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Edsel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Edsel was an automobile marque that was planned, developed, and manufactured by the Ford Motor Company during the 1958, 1959, and 1960 model years. With the Edsel, Ford had expected to make significant inroads into the market share of both General Motors and Chrysler and close the gap between itself and GM in the domestic American automotive market. But contrary to Ford's internal plans and projections, the Edsel never gained popularity with contemporary American car buyers and sold poorly. The Ford Motor Company lost millions of dollars on the Edsel's development, manufacturing and marketing.


1958 Edsel Corsair Manufacturer Edsel Division of Ford Motor Company Production 1958-60 Full-size car FR layout


Class Layout

1 History 2 End of the Edsel 3 Edsel and its failures 3.1 "The aim was right, but the target moved" 3.2 The wrong car at the wrong time 3.3 Edsel, a difficult name to place 3.4 Reliability 3.5 Design controversies 3.6 Company politics and the role of Robert McNamara 4 The Edsel Comet 5 Today 6 NASCAR 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

In the early 1950s, the Ford Motor Company became a publicly traded corporation that was no longer entirely owned by members of the Ford family. The company was now able to sell cars according to current market trends following the sellers' market of the postwar years. Ford's new management compared the company's roster of makes with that of General Motors, and concluded that Lincoln was competing not with Cadillac, but with Oldsmobile and Buick. Since Ford had surplus capital on hand from the success of the Ford Thunderbird, the Company developed a plan


Makes History by Making Sense (1959)[1] Former type Division

1957. Ford also insisted that. Edsel produced four models:[4] The larger Mercury-based Citation and Corsair. U. son of the company's founder. In reality. and the Detroit automotive press. whose cars at the time shared the same bodies. and General Motors. if not superior. Industry Founded Defunct Automobile 1957 1959 Production continued until 1960 Dearborn. it had built exactly —Edsel advertisement. Each division had its own retail organization and dealer network.000 dealers. Ford saw this as a way to come closer to parity with Chrysler. It was also promoted by a top-rated its engines.8/20/13 Edsel . however. Initially Edsel was sold through a new network of approximately 1. Roundup Ford Motor Company Marketing research and development for the new intermediate line had begun in 1955 under the code Headquarters [2] name "E car". The Edsel Show. Corsair. and the smaller Ford-based Pacer and Ranger. “ ” The Edsel was to be sold through a newly formed division of the Ford Motor Company.Wikipedia. however. product development and market research work in the planning and design of the new vehicle. The free-standing Edsel Division existed from November 1956 until January 1958.S Full-size: Citation.000.000. Mercury Division. Ford had been telling the industry press that it "knew" seem ordinary (through its market research) that there would be great demand for the vehicle. after which Edsel sales and marketing operations were integrated into the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln division (referred to as M-E-L). Particularly Ford assured its investors.187 dealers. public reaction to the car's styling and conventional build. The proposed vehicle marque Parent would represent the stand-up of a new division of the firm alongside that of Ford itself and the LincolnMercury division. in the Edsel. Ford later claimed to have performed more than adequate. Ford of Britain. which had 16. For the 1958 model year. Ranger Station wagon: Bermuda. as a companion to the Ford Division. many of these dealers added Lincoln-Mercury. and to add a premium/intermediate vehicle to the intermediate slot vacated by Lincoln. closed. television special. with the Continental broken out as a separate make at the top of Ford's product line. Henry Ford (despite objections from Henry Ford II[2]). but the its exciting new promotional effort was not enough to counter the adverse initial features. Michigan. Lincoln Division and (newly formed but also short-lived) Continental Division. Day"—September 4. Ford. The Corsair was available in two-door and four-door hardtop versions. As soon as it became apparent that the Edsels were not 2/11 . Pacer. Villager. in honor of Edsel B. Some dealers. or Ford of Germany franchises to their dealerships with the encouragement of Ford Motor Company. which stood for "experimental car. the free encyclopedia to move Lincoln upmarket. that the Edsel was not only a superior product (as compared to its Oldsmobile/Buick competition). The Citation was offered in two-door and four-door hardtop and two-door convertible versions. The Edsel was introduced amid considerable publicity on "E Its elegance. but the details of its styling and specifications were the result of a sophisticated market analysis and research and development effort that would essentially guarantee its broad acceptance by the buying public when the car was introduced. en." Products Ford Motor Company eventually decided on the name "Edsel". and the similarities were apparent once the vehicle was viewed in person. 1957 [3] the "entirely new kind of car" that Ford had been leading the buying public to expect through its pre-introduction publicity campaign for the car. This briefly brought the total number of dealers of all Ford products to 10. the Edsel shared its engineering and bodywork with other Ford models. on October 13. For make other cars months.wikipedia. which had 10.

