Instructor:
Professor V. Chandrasekar
Colorado State University and
University of Helsinki
3
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Dual Polarization Weather Radar
and Applications
V. Chandrasekar
Colorado State University and
University of Helsinki
4
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Overview of Dual Polarization Weather
Radar and Applications
Fundamentals of Weather Radar
Concept of Electromagnetic Polarization
Introduction to Dual Polarization Weather Radar
Doppler Weather Radar Theory
Dual Polarized Weather Radar Fundamentals
Rainfall
Precipitation Microphysics
Hydrometeor Classification
Attenuation and Attenuation Correction
Examples of DualPolarization Weather Radar Observations
5
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Fundamentals of weather radar
Radar equation for
Precipitation
Reflectivity factor
measurements
Context for Dual
polarization
6
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The characteristics of a radar is essentially determined by the
properties of how electromagnetic waves interact with physical
object such as airplanes or precipitation particles.
Radar
Radar a contraction of terms
Radio detection and ranging
7
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Basic Principle of a Radar
The basic principle of a radar can be described by the following
diagram.
The radar consists of a transmitter connected to the transmitting
antenna, propagating electromagnetic wave outward from the
transmitter and a receiver connected to a receiving antenna for
the reception of any scattered wave.
8
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The portion scattered in the direction of the receiver travels at
the speed of light to the receiver located at a distance R
2
away
and is received by the receiving antenna, which converts the
wave to a received signal s(t).
The information about the scatterer is contained in the received
waveform.
Continued
The scatterer or target exists in the medium
between the transmitter and receiver
locations.
The transmitter waveform u(t) that is produced by the
transmitter is converted to radiating electromagnetic wave that
travels at the speed of light.
This wave encounters a scatter at a range R
1
.
The incident electromagnetic wave is scattered in all directions.
9
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Propagation Medium
The simplest propagation medium is free space.
However in the context of weather radar, the medium through
which the electromagnetic wave propagates can be
precipitation.
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Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Function of a Weather Radar
The detection function consists of detecting features of
weather/precipitation characteristics from the received
signal.
2) Measurement
1) Detection
Measurement of the scattering volume characteristics
involve measuring scatterer location in three dimensional
space (range, azimuth, elevation), scatterer velocity as well
as the strength or type of scatterers.
11
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Key Variables in Observation
Range: measure the distance of the target from radar
Direction: the angular position of the target
The radiation is directional,
focused by the antenna.
Intensity: the size and dielectric properties of the
target
Compare the power changes between the radiation and the echoes
Velocity: the relative movement of the target
Compare the frequency change between the radiation
and the echoes
Doppler effect: where you get tickets for speeding
2
t c
r =
12
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Radar As a System
Radar is a good example of a system composed of many types
of subsystems or elements. Specially weather radars are
designed to observe what is termed as volume targets. The
following shows a simple block diagram of a pulsed radar.
Antenna
IF Matched
Amp Filter
Second
demodulator
Video
Amp
Mixer
Lownoise
Amp
Duplexer
Local OSC
Output
Power
Amp
Pulse
Modulator
Waveform
Generator
Block diagram of pulsed radar
13
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
In a Doppler radar the received signal is compared against a copy
of the transmitted signal. In coherent systems where this is
done, the transmitter waveform is compared against receive
waveform. The transmitter waveform is a high frequency sinusoid
modulated by a train of pulses. The information carrying portion of
the transmitter is the rectangular waveform. The high frequency
sinusoid is called the carrier.
The transmitter waveform is generated by a combination of two
oscillators, stable local oscillator (STALO) and coherent local
oscillator (COHO)
Radar As a System (Continued)
The transmitted waveform is generated by the oscillators termed
COHO, STALO and amplified and fed to the antenna. The simplest
transmitter waveform is a train of pulses.
14
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Digital
Modulator
GPS
Reference
Power
Amplifier
Mixer
STALO
s
T
0
T
Low Noise
Amplifier (LNA)
From STALO
ADC
Digital Quadrature COHO
Low Pass
Filter
Low Pass
Filter
I
Q
IF Amplifier
Duplexer
Transmitter
Receiver
Radar As a System (Continued)
CSUCHILL Radar System
15
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The scattered signal will be a replica of the transmitted signal
except for a range time delay and Doppler frequency shift.
The STALO is used to bring down the carrier frequency to
produce the intermediate frequency signal. Subsequently these
are demodulated to obtain the information carrying part of the
signal for analysis.
In the process of describing the block diagram of the radar many
terms are introduced.
Waveforms: In a pulsed radar the transmitted waveform is
described as a train of rectangular pulses denoted by u(t).
However this pulse modulates a high frequency sinusoid required
for radiation.
Radar As a System (Continued)
16
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Radar As a System (Continued)
The mathematical form of such a waveform is
is the carrier frequency.
)] ( 2 cos[ ) ( ) ( t t f t u t s
o
o t + =
o
f
Radar transmitted signal
shown as a sinusoid of
frequency (f
0
) modulated
by a rectangular pulse of
duration T
0
Magnitude of
the spectrum of
the transmitted
signal
17
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The location of precipitation to be measured by radar needs
definition of coordinate system.
Radar Coordinates
The natural coordinate
system for a radar is
spherical polar coordinate
system. The angles used
are azimuth angle,
elevation angle and the
distance reference is
range. The azimuth angle
is measured with respect
to north.The elevation
angle is measured with
respect to horizontal.

