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International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology
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Complex mapping of aerofoils – a different perspective
Miccal T. Matthews
a a

School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia Published online: 24 Jun 2011.

To cite this article: Miccal T. Matthews (2012): Complex mapping of aerofoils – a different perspective, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 43:1, 43-65 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2011.582174

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International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 1, 15 January 2012, 43–65

Complex mapping of aerofoils – a different perspectivey
Miccal T. Matthews*
School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia (Received 25 October 2010) In this article an application of conformal mapping to aerofoil theory is studied from a geometric and calculus point of view. The problem is suitable for undergraduate teaching in terms of a project or extended piece of work, and brings together the concepts of geometric mapping, parametric equations, complex numbers and calculus. The Joukowski and Karman–Trefftz aerofoils are studied, and it is shown that the Karman–Trefftz aerofoil is an improvement over the Joukowski aerofoil from a practical point of view. For the most part only a spreadsheet program and pen and paper is required, only for the last portion of the study of the Karman–Trefftz aerofoils a symbolic computer package is employed. Ignoring the concept of a conformal mapping and instead viewing the problem from a parametric point of view, some interesting mappings are obtained. By considering the derivative of the mapped mapping via the chain rule, some new and interesting analytical results are obtained for the Joukowski aerofoil, and numerical results for the Karman–Trefftz aerofoil. Keywords: Joukowski mapping aerofoil; Karman–Trefftz aerofoil; complex

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1. Introduction Modelling the flow of air past the wing of an aircraft is a highly complex problem, and as is common in applied mathematics the problem is made tractable by applying simplifying assumptions. One such assumption reduces the problem to looking at cross-sections of the aerofoil, thus the theory of two-dimensional fluid flow can be utilized. For potential flow in two dimensions, there exists a stream function and a velocity potential such that the flow is irrotational and automatically satisfies the equation of continuity [1]. These two functions satisfy the Cauchy–Riemann equations, which imply that there exists a complex potential describing the stream function and velocity potential for some fluid flow problem [2]. With the existence of an analytic function (i.e. the complex potential) we can employ the theory of conformal mapping to transform complicated geometries into simpler ones that can be handled analytically [3]. One such complex function was studied by Joukowski [4,5] and is known as the Joukowski transformation, which under certain conditions will map a circle onto a curve shaped like the cross-section of an aerofoil. The mapped aerofoil has the correct shape for wing design, with a
*Email: miccal.matthews@ecu.edu.au y This work is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Grant M. Cox, R.I.P.
ISSN 0020–739X print/ISSN 1464–5211 online ß 2012 Taylor & Francis http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2011.582174 http://www.tandfonline.com

while multiplication and division and particularly powers are easier with polar form. A simple modification of the Joukowski aerofoil which makes the trailing edge have distinct tangents was ´ rma ´ n and Erich Trefftz and is known as the developed by Theodore von Ka Karman–Trefftz transformation [7. where x ¼ rcos and y ¼ rsin. the only mathematical expertise required is calculus. we obtain some interesting mappings. parametric equations and the most basic concepts of complex numbers such as real and imaginary parts. r() ¼ 1 þ cos. the derivative dy/dx is found to be dy ð1 þ cos Þð1 À 2 cos Þ ¼ : dx sin ð1 þ 2 cos Þ Therefore the cardioid has horizontal tangents when  ¼ /3 and 5/3 and vertical tangents when  ¼ 2/3 and 4/3. This transformation has the advantage that it is a more physical aerofoil shape to construct.8]. In the following sections the Joukowski and Karman–Trefftz transformations are studied. thus there is a horizontal tangent at the cusp and the derivative is a continuous function of  around  ¼ . consider the polar form of a simple cardioid [10]. their graphical representation is illustrated in the Argand plane. we can think of a plot in the Argand plane as a parametric one. Thinking about the problem in this way. dy/dx ! 0. if we ignore the definition of where the mapping is conformal and consider instead the problem of mapping a circle to an aerofoil shape via the theory of parametric equations. and therefore a plot in the complex plane is just like a plot in the Cartesian plane – in particular.T. For the Joukowski transformation a spreadsheet program is used to obtain the mappings. a branch of NASA) [9]. When  ¼  the derivative dy/dx has the indeterminate form 0 0.44 M. enabling the calculus to be applied. Matthews blunt note and a sharp trailing edge. the Joukowski and Karman–Trefftz transformations are well-studied [6]. When complex numbers in Cartesian form and polar form are studied. The connection between the polar coordinates in the two-dimensional Cartesian plane and the polar form of a complex number in the Argand plane is quickly made. For the Karman–Trefftz transformation a spreadsheet Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 . and a plot of y versus x yields a heart-like shape with a cusp at  ¼ . and using l’Hospital’s rule we find that as  ! . polar form and De Moivre’s theorem. The sharp trailing edge of the Joukowski transformation can be shown to form a cusp. To illustrate the basic idea and method considered here. One of the main reasons for the two forms is that addition and subtraction are easier with Cartesian form. This represents a parametric function with parameter . Within the theory of conformal mapping. This is the point of view taken here for the Joukowski and Karman–Trefftz transformations. The study of fluid flow past an aerofoil therefore becomes the simpler task of flow past a circle [6]. However. Using the chain rule. so much so that Karman–Trefftz aerofoils are closely related to a catalogue of aerofoils known as NACA aerofoils (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. and in reality is virtually impossible to construct. The derivative of the mapping is calculated to show that there is a cusp at the trailing edge. One naive question that often arises when one first studies complex numbers is why the need for two forms of complex numbers (Cartesian form and polar form) and the importance of obtaining one form from the other. The Karman–Trefftz transformation is an excellent example of this – to obtain the mapping both forms are required.