In the first year. compared to the concurrent Ford's 119-inch span.846 vehicles were produced. Replacing the Pacer as the top-line Ford-based Edsel. this nevertheless represented the second-largest launch for any new car brand to date. and engine A 1958 Edsel Pacer 2-Door hardtop overheating. or two-door convertible. and convertibles and the Villager station wagons.8/20/13 Edsel . the new Corsair was offered as a two-door and four-door hardtop. even though Studebaker had pioneered them earlier in the decade). Edsel Ranger interior. The Edsel also offered such advanced safety features as seat belts (which were available at extra cost as optional equipment on many other makes) and child-proof rear door locks that could only be opened with the key. exceeded only by the Plymouth introduction in 1928. The Galaxie four-door hardtop's rear door trim panel. discontinued. the free encyclopedia The Pacer was available as a two-door or four-door hardtop. End of the Edsel en. only 2. But the Edsel had its own unique grille.110 Edsels were sold in the United States. share engines and transmissions. and major sheet metal with the 1960 Ford Galaxie and Fairlane models that were built on the Louisville assembly line with it. The 1960 Edsel rode on a 120-inch wheelbase. which was exclusive to the Galaxie line. showing the For the 1959 model year. glass.[5] as well as its Push-button Teletouch transmission shifting system in the center of the steering wheel (a conventional column-shift automatic was also available at a reduced price). The cars did. The four-door Bermuda and Villager wagons and the two-door Roundup wagon were based on the 116-inch wheelbase Ford station wagon platform and shared the trim and features of the Ranger and Pacer models. The Edsel shared a basic chassis.S. however. The Edsel's front and rear bumpers were also unique.891 Edsels were sold in the U.935 units were sold in Canada. In the 1959 model year.505 units were sold in Canada. and four upright oblong taillights. Edsel's last. the FordTeletouch system and Rolling Dome based Ranger and Corsair. an additional 4. assembly plant. and it also used a different rear suspension. For the 1960 model 3/11 . The 1960 Edsel Ranger four-door hardtop model used the thin-pillar Ford Fairlane four-door sedan roofline. along with its side sweep spears. Kentucky. among which were its "rolling dome" speedometer. was fitted to the Ranger. 63. the Edsel Division never had any dedicated manufacturing plants. This gave the Edsel four-door hardtop a unique body style that was never offered on any 1960 Ford. as opposed to the "square" roofline used on the corresponding Ford four-door hardtop. parking brake engaged. All but the pilot cars were assembled at the Louisville. four-door sedan.wikipedia. and the Villager station wagon. Though below expectations. The Ranger was sold as a two-door and four-door hardtop. four-door sedan.Wikipedia. however. hood. The Ranger was sold in two-door and four-door hardtop or sedan versions. The marque was reduced to the Ranger series of sedans. All Edsels were built in Ford or Mercury plants on a contract basis. hardtops. two-door and four-door sedan. The Edsel offered several innovative features. warning lights for such conditions as low oil level. and two-door convertible. 44. The larger Mercury-based Edsels were speedometer.[6] Unlike Ford and Mercury. Other Edsel design innovations included ergonomically designed controls for the driver and self-adjusting brakes (which Edsel claimed as a first for the industry. An additional 2. Edsel fielded only two series.