u
18
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Radar signal return intensities (or powers) are expressed
in 2D image plots called Plan Position Indicator (PPI) or
Range Height Indicator (RHI).
Radar Coordinates (Continued)
PPI
RHI
19
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Range to a Target
The common radar waveform is a train of rectangular
pulses modulating a sine wave carrier. The range to
the target is determined by the time t
R
.
Electromagnetic waves travel at speed of light C.
The time for the signal to travel to range R and
return is
C
R 2
20
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Therefore, the range to the target is
If t
R
is in micro sec then
} { ) ( 081 . 0
) ( 15 . 0
) ( 150
2
10 ) ( 10 3
2
10 ) (
6 8 6
miles Nautical nmi s
km s
m s
m
s s m
m
s C
R
R
R
R
R R
t
t
t
t t
=
=
=
=
=
2
R
C
R
t
=
21
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Maximum Unambiguous Range
Once a signal is radiated into space by a radar,
sufficient time must elapse to allow for all the echo
signals to return to radar before the next pulse is
transmitted.
This elapsed time is determined by the largest range at
which targets are expected. If the time between the
pulses or sampling time T
S
is too short, then the echo
from this pulse arriving after the next pulse
transmission will be associated with that pulse.
22
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
s
T
t
o
T
s
T + t
s
T 2
s
T 2 + t
s
T 3
) ( t = t V
r
) (
s r
T t V + =t
) 2 (
s r
T t V + =t
23
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
PRF
C CT
R
S
2 2
max
= =
Echoes that arrive after the transmission of
next pulse are called second trip echoes.
PRF = Pulse Repetition
Frequency
24
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
1000
100
10
1000 100
PRF
10
4
10000
un
R
nautical
miles
25
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Radar Frequencies
Radars in the past have been built from 100 MHz to 36
GHz. These are not hard limits.
Over the horizon radars operate at several MHz
whereas mm wave radars have been built at 240 GHz.
During world war II codes such as S, X and L were
used to designate frequency bands.
26
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
IEEE standard radarfrequency
letterband nomenclature
Band
Designation
Nominal
Frequency
Range
Specific Frequency Ranges for
Radar based on ITU Assignments in
Region 2
HF
VHF
UHF
L
S
C
X
330 MHz
30300 MHz
3001000 MHz
12 GHz
24 GHz
48 GHz
812 GHz
138144 MHz
216225 MHz
420450 MHz
850942 MHz
12151400 MHz
23002500 MHz;27003700 MHz
52505925 MHz
850010,680 MHz
27
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Band
Designation
Nominal
Frequency Range
Specific Frequency Ranges for
Radar based on ITU
Assignments in Region 2
K
u
K
K
a
V
W
mm
1218 GHz
1827 GHz
2740 GHz
4075 GHz
75110 GHz
110300 GHz
13.414 GHz
15.717.7 GHz
24.0524.25 GHz
33.436 GHz
5964 GHz
7681 GHz
92100 GHz
126142 GHz ;144149 GHz
231235 GHz ;238248 GHz
28
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Applications of Radars
Military : Radar is an important part of airdefense
systems as well as operation of offensive
missiles.
Remote sensing :1) Atmospheric observations.
2) Planetary observation.
3) Below ground probing.
4) Sea ice mapping.
Air traffic control (ATC) :
ASR(Air Surveillance Radar)TDWR(Terminal Doppler
Weather Radar)
29
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Law Enforcement / Highway safety :
 Police radar, collision avoidance systems.
 Aircraft safety/ Navigation/ Radar altimeter.
Space:
 Space vehicles use radar for rendezvous and
docking, Radio astronomy.
History :
 Basic concept of electromagnetic radiation shown
by Heinrich Hertz during 18851888.
 He experimentally demonstrated James clerk
Maxwells theory (published in 1864).
30
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
 Early development , Hulsmeyer in early 1900s
developed to sell ship collision avoidance system.
 Marconi promoted the usage and presented to
the Institute of Radio Engineers (now the IEEE).
 Then came the heavy military bomber aircraft in
1930s, which suddenly needed a device.
USA :
 The Naval Research Laboratory developed
hundreds of radars by 1940.
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Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
UK :
 Deployed radars by 1938.
 The radars primarily were credited for turning
the momentum in the war.
 The invention of the magnetron revolutionized
