compact Floatation Units Chemical treatment technologies Absorption technologies Water re-injection may be needed for reservoir pressure maintenance. in order to maintain or increase production  Excessive oil or sand concentrations in reinjected water may lead to well damage  Environmental regulations and fines are imposed if the permitted oil concentration in water discharged overboard is exceeded  FMC’s Separation Systems Innovative separation solutions for oil and gas production  Proven technology with successful operational experience  Only company with proven InLine separation track record  Subsea experience from the industry’s most challenging projects  The need to handle produced water efficiently Oil cannot be produced without the capability to handle produced water  Oil which has not been separated from produced water equals oil not produced  Oil PPM Bulk Separation Sand Handling Water Treatment Separator Internals & InLine Separation Sand Jetting System InLine DeSander InLine HydroCyclone . reducing the amount of oil that can be produced and transported. produced water can take up valuable space in the oil transport lines. It can be a crucial factor limiting the production of oil and gas. If the discharge requirements are not met. there may be a significant environmental and economic impact.

New built vessels can be reduced in size compared to conventional separators.Bulk Separation Separation Internals Our high performance internals maximize the capacity and increase the efficiency of a separator vessel to make it perform at its best. reduction in capital and operational expenditure. InLine DeGasser InLine DeLiquidiser InLine DeMister InLine PhaseSplitter InLine DeWaterer InLine ElectroCoalescer Inline HydroCyclone InLine DeSander InLine Controls Liquid-liquid Solids Controls down to <1 ppm oil in water Chemical Treatment CFU Polishing Sorbfloc® Sorbsep™ SorbPol® . We have provided solutions for more than 1400 separators world-wide. The results are performance improvement. Together they allow operators to achieve complete phase separation by using pipe segments. problem-free operation. Separation Internals Portfolio Inlet devices CDS Inlet Cyclone™ Evenflow HE Gravity separation CDS Drained Meshpad Agglomerator™ Distribution Baffles Plate Pack Coalescers Sand Jetting System Sand Removal Demisting devices Mesh Pad Demister Vane Pack CDS Spiraflow™ CDS Gasunie™ Cyclone Scrubber InLine Technology Portfolio InLine Technology Gas-liquid We have developed a line of highly efficient compact separation equipment based on cyclonic and electrostatic technologies that covers all aspects of primary separation. The equipment can be combined to suit all conditions and separation requirements. and increase in profits. Troubleshooting and debottlenecking of separation processes by use of these internals increase the throughput and efficiency of existing production trains.

cyclonic liquid-liquid separation Conventional gravity separator Can be used for multiphase. Our solution increased oil production capacity by 10 per cent. InLine DeSander . Install an InLine DeLiquidiser upstream. Size comparison. InLine DeSander allows for highly-efficient separation of small solid particles.Application Examples Bulk Separation Sand Handling Our sand handling technologies can be applied in various locations through the process plant and are in some cases key components of the produced water treatment systems. Compact three phase separation system based on use of InLine technology InLine HP PhaseSplitter Cyclonic L/L Separator Slug Catcher Gravity Separator InLine LP Phase­ Splitter By combining InLine and vessel separation solutions we achieve a compact integrated system with all features of a three phase separation train. at the Petrobras Marlim Subsea Separation System. The InLine DeWaterer allows for more compact new build systems and can also easily be retrofitted in existing facilities to increase the water handling capacity. water and gas streams  Protects of process equipment against erosion  Prepares produced water to re-injection criteria  InLine DeWaterer The InLine DeSander is the first of its kind in the world to be installed subsea. Both technologies have undergone successful qualification programs for topside as well as subsea applications: Sand jetting and removal technology is an efficient way of removing solids from production separators: Combines sand fluidization and sand transportation  Robust system – free of clogging  Operates with minimum water  Retrofit the existing separator. as well as bulk separation of coarse solid particles. gravity vs.