000. primarily because Ford made the mistake of pricing the Edsel within Mercury’s market price segment. less than half the company's projected break-even point.0 billion in the 21st century) in developing a new product line without attempting to determine whether such an investment would be wise or prudent. or the equivalent of $2. However.846 1960 models. By U. In fact." "The aim was right. November 19. The prerelease advertising campaign promoted the car as having "more YOU ideas". and the teaser advertisements in magazines only revealed glimpses of the car through a highly blurred lens or wrapped in paper or under tarps. production continued until late in November. on the venture. the Edsel was "the wrong car at the wrong time. valued at $300 to $400 toward the purchase of new Ford products to offset the decreased values. dealers scrambled to renegotiate newspaper advertising contracts involving the 1960 Edsel models. the free encyclopedia Ford announced the end of the Edsel program on Thursday.[8] Only 118. the name "Edsel" became synonymous with the "real-life" commercial failure of the predicted "perfect" product or product idea. Ford had never “test marketed” the vehicle or its unique styling concepts with potential. United Press International's (UPI) wire service reported that book values for used Edsels had declined by as much as $400 based on condition and age immediately following the Ford press release. Ford had presumed to invest $400 million (well over $4.287 Edsels were built. auto industry standards. Popular culture often faults the car’s styling. it gave marketers a vivid illustration of how not to market a product. November 20. with the final tally of 2. Ford issued a statement that it would distribute coupons to customers who purchased 1960 models (and carryover 1959 models) prior to the announcement. Indeed. The company also issued credits to dealers for stock unsold or received following the announcement. The principal reason the Edsel's failure is so infamous is that Ford had absolutely no idea that the failure was going to happen until after the vehicles had been designed and built. Edsel and its failures Historians have advanced several theories in an effort to explain the Edsel's failure. Total Edsel sales were approximately 116. However.8/20/13 Edsel . Since the Edsel program was such a debacle. 1959. the dealerships established and $400 million invested in the product's development and launch. Similar ill-fated products have often been colloquially referred to as "Edsels". particularly when spread across a run of three model years. According to author and Edsel scholar Jan Deutsch. Edsels were shipped to the dealerships undercover and remained wrapped on the dealer lots. Theoretically. In some newspaper markets.756.wikipedia. The company lost $350 million. Canada.Wikipedia. these production figures were 4/11 . Consumer Reports has alleged that poor workmanship was the Edsel's chief problem.772 in 2013 dollars[7]. but the target moved" The Edsel is most notorious for being a marketing disaster. Marketing experts hold the Edsel up as a supreme example of the corporate culture’s failure to understand American consumers. including 7. Business analysts cite the weak internal support for the product inside Ford’s executive offices.440 produced in Ontario. Incredibly. The public also had difficulty understanding what the Edsel was. “real” buyers prior to either the vehicle’s initial development decision or the vehicle’s shipments to its new dealerships. the Edsel was conceived to fit into Ford’s marketing plans as the brand slotted in between Ford and Mercury. 1960 Edsel Ranger sedan On Friday.449. when the car en. while others dropped the name from their dealerships' advertising entirely.S.