. Im(z)). y ¼ 0 which implies from (x À a)2 þ (y À b)2 ¼ R2 that qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ðÀ1 À aÞ2 þð0 À bÞ2 ¼ R2 ) R ¼ ða þ 1Þ2 þ b2 . First. v ¼ r À sin : r r ð2:4Þ To obtain the shape of an aerofoil. and the derivative of the mapping is calculated using a symbolic software package to show the existence of distinct tangents at the trailing edge. y) ¼ (Re(z). and here we simply look at it from a purely geometric and calculus point of view. Joukowski transformation The Joukowski transformation is a complex function that maps a circle into a shape resembling the cross-section of an aerofoil. v) ¼ (Re(w). v¼ y 1À 2 : x þ y2 x þ y2 ð2:2Þ It will be more convenient to use polar coordinates x ¼ r()cos. For any complex number z ¼ x þ iy the Joukowski transformation. some conventions: the complex plane which contains the set of complex numbers z ¼ x þ iy to be mapped is called the z-plane with axes labelled (x. Then from Equation (2. Im(w)). where qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ð2:3Þ rðÞ ¼ a cos  þ b sin  þ ða cos  þ b sin Þ2 þR2 À a2 À b2 .International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 45 program is again utilized. The point z ¼ À1 implies x ¼ À1. and the complex plane which contains the set of mapped complex numbers w ¼ u þ iv is called the w-plane with axes labelled (u. Equation (2. We will consider mappings of a circle (x À a)2 þ (y À b)2 ¼ R2 with centre (a. The conformal nature of the transformation has been studied in detail [6]. That is. The mapping is written as w ¼ u þ iv ¼ f (z). b) and radius R. x þ y2 x þ y2 so that equating the real and imaginary parts we have     1 1 u¼x 1þ 2 . y ¼ r()sin to describe the circle. we demand that the circle being mapped passes through the point z ¼ À1.2) we have     1 1 u¼ rþ cos . and the mapping is 1 w¼zþ . we think of the mapping as defining a parametric curve in two-dimensional space. z ð2:1Þ Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 which is known as the Joukowski transformation.1). may be written in Cartesian form as     1 1 w ¼ u þ iv ¼ x 1 þ 2 þ iy 1 À 2 . which implies that the mapping w will pass through the point w ¼ z þ 1/z ¼ À2. provided R24a2 þ b2. 2.