the development of high frequency radar.
 The cavity magnetron was delivered to MIT
Radiation Lab to accelerate the development.
Magnetron :
 Invented in Birmingham, UK.
 Allowed development of small radars to be
carried on ships and aircraft.
32
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
After WWII
 Doppler radars.
 High power amplifiers, Klystron, traveling
wave tubes solid state transmitters.
 Monopulse radar.
 Pulse compression.
33
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Summary of Weather Radar Principles
Weather radar consists of a transmitter, the propagation
medium, precipitation scatters, and receiver.
Transmitter
Propagation
Medium
Scatterer
Receiver
Propagation
Medium
Transmitter determines the frequency and radiated power and
the antenna determines the direction of transmission and
polarization.
34
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The receiver/processor determines how weak a signal
can be measured, and processed.
The receiver/processor module also generates user
defined products.
The transmitter receiver and processor are designed to
make the desired observation about the scatterers
(which for weather radars is precipitation)
Summary (Continued)
35
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Fundamentals of weather radar
Radar equation for
Precipitation
Reflectivity
measurements
Context for Dual
polarization
36
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Weather Radar Equation for a Single Raindrop
Consider a pulsed Doppler radar transmitting a pulse of high frequency
sinusoid (most weather radars)
Radar equation relates the range of a radar to the characteristics of
the transmitter, receiver, antenna, target, and environment. It serves
as a means for understanding the factors affecting radar performance.
If the transmitter power P
t
is radiated by an isotropic antenna, then
the power density at a distance R from the radar is given by,
Power density
where 4tR
2
is the surface area of a sphere
) (
4
2
2
m w
R
P
t
t
=
2
4 R
P
t
t
Raindrop
37
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Weather Radar Equation for a Single Raindrop (Continued)
Radars use directive antennas to concentrate the radiated
power, P
t
in a particular direction. The gain of the antenna is a
measure of the increased power density radiated in some
direction as compared to that of an isotropic antenna.
Power density of a directive antenna =
antenna isotropic an by radiated density power
antenna directive a by radiated density power
G =
2
4 R
G P
t
t
The scatterer intercepts a portion of the incident energy and scatters
it in various directions.
Only the power radiated in the direction of the radar is of interest.
The radar cross section (o) of a scatterer determines the amount of
scattered power.
38
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Concept of Radar Cross Section
When the object is large compared to the wavelength of the
incident electromagnetic wave (such as large metal sphere)
the scattering cross section of the radar is the same as the
geometric cross section.
2
D t o =
Whenever an electric field is incident on a dielectric sphere
such as a raindrop, then the dipoles in the water molecules
get aligned parallel to the electric field, and the net effect is
an electric field with in the sphere. This dipole radiates
back, whose strength is proportional to the volume of the
drop.
Therefore the scattered field is proportional to volume of the
sphere or V and the power is proportional to or
3
D
6
D
2
V
Weather Radar Equation for a Single Raindrop (Continued)
39
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The factor comes from the fact that the electric field
within the sphere is less than what is applied due to depolarizing
factor. The factor comes from plane wave scattering. Scattering
for such objects is called Rayleigh scattering.
) 2 /( ) 1 ( 3 +
r r
c c
4
0
k
Concept of Radar Cross Section (Continued)
If the scatterer is small compared to the wavelength , then for
objects such as raindrops (that are dielectric objects) the radar cross
section is given by
where V is the volume of the raindrop.
2
2
4
0
) 2 (
) 1 ( 3
4
V
k
r
r
+
=
c
c
t
o
o
Substituting and
3
6
D V
t
=
t 2
0
= k
;
6
2
4
5
D K =
t
o
2
2
2
1
+
=
r
r
K
c
c
40
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The total RCS is given by,
RCS of simple objects
(i) Sphere
} }
= =
=
t