In the early 1950s.617 Not only was the Edsel competing against its own sister divisions. Buick and Dodge had sold a combined two million units. Even if the 1957–1958 recession had not occurred. the Edsel did not live up to its preproduction publicity. Edsel had established no brand loyalty with buyers. as illustrated in the chart below.081 Fairlane 500 $2. Pontiac.500–$3.Wikipedia. While Ford's market research had indicated that these and other features would make the "E" car attractive to them as car buyers.951 Premiere $4.766 Montclair $3.280–$4. In its mid-range pricing. Dodge and DeSoto. as its competing makes had. Other buyers were frightened by the price for a fully equipped top-of-the-line model. Upon seeing the price for a base model. Edsel's top-of-theline Citation four-door hardtop model was the only model priced to correctly compete with Mercury’s midrange Montclair Turnpike Cruiser model. in 1955. such as self-adjusting rear brakes and automatic lubrication. as well as with its own internal sister division Mercury.wikipedia. its least expensive model—the Ranger—was priced within $73 of the most expensive and best-trimmed Ford sedan and $63 less than Mercury’s base Medalist model. buyers did not understand what the car was supposed to be—a step above the Mercury. Oldsmobile.993 Fairlane $2.196–$2. such as Pontiac. the market had changed drastically. which was also in financial difficulty. the Edsel would have been entering a shrinking marketplace.405 Citation $3. To make matters still worse.138 Ranger $2. The wrong car at the wrong time One of the external forces working against the Edsel was the onset of an economic recession in late 1957. even though it did offer many new features.484–$2. 1958 Ford Motor Company Pricing (FOB) Structure EDSEL MERCURY FORD LINCOLN Continental $4. Packard acquired 5/11 .390 Pacer $2.803–$4. The board decided to stop production en. At the time.643 Medalist $2. Edsel's Pacer and Corsair models were more expensive than their Mercury counterparts. Buick. when the Edsel was introduced. or a step below it.[2][4] Compounding Edsel's problems was the fact that the car had to compete with well-established nameplates from the Big Three. Breech had successfully convinced Ford management that the medium-priced market segment offered great untapped opportunity. Breech's assessment was basically correct.802–$4.798 Park Lane $4.8/20/13 Edsel . Independent manufacturers in the medium-priced field were drifting toward insolvency.652–$3. but model for model. when the "E" car was in its earliest stages of development.927 Capri $4.334–$4.407 Custom 300 $1. the Edsel's selling prices exceeded what buyers were willing to pay.700–$2. which itself had never been a stellar sales success.236–$3. Hoping to reverse its losses.977–$2.311–$3. Ford Executive Vice President Ernest R.597 Corsair $3. the free encyclopedia debuted in 1958.119 Monterey $2.[9] But by the fall of 1957. After its introduction to the public.547–$2. many potential buyers simply left the dealerships. as a new make.410–$3.

Nash and Hudson. Ford retained the advertising firm Foote. who was chairing a board meeting in the absence of Henry Ford II. "Pastelogram".000 possibilities. Reliability en. The LTD's success led Chevrolet to introduce the Caprice as a mid-1965 upscale trim option on its top-of-the-line Impala four-door hardtop. Consumers started buying more fuel-efficient automobiles.[11] By 1965. Ford's Ernest Breech commented that they had been hired to develop a name. citing over 6.000 a year[10] in the U. and even dispatched employees to stand outside movie theaters to poll audiences as to what their feelings were on several ideas. Edsel. and their fuel economy. it sold over 400. However. and Ranger. were down. plans were made in Highland Park to discontinue the nameplate during its 1961 model year run.[9] At the behest of Ernest Breech. consumers had become fascinated with economy cars. Edsel. "Turcotinga" and "Mongoose Civique") were meant to stir creative thought and were not officially authorized or contractual in nature. and this time. When DeSoto sales failed to rebound during the 1959 model year.S. is also often cited as a further reason for its lack of popularity. The 1957-58 Packards were little more than Studebakers badged as Packards. the car was finally called "Edsel" in honor of Edsel Ford. the free encyclopedia under the venerable Packard badge after 6/11 . They reached no conclusions. even those not introducing new models. David Wallace. In a little-noted irony. Naming the vehicle after Edsel Ford was proposed early in its development. from 1957 onward. Corsair. former company president and son of Henry Ford.8/20/13 Edsel . sales for most car manufacturers. Pacer. Early favorites for the name brand included Citation. When the agency issued its report. the market for medium-priced cars had recovered. a difficult name to place The name of the car.Wikipedia. manager of marketing research. and coworker Bob Young unofficially invited freethinker poet Marianne Moore for input and suggestions. particularly Volkswagen Beetles. Ford had the right car: The Galaxie 500 LTD. Ford Motor Company had conducted the right marketing study. and a large car like the Edsel was seen as too expensive to buy and own. Indeed. especially in city driving.000 units in its first year. Among domestic makes. When Ford introduced the Falcon in 1960. Ford also ran internal studies to decide on a name. Cone & Belding to come up with a name. By 1958. but they also required premium fuel. after the 1957 model year. the Ford family strongly opposed its use. American Motors shifted its focus to its compact Rambler models and discontinued its pre-merger brands.000. Attempting to capitalize on the emerging consumer interest in economy cars. not 6. which were selling at rates exceeding 50. was poor even by late-1950s standards. but it came up with the wrong product to fill the gap between Ford and Mercury. Chrysler saw sales of its DeSoto marque drop dramatically from its 1957 high by over 50% in 1958. Ford's investment in expanded plant capacity and additional tooling for the Edsel helped make the company's subsequent success with the Falcon possible. Edsels were equipped with powerful engines and offered brisk acceleration. Henry Ford II declared that he did not want his father's good name spinning around on thousands of hubcaps. only Rambler and Lincoln produced more cars in 1958 than in 1957. Moore's unorthodox contributions (among them "Utopian Turtletop".wikipedia. which were ultimately chosen for the vehicle's series names.