Erosion test: A view inside the InLine HydroCyclone liner after 2. Cyclonic technology requires high velocities which could potentially lead to erosion by sand and failure of the produced water treatment system. A successful qualification program was carried out to demonstrate sand handling tolerance and to ensure that this technology is fit for the purpose of this challenging application. This resulted in a novel design that can be fitted into standard vessels as used by most operators. will be at the Petrobras Marlim field. Performance was improved at all droplet sizes and under all inlet conditions. Increased shear applied on oil droplets Approximately 50% outlet OiW concentration reduction compared to previous designs. When FMC Technologies started the qualification program of the water treatment system for the Marlim Subsea Separation System. Fixed inlet OiW Ind ust ry n sta desi dar d New gn A successful performance optimization project that was completed in 2009.5 years of simulated field wear reveals no impact of wear. . special means were taken to ensure long term safe operation without risk of failure due to erosion. delivered a significant performance enhancement compared to conventional hydrocyclone technology offered in the market. Performance Optimization > Significant performance enhancement Sand Tolerance Qualification Project Erosion of produced water handling equipment is always an important issue. and this technology is now being manufactured. Outlet OiW concentration High separation efficiency Low pressure-drop Low differential pressure-drop ratio Erosion resistant Resistant to clogging Suitable for installation in existing hydrocyclone vessels. The tests demonstrated that the water treatment system had excellent sand tolerance.InLine HydroCylone The InLine HydroCyclone is a solution for produced water applications based on a unique axial flow design:       The world’s first subsea application of an InLine HydroCyclone.

Marlim Subsea Separation System The Petrobras Marlim Project is the world’s first system for deepwater subsea separation of heavy oil and water that includes water reinjection to boost production in a mature field development. Marlim is the most complex subsea processing project carried out to date. and an InLine DeSander for removing the smallest particles in the water stream from the separator to protect the re-injection well and reservoir. It also contains a dual redundant Sand Jetting System in the outlet section of the PipeSeparator. All the separation and sand handling equipment has been tested as part of the technology qualification program and was installed in Q4 2011. The sand handling system includes a multiphase InLine DeSander at the inlet of the separation system to protect the downstream equipment and avoid sand accumulation. . The water is separated from the well-stream and re-injected back to the reservoir. separating the water from the well stream and a water treatment system using InLine HydroCyclones. This is the first application where the produced water is used for pressure maintenance of the reservoir as part of the subsea separation operation and it is also the first subsea heavy oil application. The separated sand is taken with the oil to the topside facility. The system includes a PipeSeparator.

The Tordis system combines water and sand separation with a re-injection system. The water and sand are separated from the well-stream in a patented semi-compact separator vessel. where the sand separates and accumulates at the bottom. avoiding sand handling requirements at the topside facility. . FMC Technologies delivered a subsea separation boosting and injection system for the Tordis field in the North Sea in 2007. The vessel includes a sand removal system operated by high-pressure water from the water injection pump.Tordis Subsea Separation Boosting and Injection Tordis is recognized as one of the most important breakthrough technology milestones for subsea in recent years. The accumulated sand is pressurized and goes to the discharge side of the water injection pump to protect the pump from erosion. All the separated sand is injected with the water. The subsea processing system solved both water and sand handling capacity problems at the topside platform. The Tordis system was qualified through a Subsea Separation and Sand Handling System Qualification Program at FMC’s facilities in The Netherlands. The removed sand is conveyed in batches to a desander and sand accumulator vessel. The system was installed to enhance oil recovery from the field and to enable increased production.

The chemical enables any particles to be collected and agglomerated such that the droplets and particles easily can be separated from the produced water. The technology enables separation of submicron oil droplets and other particles from produced water. It is completely green. Consequently. Reaction time is just a few seconds. Injecting Sorbfloc® into the water stream brings the hydrocolloid chains in physical contact with oil droplets or suspended solids. Sorbfloc® is a product made from alginate and seaweed.Final Stage Water Treatment Technologies Our water treatment solutions are based on in-house technologies as well as technology offered through a partnership with Sorbwater AS. Then. SorbFloc® – Green technology for clean water to even the most challenging applications Produced water consists of very small droplets of oil that are difficult to separate. larger flocculates are formed that can be easily separated. even used in food products. hydrocyclone or other water treatment equipment. FMC Technologies and Sorbwater have a combined product portfolio that can solve any produced water challenge. Darkfield micrograph of oil droplets captured by Sorbfloc® ZERO Discharge Solutions . Together. The Sorbfloc® is added to the produced water upstream of an oil removal separator such as a Compact Floatation Unit. many production processes suffer from unacceptably high oil content in the discharged water.