t
u
 u u  u o
t
o
2
0 0
sin ) , (
4
1
S S
S S S S S t
d d
Direction to receiving
radar
x
y
z
41
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Due to symmetry waves scattered from a perfectly
conducting sphere are copolarized with incident waves.
The normalized cross section for a perfectly conducting
sphere in a Mie series is given by,
where, is the radius of the sphere.
is spherical Bessel function of the first kind of order n.
+

.

\

=
=1
2
) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
n
n
n
kr
j
r t
o
(


.

\



.

\

) (
) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
1
kr H
kr J
kr nH kr krH
kr nJ kr krJ
n
n
n n
n n
;
2
t
= k
r
n
J
42
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
is the Hankel function of order n
Given by,
is the spherical Bessel function of 2nd kind.
) 1 (
n
H
) ( ) ( ) (
) 1 (
kr jY kr J kr H
n n n
+ =
n
Y
43
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
For optical region
Rayleigh region (small sphere)
>> r
2
r t o =
4 2
) ( 9 kr r t o ~ << r
44
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The back scatter matrix for a dielectric sphere is,
where,
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
i
v
i
h
FSA
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
r ik
s
v
s
h
E
E
S
k
i
S
k
i
S
k
i
S
k
i
r
e
E
E
) (
cos
) (
sin
) (
sin
) (
cos
2
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
u

u

u

u

(
+
+
+
=
=
S
S n
n e
S
S n
n o
n
S
P
d
dP
n n
n
S
u
u

u
u
o u
sin
) (cos ) (cos
) 1 (
1 2
) (
1
1
1
1
1
1
(
+
+
+
=
=
S
S n
n e
S
S n
n o
n
S
d
dP P
n n
n
S
u
u

u
u
o u
) (cos
sin
) (cos
) 1 (
1 2
) (
1
1
1
1
1
2
Radar cross section of a dielectric sphere
45
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
   
   
'
'
'
'
=
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
) 2 (
0 0
) 2 (
0
0 0 0 0
1
c
c
o
n n n n r
n n r n n
n o
h j j h
j j j j
   