Workers assembling Fords and Mercurys often found the task of assembling the occasional Edsel that moved down the line burdensome. and R for Race (instead of Drive. the new front-end design was very similar to that of the 1959 Pontiac. The longer-wheelbase models. L for Leap.Wikipedia. if any. 16% of Edsel owners reported poor workmanship. almost delicate opening in the center. The Teletouch pushbutton automatic transmission selector was an The distinctive center grille extremely complex feature. where the pushbuttons were located. was discontinued for the 1960 models. There were also jokes among stoplight drag racers about the buttons: D for Drag. Popular Mechanics tested for these problems and noted others." The vertical grille theme. such as the trunk leaking badly in a storm and the odometer showing fewer than actual miles traveled. fearing engine cooling problems. vetoed the intended design. some of whom never installed the additional parts at all. Low and Reverse). Reports of mechanical flaws with the cars surfaced. While the Edsel was 7/11 . Some dealers did not even receive all the parts. In its test car. with complaints ranging from faulty welding to power steering failure. while the shorter-wheelbase models. The workers were also expected to accommodate Edsel assembly with no adjustment in their hourly quota of Ford and Mercury production. the Edsel "resembled an Oldsmobile sucking a lemon". en. while improved for the 1959 models. Engineers. Uninstalled parts were placed in the trunks along with installation instructions for dealership mechanics. you'd have an Ethel'. Consequently.[2] In the May 1958 issue of Popular Mechanics. which often caused unpredictable movement of the selector mechanism. were produced alongside the Ford products. It proved problematic in part because the of the 1958 Edsel steering wheel hub. although coincidentally. According to a popular joke at the time. Ford never dedicated a stand-alone factory solely to Edsel model production. Roy Brown. Pacer and Ranger. had envisioned a slender. the free encyclopedia Even though the Edsel shared its basic technology with other Ford products. the location of the transmission pushbuttons was not conducive to street racing. due primarily to lack of quality control and confusion of parts with other Ford models. mostly with the 1958 models. The first-year (1958) Edsels were assembled in both Mercury and Ford factories. the desired quality control of the different Edsel models proved difficult to achieve.[12] Design controversies The Edsel's most memorable design feature was its trademark "horsecollar" or toilet seat grille. even when the Fords and Mercurys were satisfactorily assembled on the same lines. since it required them to change tools and parts bins. to the original concept.[13] Some have speculated that the car failed to sell because its grille resembled a vulva. which led to the now-infamous "horsecollar. the original chief designer on the Edsel project.[14] A crude jest that referenced the genital resemblance of the Edsel front grill was 'If you put some hair around it. which was quite distinct from other cars of the period.8/20/13 Edsel . The Edsel's front-end ensemble as it eventually appeared bore little resemblance. then switch back to resume assembling Fords or Mercurys after completing assembly on the Edsel. was the traditional location of the horn button. a number of issues caused reliability problems. Many Edsels actually left the assembly lines unfinished. The control wires for Teletouch were also routed too close to the exhaust manifold.wikipedia. which were similar to Ford models of the same year. were produced alongside the Mercury products. Citation and Corsair. Some drivers inadvertently shifted gears when they intended to sound the horn.