where the upper and lower portions of the aerofoil meet at an angle of zero (i. we see that the upper and lower portions of the aerofoil seem to be tangent to each other. For a ¼ 0 and and fixed b the mapping produces a curved line spanning À2 u 2 above the u-axis for b40 and symmetrically below for b50. a cusp). Take note of how the regions 0   and   2 of the circle (shown in black and grey. .5 in increments of 1 for a total of 359 data points (the reason for the half degrees will become clear when we look at the point 180 ). These mappings are shown in Figure 4 for b ¼ 0. Æ 0. Then Equation (2.5 and going to 359. Matthews which implies that 2a þ 140 from the condition R24a2 þ b2. respectively.25 and a ¼ 0. These mappings are useful for profiles of fins.2 For a 6¼ 0 and b40 the mapping generates an aerofoil shape. The mapping starts out very large and reduces in size as a gets closer to zero. Later we will show how to obtain the mean camber line for a particular aerofoil. and the leading edge always passes through the u-axis beyond u ¼ 2.46 M. For a ¼ 0 ¼ b the circle has its centre at the origin with radius 1 and passes through the points z ¼ Æ1. Æ 0. These mappings are shown in Figures 1 and 2 for a ¼ 0. starting from 0. One way to visualize this is to consider the case a ¼ 0 for a fixed b – this makes the upper and lower portions of the aerofoil collapse onto a single line. which are thinner than those for À1/25a50 for the same value of jaj.2. Æ 0.T. which is obvious from Equation (2. Note that for a40 the regions 0   and   2 of the circle are mapped to the upper and lower portion of the profile. This of course is well known from a conformal mapping point of view [6]. which are known as Joukowski aerofoils.3) becomes qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi r ðÞ ¼ a cos  þ b sin  þ ða cos  þ b sin Þ2 þ2a þ 1: ð2:5Þ It is a relatively simple matter to perform the mapping in a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel. we obtain larger profiles.4. If we concentrate on the point w ¼ À2. but the case a ¼ 0 and b fixed is not tangent to these Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 . in all figures) are mapped to their respective portions. respectively. rudders and struts [6].2. a column of r() is created. Æ 0. which corresponds to the trailing edge of the aerofoil. Using calculus. By specifying values a and b and a column of degrees. the original circle and the mapped image may be visualized.4) for r ¼ 1 where u ¼ 2 cos and v ¼ 0. This single line may be used as the mean camber line (the line drawn midway between the upper and lower surfaces of the aerofoil). while for À1/25a50 they are mapped to the lower and upper portion of the profile.e. These mappings are shown in Figure 3 for b ¼ 0. which is often said to approximate the mean camber line [6] and is tangent to the upper and lower portions for a 6¼ 0. By plotting y versus x and v versus u. we can show that the upper and lower portions of the aerofoil do indeed meet at an angle of zero. As a increases. then columns of x ¼ rcos and y ¼ r sin. that is a4À 1/2. and u ¼ r(1 þ 1/r)cos and v ¼ r(1 À 1/r)sin may be calculated. The mapping is simply the u-axis between À2 and 2. For1 À1/25a50 and b ¼ 0 we get a symmetric profile with a rounded edge (at the leading edge) and a cusp (at the trailing edge). For a40 and b ¼ 0 we again get a symmetric profile with a rounded leading edge and a cusp at the trailing edge.

5 y 1 0.5 –0. .5 u (II) Figure 1.International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 47 2.5 –2 –1.5 –1 –0. The mapped circles (I) and Joukowski transformations (II) for b ¼ 0 and a ¼ À0.5 2 1.5 –1 –1.4.5 v 1 0. 0.5 0 0.5 2 2.5 (I) 2.5 –1 –0.5 0 –2.5 x Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –1 –1.5 0 0.5 –0.5 –2 –2.5 0 –2. À0.5 2 2.5 –2 –2.5 –2 –1.2.5 2 1.5 1 1.5 1 1.

5 y 1 0.5 –1 –0.5 2 2.T.5 0 0.5 –0.5 0 –2.5 –1 –1. 0. Matthews 2.5 –2 –1.5 0 0.5 –2 –2.5 –2 –2.5 2 1.5 0 –2.5 –1 –0.5 2 2.5 –2 –1.5 2 1.5 (I) 2.5 –0. 0.5 1 1. . The mapped circles (I) and Joukowski transformations (II) for b ¼ 0 and a ¼ 0.2.48 M.4.5 u (II) Figure 2.5 x Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –1 –1.5 1 1.5 v 1 0.