   
'
'
'
'
=
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) 2 ( ) 2 (
1
c
c

n o n o o n o n r
o n o n r n o n o
n e
j h h j
j j j j
a k
0 0
=
;
r
c
0
=
ar Chandrasek and Bringi of a eq as Same
n o
) ( 104 . 2 .
1
= o
ar Chandrasek and Bringi of b eq as Same
n o
) ( 104 . 2 .
1
= 
46
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Extending and computing the radar scattering cross
section
where,
2
)
( 4 )
( i i f i i
b
=
t o
2
1
1 1
2
0
) )( 1 2 ( ) 1 (
=
+ =
n
n e n o
n
n
k
 o
t
2
1
2
0
) )( 1 2 ( ) 1 (
=
+ =
n
S
n
S
n
n
b a n
k
t
;
1n e
S
n
a  =
n o
S
n
b
1
o =
47
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The total scattering cross section,
The extinction cross section
Fast numerical methods are available in, Barber and
Hill 1990.
The number of terms in series summations you need
is,
=
(
+ + =
1
2 2
2
0
) 1 2 (
2
n
S
n
S
n S
b a n
k
t
o
 
=
+ + =
1
2
0
Re ) 1 2 (
2
n
S
n
S
n ext
b a n
k
t
o
2 ) ( 05 . 4
3 / 1
max
+ + = a k a k n
o o
48
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Weather Radar Equation for a Single Raindrop (Continued)
The radar cross section is defined as the area o, such that the
incident power density intercepted by this area o, radiating as
an isotropic radiator yields the same power density as received
by the radar.
The cross section is dependent
on target shape and size.
2 2
4 4 R R
G P
t
t
o
t
=
Power density backscattered towards the radar
49
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The radar antenna receives the energy incident on it. The Power
received by the radar is the product of the incident power density and
the effective area.
Weather Radar Equation for a Single Raindrop (Continued)
Effective area (A
e
) of the receiving antenna is related to the physical
area by the aperture efficiency .
a
e
t t
r
A
R R
G P
watts P =
2 2
4 4
) (
t
o
t
4 2
) 4 ( R
A G P
e t t
t
o
=
, A A
a e
=
4 3
2 2
) 4 ( R
G P
t
t
o
=
The term comes from a twoway propagating wave, because
the roundtrip distance is 2r.
kR j
e
2
( )
kR j t
e
G P
2
2 3
4
=
t
o
The corresponding voltage signal is
50
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
If there is a large continuum of
precipitation particles in range such as
raindrops and ice particles
Then the backscattered signals from
all the hydrometeors in the range
to arrive at the same
time such that
is the range resolution
R R R A
( )
o
T
c
R R
c
R
+
A
=
2 2

.

\

= A
2
o
cT
R
m R 150 = A
For a of 1 microsec. (typical)
o
T
The phase term of the received voltage
runs through several cycles of
360
o
over 150m (because it cycles 360
o
over one wavelength typical 10 cm)
R k j
o
e
2
o
T
c
r 2
R
R R A
time
Weather Radar Equation for Volume Targets
51
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Thus if we observe the received signal at time t, it comes from
a volume of scatters between the ranges to . Because
of the random phase, the average power received is sum of
the powers from individual precipitation particle (called
incoherent addition). Thus in radial extent, the contribution is
limited to , but in angular extent (azimuth or elevation)
the contribution is limited by the narrow antenna beam.
R R A R
R R A R
R R A
R
( )
4
3
2
2
4 R
G
P
i i
t
t
o
t
o =
It was shown earlier that for a single precipitation particle is
b
o
2
t c
1
u
1

Weather Radar Equation for Volume Targets (Continued)
If is the volumetric reflectivity per unit volume, then the term
can be written as
where the integral for a Gaussian beam is reduced
to
q
( )
4
3
2
4 R
G
i i
t
o
( )
( )
dV
R
f
G
o
q
t
 u
}}}
4 3
2
2
4
,
( )
( )
2
1 1
3
2 2
2 2 ln 8
4
R
r cT G P
o o o t
q  tu
t

.