This design was similar to Chevrolet's 348-cubic-inch "W" engine. As a result. During the 1964 presidential election. like the elder Ford. McNamara left Ford when he was named Secretary of Defense by President John F. when McNamara convinced Henry Ford II and the rest of Ford's management structure that the Edsel was doomed and that it was time to end production before the Edsel bled the company dry.Wikipedia." However. McNamara also moved to reduce Edsel’s advertising budget for 1959. who was a financial contributor to Goldwater. The lenses were boomerang-shaped and placed in a reverse fashion. they appeared as arrows pointed in the opposite direction of the turn being made. and moved to consolidate Lincoln. Republican nominee Barry Goldwater blamed McNamara. Eventually. McNamara… had nothing to do with the plans for the Edsel car or any part of the program. Thus. which was also introduced in 1958. However. there was little that could be done to give the Ford-based station wagons a unique appearance from the rear. At a distance. McNamara’s cost-cutting and cost-containment skills helped Ford emerge from its nearcollapse after the war. wrote the Senator's campaign. Henry Ford II retained Robert McNamara as one of the "Whiz Kids" to help turn Ford around. because corporate management had insisted that no sheetmetal could be changed. During his time as head of the World Bank. the charge continued to be leveled against McNamara for years. its arrow shape pointed right. but the U. the Edsel would share the Ford platform and use Ford’s inner body structure for 1959. McNamara was committed to Ford to the almost total exclusion of the company's other products. Company politics and the role of Robert McNamara An intriguing aspect of the Edsel story is that it provides a case study in how company politics can kill an idea. and for 1960. industry had never supplied them up to that point. then Secretary of Defense. Instead. Kennedy. McNamara also attempted to discontinue the Lincoln nameplate. explaining that "Mr. he virtually eliminated it. and Edsel into the M-E-L division. Mercury. but that effort ended with Elwood Engel's now classic redesign of 1961. with "roof" pistons forming both a squish zone on one side and a combustion chamber on the other.8/20/13 Edsel . Mercury and Edsel brand cars made by the company. McNamara eventually amassed a considerable amount of power at Ford.wikipedia. McNamara saw to it that the Continental program was canceled and that the model was merged into the Lincoln range for 1958. Lincoln. Lincoln. McNamara was very much a throwback to Henry Ford in that. Combustion thus took place entirely within the cylinder bore. There was room for separate turn signals in addition to the boomerangs. The heads were set at an angle. and they were probably never seriously considered. Only the taillights and trim could be touched. internal Ford Motor Company memoranda indicate that the Edsel may actually have been a victim of dissension within Ford's management ranks. When the left turn signal flashed. McNamara opposed the formation of the separate divisions for Continental. Following World War II. McNamara had little use for the Continental. the free encyclopedia Complaints also surfaced about the taillights on 1958-model Edsel station wagons. and Edsel cars. Ford's former executive vice president Ernest R. Mechanics of the time were wary of the 410-cubic-inch Edsel "E-475" engine because its perfectly-flat cylinder heads lacked distinct combustion 8/11 . While the car and Ford’s planning of the car are the most often cited reasons for its failure. The final blow came in the fall of 1959.[15] en. and vice versa. While the design reduced the cost of manufacture and may also have helped minimize carbon buildup.S. for the Edsel's failure. McNamara instructed his public affairs officer to distribute copies of Breech's letter to the press whenever the accusation was made. He next set his sights on Edsel by maneuvering for elimination of the dual wheelbases and separate bodies used in 1958. In 1960. Mercury. it was also unfamiliar to many mechanics. the Edsel emerged as little more than a Ford with different trim. Breech.