5 –0.International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 49 2.5 2 2.5 2 1.25.5 –2 –1.5 1 1.5 –1 –0. 0.5 –1 –0.5 0 0.25.5 –0. 0.5 2 2. The mapped circles (I) and Joukowski transformations (II) for a ¼ 0 and b ¼ À0.5 0 0.5 –2 –2.5 (I) 2.5 0 –2.5 u (II) Figure 3.5 x Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –1 –1.5 0 –2.5 –2 –2.5 y 1 0.5 –2 –1.5 –1 –1.5 v 1 0.5 1 1. .5 2 1.

2.5 0 –2. 0.5 x Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –1 –1. The mapped circles (I) and Joukowski transformations (II) for b ¼ 0.5 2 1.50 M.5 –2 –1.5 v 1 0.2.5 –2 –1.5 0 0.5 –2 –2.25 and a ¼ À0. Matthews 2.5 2 2. 0.5 y 1 0. .5 1 1.5 –1 –0.5 –0.5 –2 –2.T.5 2 2.5 –1 –1.5 –1 –0.5 2 1.5 –0.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 u (II) Figure 4.5 0 –2.5 (I) 2.

4) and r is given by Equation (2. d aþ1 lim dv ¼ 2bða þ 1Þ : ða þ 1Þ2 Àb2 ð2:7Þ Notice that the slope at the point  ¼  is dependent on a. d d r r     dv dr 1 1 ¼ 1 þ 2 sin  þ r À cos : d d r r Therefore we have dv r2 ðr cos  À aÞ À r cos  þ a cosð2Þ þ b sinð2Þ ¼ : du r2 ðb À r sin Þ À r sin  þ a sinð2Þ À b cosð2Þ ð2:6Þ Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 We can also plot Equation (2. so setting a ¼ 0 for a fixed b yields different slopes.5). As  ! . which shows that the derivative is a continuous function of . dr/d ! Àb/(a þ 1). It can be shown that dr rðb cos  À a sin Þ ¼ . and d ðTopÞ ! 4b. as  !  we have r ! 1. To get the mean camber line corresponding to particular . so using l’Hospital’s we have Á à À Á d dr ÂÀ 2 ðTopÞ ¼ 3r À 1 cos  À 2ra þ r sin  1 À r2 d d À 2a sinð2Þ þ 2b cosð2Þ. du d where u and v are given by Equation (2. which implies that the upper and lower portions of the aerofoil meet at an angle of zero at the trailing edge. d therefore ! du d 2ða þ 1Þ2 À2b2 ðBottomÞ ! .6) in the spreadsheet. d r À ða cos  þ b sin Þ and     du dr 1 1 ¼ 1 À 2 cos  À r þ sin . we have r ! 1 and dv/du has the indeterminate form 0 0.International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 51 portions. À Á à À Á d dr  ðBottomÞ ¼ 2rb À 3r2 þ 1 sin  À r cos  1 þ r2 d d þ 2a cosð2Þ þ 2b sinð2Þ: Now. What we require is the derivative dv/du as a function of  – using the chain rule we have dv dv d  ¼ du . which implies that the gradient of the mapping as  ! À and  ! þ are equal.