When very strict oil-in-water content is required or when the water chemistry is extreme. meeting one hundred per cent zero-discharge requirements. a highly-efficient solution is required.SorbSep™ – Second Generation Compact Floatation Unit Compact Floatation Units (CFU) are highefficiency produced water treatment technologies well known for the capability to separate oil droplets from water. stripping and coalescing device utilizing all these effects to separate hydrocarbons from water. easy operability and high robustness. Unlike similar devices. SorbSep™ installed on a platform SorbPol®– Meeting requirements below 1 ppm oil in water Some substances are extremely difficult to remove from water. Sorbsep™ is designed especially to capture the smallest droplets which normally avoid such separation. This is a new. SorbPol® is a polishing reactor where hydrocarbons are absorbed on the surface of the SorbPol® vessel such that all pollutants in the water phase are removed. OFFSHORE Innovation GREEN Water Technology . Sorbsep™ is a combined flotation cyclone. but proven technology that has successfully been tested at several offshore fields that are known for their challenging chemical characteristics.

The results of these qualification tests demonstrated that Statoil’s performance requirements were met and even exceeded. InLine DeWaterer 3-Phase compact separation skid Al Huwaisah (PDO)  Compact remote produced water separation and ­ reinjection skid  Increase oil production by reducing water in transport line to gathering station   Capacity 70.Photo (Gullfaks C): Statoil. InLine ­DeWaterer InLine DeGasser Booster pump .000 bbl/day of water   Water injection quality < 80 ppm oiw  Integrated InLine System Shell PDO Al-Huwaisah. Norway and through offshore field testing at the Gullfaks platform in the North Sea. Oman Our skid replaced an installation in the desert of 135 T. and measures 5x6x10 meters. Live Hydrocarbon test loop in Porsgrunn. (LxWxH). It weighs 24 T. and 12x20x10 m.Oyvind Hagen Statoil qualification of the InLine DeWaterer The InLine DeWaterer has been tested over several periods at Statoil’s advanced High Pressure. FMC is continuously working with Statoil to develop this solution to meet their compact oil-water needs for various applications.

but often it will be required to test at the actual field to verify the performance at real operating conditions. The system has been tested with very successful results in Brazil demonstrating the capability of both the individual separation components and the total system. It will be used further at various fields in operation in Brazil to identify how use of InLine technologies can increase effectiveness of the production process. gas and water separation. An indication of the suitability of a certain technology can be obtained from laboratory tests.DeGasser. InLine DeWaterer and improved InLine HydroCyclones. The system consists of. PhaseSplitter. We have the following test skids available:       Three-phase separation test skid made for Petrobras InLine three-phase separation The Integrated InLine System for the Brazilian national oil company Petrobras is a skid for complete three phase oil. Design conditions:     InLine DeWaterer InLine DeSander InLine HydroCyclone Sorbsep™ Compact Floatation Unit Sorbfloc® Chemical Injection SorbPol® Water Polishing Unit Other Separation Systems Solutions Production Improvements Compact Total Separation Systems Heavy Oil production Efficiency Improvement and Troubleshooting  Solids Handling     Heavy Oil (°API 19) Liquid: Max.000 bbl/day Gas: 5. 6.Test skids for produced water handling Defining solutions for produced water handling challenges requires predictions of how certain technologies will perform on the installation.000 Sm3/hr Outlet OiW < 200 ppm The InLine. DeWaterer and DeLiquidiser are patented by Statoil and FMC has exclusive worldwide license to sell this technology. DeSander. . For that reason we provide test skids that can be connected to a slipstream of the produced water stream that needs to be treated. In this way we be obtain an accurate indication of the efficiency that our technical solution will have in the production plant which again ensures that the equipment will work successfully when it is finally installed. a CDS Gasunie™.

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