rear tailfins (though canted diagonally). the final death knell for the traditional domestic medium-priced brands was the Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010. etc.Wikipedia. and the taillight shape (the lens is visually similar to that used on the 1960 Edsel. especially the rare 1959 and 1960 models. Based on the new-for-1960 Ford Falcon. seeing it as an unnecessary expenditure upon discovering that its buyer demographic was nearly identical to that of the Ford brand. The 1958 Pacer hardtop was re-issued as a totally new and much more detailed kit by AMT in the 1990s. Chrysler's announcement of the DeSoto's discontinuation coming only nine days after Ford's announcement of the Edsel's discontinuation. A mint 1958-1960 convertible may sell for over $100." For 1962. with the center bar removed from the "E" to form a "C. Dodge and Buick were the only traditionally mid-priced divisions still in production. Jaguar. a producer of diecast model cars. Subaru. and even retained the embossed "E" code). While the market for medium-priced cars would recover for a time. These command premium prices today. BMW. which were considered "too impractical" in the late 1950s. By the 2012 model year. As a result of this crisis. Fewer than 10. This would be the explanation for the brand's demise given by Ford upon its 2011 discontinuation. Both promotional and kit versions were sold. Today More than half a century after its spectacular failure. The 1960 hardtop is also available as a resin kit from several resin model producers. which had traditionally been occupied by Plymouth. while Ford's own Mercury division was discontinued in early 2011 despite Ford being in a healthy financial position. Meanwhile. in its familiar 1/25 scale. but is typically priced close to the cost of an original kit. the Comet was an instant success. it is far from certain that the brand would have lasted into the modern day. The Comet's keys were even shaped like Edsel keys. many other car manufacturers (such as Pontiac. such as self-adjusting brakes.[17] Plastic scale models of all three Edsel years were produced by AMT. offered a nicely detailed 1958 Citation in 1/18 scale in both hardtop and convertible body styles. Yat Ming en. Chrysler discontinued the DeSoto brand at almost exactly the same time. Dodge would move down into the low-priced field. Although Oldsmobile was discontinued in 2004 in an unrelated move.000. Even if the Edsel had survived beyond the early 1960s. Mercury had been consistently rumored to be in danger from the early 1980s and in 1999 then-Ford CEO Jacques Nasser wanted to cut the brand. The Mercury name does not appear anywhere on the 1960 and 1961 models.wikipedia. the Edsel has become a highly collectible item among vintage car hobbyists. are now standard features of sports cars. Many of the Edsel's features. Styling touches seen in the Comets sold to the public that allude to being part of the Edsel family of models included the instrument cluster. the free encyclopedia The Edsel Comet The scheduled 1960 Edsel Comet compact car was hastily rebranded as the Comet and assigned to Lincoln-Mercury dealerships as a stand-alone product. they would eventually be squeezed out due to Ford and Chevrolet having vehicles moving up into the medium-priced segment. General Motors and Chrysler filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy. Ford officially assigned the Comet to the Mercury brand.. Yat Ming.[16] While the design was considered "weird' or "too different" fifty years ago.000 Edsels survive and are considered valuable collectors’ items. Lancia and Alfa Romeo) have employed similar vertical grilles successfully in their car designs. gear selection by steering wheel buttons.8/20/13 Edsel . with Dodge having taken Plymouth's old spot within Chrysler and Buick arguably surviving only due to the brand's success in 9/11 . This development saw the end of the Pontiac and Saturn brands by GM. selling more cars in its first year than all models of Edsel produced during that marque's entire three-year run.