We have therefore shown that the angle at the trailing edge of the aerofoil is zero by calculating the derivative dv/du as a function of  and showing that it is continuous. 01::25 intersect at 180 . A plot of the Joukowski aerofoils and their corresponding mean camber lines are shown in Figure 6. lim ða.2. b and ða À Á À Á the cases (À0.1) we have wþ2¼ ðz þ 1Þ2 . aˆ ¼ 0 and b A plot of the derivatives are shown in Figure 5 for (a. while 8 2 the cases (Æ0.2. )w¼n ð3:2Þ wÀn zÀ1 ðz þ 1Þn Àðz À 1Þn where n is slightly less than 2. we need to find a value of b have the same slope at  ¼ . b) ¼ (Æ0.1). 00::25 and (0. . 0.2. Karman–Trefftz transformation From Equation (2.25). (The expression for w3 comes from solving (w þ n)/(w À n) ¼ z for w. z wÀ2¼   ðz À 1Þ2 wþ2 zþ1 2 ¼ ) : wÀ2 zÀ1 z ð3:1Þ The Karman–Trefftz transformation is a modification of the Joukowski transformation and is defined as !   wþn zþ1 n ðz þ 1Þn þðz À 1Þn ¼ .25) and (0. The case a ¼ 0 is symmetric (see Figure 3) and ^. ¼ )b 2 2 2 ^ aþ1 ða þ 1Þ Àb 1Àb where we have taken the positive root since b40.7) we have ^ 2bða þ 1Þ 2b ^ ¼ b 4 0. for an aerofoil with a 6¼ 0 and b40. 0. 0. A transformation that accomplishes this is known as the Karman–Trefftz transformation. 0.2. a zero angle at the trailing edge is impossible to construct and in reality there will be a non-zero angle at the trailing edge.25). its mean camber line is that where ^ ¼ b=ða þ 1Þ. in particularly it is continuous at  ¼ . 0. From Equation (2.) We do this to make the transformations easier. and reduces to the Joulowski transformation when n ¼ 2. evaluating the real and imaginary parts of the transformation is a little tricky – looking at Equation (3. bÞ ¼ lim : ! du ! du aþ1 Therefore. and polar form rei is easier for powers (like zn). Matthews ^ such that the cases a 6¼ 0 and a ¼ aˆ ¼ 0 values of a and b.52 M.25) intersect at an angle less than 180 . b ^ ¼ b=ða þ 1Þ.T. 0. and shows why we use two forms of complex numbers – Cartesian form a þ ib is easier for addition and subtraction (like z Æ 1). From an engineering point of view. w3 ðzÞ ¼ . w2 ðzÞ ¼ zn .25). 0. if we let w1 ðzÞ ¼ zþ1 nðz þ 1Þ . 0. (0.25) ^Þ where aˆ ¼ 0. Since n is not an integer for the Karman–Trefftz transformation. Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 3. This implies   dv dv b 0. zÀ1 zÀ1 then we have w(z) ¼ w3(w2(w1(z))).

5 dv/du 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 q –0.2 (I) and a ¼ 0. b .5 –1 (I) 1 0.2 ^ ¼ b=ða þ 1Þ.5 –1 (II) Figure 5. for b ¼ 0. Derivatives dv/dv of the Joukowski transformations for a ¼ À0.International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 53 1 0.5 dv/du 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 q Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –0. (II).25 and aˆ ¼ 0.

5 2 2.5 –1 –0.1 (I) and a ¼ À0.5 0 –2. Matthews 2.25 and a ¼ 0.5 u Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –1 –1.5 v 1 0.5 0 0.5 2 1.5 2 1.5 2 2.54 M.5 –2 –2.5 1 1.T.5 v 1 0.1 (II).5 –0. .5 u (II) Figure 6.5 –1 –1.5 (I) 2. The Joukowski transformations and correct mean camber lines for b ¼ 0.5 –1 0 0.5 1 1.5 –2 –1.5 –2 –2.5 –0.5 0 –2.5 –2 –1.5 –1 –0.