\

=
( )
}}}
 u,
2
f
2 ln 8
1 1
 tu
) , (
) , (
 u
 u
f
G
G
o
=
where
53
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
In radar meteorology it is conventional to express in terms of
equivalent reflectivity as
where is computed for water
q
q
t
2
5
4
w
e
k
Z =
2
w
k
( ) 93 . 0 ~
The equivalent reflectivity factor is in the radar volume
expressed as reflectivity in units of mm
6
/m
3
. The above equation
is called meteorological radar equation.
6
i
D
( )
( )
( )
2
2
5
1 1
3 2
2
2 ln 8
4
2 r
r Z k
G P cT
r P
e w
o t o
r
t
 tu
t
(

.

\

=
Therefore when the receiver sees power P
r
at a time At after the
pulse transmission, r is obtained as , and the above
equation is used to compute reflectivity.
2
t c
r
A
=
Reflectivity measurements
54
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
The equivalent reflectivity factor is
computed from the received power
as
( )
r
t
e
P r
G P cT
K
Z
2 2
1 1
2
0
3
0
2
5
2 ln 8 4 2 1
 tu
t
t
e


.

\

(


.

\

=
For correct detection, the Signalto
Noise Ratio (SNR) needs to exceed
some threshold. The noise power can
be expressed through system noise
figure:
Assuming SNR=1, the minimum
detectable reflectivity at range r
0
is
( )
( ) kTB r
G P cT
K
Z
t
e
2
0
2
1 1
2
0
3
0
2
5
min
2 ln 8 4 2 1
 tu
t
t
e


.

\

(


.

\

=
Sensitivity/Minimum Detectable Signal
kTB Pn =
System Sensitivity of the CSUCHILL Radar
Frequency = 2.725 GHz
Peak Transmit Power = 800 kW
Antenna Gain = 42
Receiver Noise Level = 113 dBm
Pulse Width = 1 us
Beamwidth = 1 deg
Receiver Loss = 1.5 dB
The sensitivity of CSUCHILL is 8 dBZ at 50 km
(7.5 dB at 50 km for NEXRAD)
55
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Resolution
Resolution is another figure of merits for a radar system. High
resolution observations can reveal fine weather features and
improve the accuracy of quantitative retrievals.
The sensitivity implies a preference of long pulse and wide antenna
beam, in addition to higher transmit power and larger antenna gain.
However, short pulse and narrow antenna beam are essential to
obtain high resolution measurement.
( )
( ) kTB r
G P cT
K
Z
t
e
2
0
2
1 1
2
0
3
0
2
5
min
2 ln 8 4 2 1
 tu
t
t
e


.

\

(


.

\

=
56
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Resolution (continued)
The measured reflectivity is the mean value for the 3D resolution
volume.
( )
( )
dV r
R
f
G
o
) , , (
4
,
4 3
2
2
 u q
t
 u
}}}
 The range resolution depends on the pulse width
The crossbeam resolution depends on the beamwidth and range
 Resolution becomes poorer at far ranges
 Sidelobe can couple in unwanted echoes
in other direction

.

\

= A
2
o
cT
R
w
r l u = A
w
r l  = A
Sidelobe
57
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Reason for Dualpolarization
Up to now, the particle is assumed as spheres.
The radar reflectivity is an equivalent factor by assuming
spherical particles.
Not always true!
58
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Dual Polarization Measurements
Solution: observe the target using two orthogoanl polarizations
(normally orthogonal).
V
H
59
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Dual Polarization Measurements
60
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Dual Polarization Measurements
61
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Dual Polarization Measurements
62
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Dual Polarization Measurements
63
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Dual Polarization Measurements
64
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Polarimetric Capability
Raindrops are nonspherical and the nonspherical shape is
increased more pronounced with size.
Therefore different reflectivities are seen at horizontal and
vertical polarizations.
We can measure other parameters to characterize the raindrop
in more details shape, size, orientation.
v
h
Plane containing
the electric field
Direction of
propagation
65
Dual Polarization Weather Radar and Applications
Summary: Weather radar fundamentals
Scattering of electromagnetic wave by precipitation
particles
Range, direction, intensity, velocity
Radar as a system
Radar coordination: azimuth, elevation, range
Radar equation for a single raindrop
Weather radar equation
Concept of reflectivity
Sensitivity
Resolution
Why dual polarization?