^ The Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (2006). ^ "Directory Index: Edsel/1958_Edsel/1958_Edsel_Foldout" (http://www. Retrieved complete with accurately detailed wood trim. The Fords: An American Epic. 263. ^ a b The Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (2006).html).com/books? id=5t0DAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA90&dq=Popular+Mechanics+Edsel+Power.time.html). Horowitz.8/20/13 Edsel . Retrieved 2011-11-08. Random House. American Cars. ^ "Directory Index: Edsel/1958_Edsel/1958_Edsel_Sell-O-Graph" (http://www. the free encyclopedia also produced a detailed 1/43 scale diecast of the Citation convertible in several color combinations.html#comments).org/community_education/teacher/calc/hist1800. Oldcarbrochures. "The Flop Heard Round the World" (http://www.html). Publications International. en. Popular Mechanics 109 (3): 90–95.28804.html).net. ^ "This is the Edsel (advertisement)" (http://books. 4. Retrieved February 22. Retrieved 2010-09-13. Publications International. ^ Neil. Summit Books. 8. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2013 (http://www. In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. ^ "Autos: The $250 Million Flop" (http://www. Auto. Dan (2007-09-07). 15. ISBN 9780679767497. 10. 9. Oldcarbrochures. pp. 2010-04-23. 1957-11-11. Say Owners" ( Retrieved 7 July 2012.howstuffworks. Are Tops. ^ a b Flory. Life. ^ View all comments that have been posted about this article. edsel.html) Retrieved 7 July 2012.. ^ "Edsel Power. References 1. 3. J. 7.oldcarbrochures. 6. several of the cars were nevertheless raced in NASCAR's Grand National series in the 1950s. 2013.washingtonpost. ^ "Buick's New Baby: Due For U. 375. ISBN 30 November 1959. McFarland & Company. Time. 13. Ltd. p. Encyclopedia of American Cars: A Comprehensive History of the American Automakers From 1930 to "Kelly" (2008).motortrend. 1946-1959 Every Model Every Year. In Late 2011 – With A New Name | Car News Blog at Motor Trend" (http://blogs.9171.+Say+Owners) . Handling. Retrieved March 31. Encyclopedia of American Cars: A Comprehensive History of the American Automakers From 1930 to 10/11 . "The 50 Worst Cars of All Time – 1958 Ford Edsel" (http://www.htm). Washingtonpost. Retrieved 7 July 2012.S. March 1958. David (1987).cfm).Wikipedia.00. 374.html). id=tVYEAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA156&pg=PA90#v=onepage&f=true). -03. The Danbury Mint produced a 1/24 scale diecast replica of the 1958 Bermuda station wagon. p. C Gayle (1980). ^ Collier. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. ^ McNamara. Robert (1995). 150.time. ISBN 9780671540937. time. Peter. Pro NASCAR Despite the Edsel's lack of sales success.+Handling+Are+Tops.minneapolisfed. 90–91. The Edsel Affair. p. Retrieved 2009-05-17. Retrieved 2011-01-30.826017. The Franklin Mint produced highly detailed 1/24 scale and 1/43 scale diecast models of the 1958 Citation convertible. ^ a b c d Warnock. 12. Retrieved 2011-11-08.oldcarbrochures. ^ "1959 Edsel Ads" (http://www. Publishers. Inc. 2.howstuffworks. ^ "HowStuffWorks "1955–1959 Volkswagen Beetle"" (http://auto. 11.

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. the free encyclopedia Further reading Famous Ford Flops ( (http://www. pp 486–502 Wallace. By using this site. pp.".Wikipedia. 98–103/282-283.html) The Edsel Tinsmith ( 11/11 .htm) A Web site devoted to plastic dealer promotional models of Edsels. Edsel Promo Time (http://www. Little Brown and Company.htm) Listing of Edsel references in popular Publications Automotive Quarterly Magazine XIII (2): 182–191. Encyclopedia of American Cars: A Comprehensive History of the American Automakers From 1930 to Yale University Press. Ltd. FORD The Men and the Machine.. The Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (2006).edsel. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.edsel. resources for owners." Journal of Popular Culture. June 2010." (http://books.8/20/13 Edsel . Washington Post article about the Edsel (http://www. a Disaster. September 1957. Robert (1988).edsel. Jan (1976). a non-profit organization. Inc.edsel. additional terms may A catalog of tin toy Edsels that were manufactured in Japan "All About Ford's Luxury Loaded Edsel.htm) Edsels in the Media (http://www.thearticlewriter. "Naming the Edsel". David (Second Quarter 1975). Smith Motor Company (http://www.internationaledsel.washingtonpost. Lacey. Tom. To Edsel Owners. Virtual Edsel Dealer The International Edsel Club (http://www. "To id=Ci0DAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA98&dq=popular+science+1930&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dWYBT7Rch9a BB-bn6asC&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBThu#v=onepage&q=popular%20science%201930&f=true) Popular Science. Barron. en. The Edsel and Corporate Responsibility.php?title=Edsel&oldid=568606918" Categories: Ford Motor Company 1950s automobiles 1960s automobiles This page was last modified on 19 August 2013 at 20:20. The New York Times. External links Edsel. "The Edsel: Forty Years as a Symbol of Failure.wikipedia. Retrieved from "http://en. 43 Issue 3. James (2007-08-01).com/promo/ History. Dicke. specifications.