2 2 ð x À 1Þ þ y ðx À 1Þ2 þy2 w1 ðzÞ ¼ u1 þ iv1 ¼ while the real and imaginary parts of w2 ¼ u2 þ iv2 are found using De Moivre’s theorem. Therefore. u3 and v3 may be calculated. 1 ¼ tan . These mappings are shown in Figure 7 for n ¼ 0. and as n increases. which is obvious from Equation (3. For2 À1/25a50 and b ¼ 0 we get a symmetric profile.2.International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 55 For a complex number z ¼ x þ iy the Cartesian forms of w1 and w3 are x2 þ y2 À 1 2y Ài .5 and going to 359. It is also possible to view each intermediate mapping v1 versus u1 and v2 versus u2.5 in increments of 1 . For n ¼ 2 the mapping is simply the u3-axis between À2 and 2. a column of r() is created using Equation (2. 1. it is a relatively simple matter to perform the mapping in a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel (using the ATAN2 function in Mircosoft Excel for the polar form of w1).5. and the mappings for n50 are identical (in shape) as those for n40. starting from 0.5. ðx À 1Þ2 þy2 Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 then convert w1 to polar form w1 ¼ r1(cos1 þ isin1) where   qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi À 1 v1 2 2 r1 ¼ u1 þ v1 . and u1. u2. v3 ¼ À 2nv2 : ðu2 À 1Þ2 þv2 2 Like with the Jouowski transformation. like for the Joukowski aerofoil.5). the mapping approached a circle. b and n and a column of degrees. and for 15n52 we see that the mapping crosses itself forming a loop for small n and does not meet for larger n. For 05n51 the mapping forms a figure eight shape. For 05n51 we get a figure eight shape that is not closed for positive u3. . . starting with z ¼ x þ iy we find w1 ¼ u1 þ iv1 where u1 ¼ x2 þ y2 À 1 . For 15n52 the same thing happens but now the arcs are inside the interval À25u352. u1 then find w2 ¼ u2 þ iv2 where u2 ¼ r n 1 cosðn1 Þ. For a ¼ 0 ¼ b the circle has its centre at the origin with radius 1 and passes through the points z ¼ Æ 1. 1. ð x À 1Þ 2 þ y2 ðx À 1Þ2 þy2 À Á n x2 þ y2 À 1 2ny w3 ðzÞ ¼ u3 þ iv3 ¼ Ài . r1. When n ¼ 1 the mapping is identical to the original circle. then columns of x ¼ r cos and y ¼ rsin. By plotting y versus x and v3 versus u3. ðx À 1Þ2 þy2 v1 ¼ À 2y . By setting n ¼ 2 we obtain the original Joukowski aerofoil. For n42 the mapping intersects for small n and is not closed for large n. v2. the original circle and the mapped image may be seen. 1. v1.2) which yields w ¼ z for n ¼ 1. By specifying values of a. ðu2 À 1Þ2 þv2 2 v2 ¼ r n 1 sinðn1 Þ.9 and 2. then find w3 ¼ u3 þ iv3 where À Á 2 n u2 2 þ v2 À 1 u3 ¼ . For n42 the mapping forms two arcs above and below the u3-axis outside the interval À25u352.

1. 1. eventually moving above the u3-axis so the mapping forms a crescent.5 2 2.5 –0. This of course is well known from a conformal mapping point of view [6]. These mappings are shown in Figure 8 for a ¼ À0. If we concentrate on the trailing edge of the aerofoil (which no longer corresponds to the point w ¼ À2 for n 6¼ 2 from Equation (3.5 Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –1 –1. 1. 1. 2. where the upper and lower portions of the aerofoil meet at an angle of (2 À n). and for n42 the crescent returns.9 and 2.56 M. rudders and struts [6].2. These mappings are shown in Figure 8 for a ¼ 0.2).9 and 2. For 15n52 we obtain a mapping with a rounded leading edge and a sharp point at the trailing edge.5.5 1 u3 1. For 15n52 the curve below the u3-axis moves upward.25 and n ¼ 0.5 0 0. Obviously. but to the point w ¼ Àn) we see that the upper and lower portions of the aerofoil seem to be not quite tangent to each other.5 0 –2.9. the relative sizes of the loops changing as n increases further.2.2.5 Figure 7.5. like a figure eight.5. 1. b40 and 3/25n52 the mapping generates an aerofoil shape.5 2 1. For 05n51 the curves are above and below the u3-axis.2.2 and n ¼ 0. These mappings are shown in Figure 9 for a ¼ 0. For aerofoils the only angle of interest .T. 1.5 v3 1 0.5 –2 –2.9 and 2.2. For n near 2. Matthews 2. like the Joukowski aerofoil).5. For 05n51 we get a cardioid-like figure like that in Section 1. we obtain larger profiles. For n42 the mapping crosses itself forming two loops. When n ¼ 2 the curves meet (so we get a single arc. b ¼ 0. Karman–Trefftz transformations for a ¼ 0 ¼ b and n ¼ 0. For a ¼ 0 and and fixed b the mapping produces two curved lines.2.2 and n ¼ 0. 1. 1. which are known as Karman–Trefftz aerofoils.2.5 –1 –0. For a 6¼ 0. As a increases.5. none of these mappings resembles an aerofoil! For a40 and b ¼ 0 we get a symmetric profile. Replacing b with Àb just reflects the mapping in the u3-axis.5 –2 –1. the mappings are useful for profiles of fins.

