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Propagation of electromagnetic waves often called radio-frequency (RF) propagation or simply radio propagation.

Free-space Electrical energy that has escaped into free space. Electromagnetic wave The orientation of the electric field vector in respect to the surface of the Earth. Polarization Polarization remains constant Linear Polarization Forms of Linear polarization Horizontal Polarization and Vertical Polarization Polarization vector rotates 360◦ as the wave moves one wave-length through the space and the field strength is equal at all angles of polarization. Circular Polarization Field strength varies with changes in polarization. EllipticalPolarization Used to show the relative direction of electromagnetic wave propagation. Rays Formed when two points of equal phase on rays propagated from the same source are joined together. Wavefront A single location from which rays propagate equally in all directions. Point source Invisible force field produced by a magnet, such as a conductor when current is flowing through.Magnetic Field Strength of a magnetic field (H) produced around a conductor is expressed mathematically as: Invisible force fields produced by a difference in voltage potential between two conductors. Electric fields Electric filed strength (E) is expressed mathematically as: 2 Dielectric constant of the material separating the two conductors. Permittivity The permittivity of air or free space is approximately. 8.85 x 10 -12 F/m The rate at which energy passes through a given surface area in free space. Power density Intensity of the electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave propagating in free space. Field intensity Mathematically power density is expressed as: P = €H W/m2 The characteristic impedance of a lossless transmission medium is equal to the square root of the ratio of its magnetic permeability to its electric permittivity. Zs = (μo0)1/2 Point source that radiates power at a constant rate uniformly in all directions. Isotropic radiator Power density is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source. Inverse Square Law Propagation medium. Isotropic medium Waves propagate through free space, they spread out, resulting in a reduction in power density. Attenuation Reduction of Power. Absorption Loss Reduction in power density with distance is equivalent to a power loss. Wave attenuation Spherical spreading of the wave. Space attenuation One with uniform properties throughout. Homogeneous medium Absorption coefficient varies considerably with location, thus creating a difficult problem for radio systems engineers. Inhomogeneous medium Optical properties of Radio Waves. Refraction, Reflection, Diffraction and Interference Bending of the radio wave path. Refraction Square root of the dielectric constant and is expressed in: Refractive index; n = (k)

Angle of Incidence Angle formed between the refracted wave and the normal. Plane Imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the interface at the point of incidence. Absorption coefficient Incident wave front strikes an irregular surface. Terrestial radio communications Used for high-frequency applications. Reflection Coefficient Portion of the total incident power that is not reflected. where d is the depth of the surface irregularity and λ is the wavelength of the incident wave. Diffraction Diffraction occurs around the edge of the obstacle. Shadow zone States that the total voltage intensity at a given point in space is the sum of the individual wave vectors.81N/f2)1/2 Boundary between two media with different densities. Linear Superposition Electromagnetic waves travelling within Earth’s atmosphere. it is randomly scattered in many directions. K = (1. Specular (mirrorlike) reflection Surfaces that fall between smooth and irregular. Refractive Index Perpendicular to the direction of propagation (parallel to the waveform) Density gradient To cast or turn back. Angle of Refraction Ratio of velocity of propagation of a light ray in free space to the velocity of propagation of a light ray in a given material. Diffuse reflection Reflection from a perfectly smooth surface. Reflect Ratio of the reflected to the incident voltage intensities.(k) Equivalent dielectric constant relative to free space (vacuum). Sky waves . Power transmission coefficient Fraction of power that penetrates medium 2. Terrestial waves Communications between two or more points on Earth. Rayleigh criterion Cos θi > λ/8d Modulation or redistribution of energy within a wavefront when it passes near the edge of an opaque object. which allows secondary waves to “sneak” around the corner of the obstacle. Semirough surfaces Semirough surface will reflect as if it were a smooth surface whenever the cosine of the angle of incidence is greater than λ/8d. Normal Angle formed between the incident wave and the normal.