2.2.5 –2 –2.5 2 2.5 –2 –2. 2.5 – 2 – 1.5 –1 –0.International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 57 2.5 v3 1 0.5 –1 –1. Karman–Trefftz transformations for a ¼ À0.5 2 1.5.5 –0. 1.5 0 – 2.5 v3 1 0.5 2 2.5 1 u3 1.5 –2 –1.5 1 u3 1. .5 – 1 – 0.2 (II) for b ¼ 0 and n ¼ 0.2 (I) and a ¼ 0.5 Figure 8.9.5 (II) 0 0.5 (I) 0 0. 1.5 –0.5 –1 –1.5 0 –2.5 Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 2.5 2 1.

5 –0.25 and n ¼ 1. then a cardioid-like figure and two straight lines.95 and the approximate core of the aerofoil corresponding to a ¼ 0.5 1 u3 1.2.5 2 2. then finally to the aerofoil and the core.25 and n ¼ 0.5 0 –2. which is often said to approximate the core of the aerofoil3 and is tangent to the upper and lower portions for a 6¼ 0.5 0 0.2.25. or 3/25n52. Matthews 2. For n ¼ 2 the intermediate mappings are a circle and a cardioid.5 –2 –2. We see that the original circles are first mapped to a circlelike figure and a straight line.2. b ¼ 0. Again using calculus we can show that the upper and lower portions of the aerofoil do indeed meet at a non-zero angle. Karman–Trefftz transformations for a ¼ 0. b ¼ 0.1.55. For completeness. @v2 @r1 @v1 @1 @v1 @x d @y d .5 v3 1 0.5 Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –1 –1.75 and 1.5 –2 –1. 1. 1.58 M.5 Figure 9. 2. One way to visualize this non-zero angle is to consider the case a ¼ 0 for a fixed b – this makes the upper and lower portions of the form a crescent.95. What we require is the derivative dv3/du3 ¼ (dv3/d)/ (du3/d) as a function of  – using the chain rule this would involve calculating    ! dX @X @u2 @r1 @u2 @1 @X @v2 @r1 @v2 @1 ¼ þ þ þ d @u2 @r1 @u1 @1 @u1 @v2 @r1 @u1 @1 @u1     @u1 dx @u1 dy @X @u2 @r1 @u2 @1 þ Â þ þ @u2 @r1 @v1 @1 @v1 @x d @y d  !  @X @v2 @r1 @v2 @1 @v1 dx @v1 dy þ þ þ .9. b ¼ 0.5 –1 –0. 1. but the case a ¼ 0 and b fixed is not tangent to these portions. These mappings are shown in Figure 10 for a ¼ 0. intermediate mappings and aerofoil for a ¼ 0.T. n ¼ 1. is when 05(2 À n)5/2.5 2 1.5. Figure 11 shows original circle.

and would have to be differentiated with respect to  since the limit  !  would again be an indeterminate form of type 0 0.95 there is a jump discontinuity at  ¼ . u3 and v3.25 and n ¼ 1.95.5 –2 –1. so setting a ¼ 0 for a fixed b yields the same ‘gap’ but different slopes (compare Figure 12 (II) and Figure 13 (II)).25 and n ¼ 1. Karman–Trefftz transformations for a ¼ 0. 1. b and n. The numerator and denominator of dv3/du3 would each have 16 terms. Setting the values of a. u2. Therefore the angle of the positive x-axis (or u3-axis in this case) satisfies tan  ¼ run À1 derivative is tan (dv3/du3).5 Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –1 –1.95. r1. we employ the use of a symbolic software package.5 –0.5 Figure 10.5 1 u3 1. This is a formidable task – especially since n is not an integer! Instead. such as MAPLE.5 2 1. since the derivative in its most basic form is rise run and the angle  the tangent makes with the rise . v2.International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 59 2.95 and 2. and for n ¼ 1. The MAPLE plots are shown in Figure 12 for a ¼ 0.5 v3 1 0. The case n ¼ 2 corresponds to what was found previously in the spreadsheet. b ¼ 0.55. b ¼ 0.5 0 0.v3. MAPLE will calculate the derivative dv3/du3 as a function of  (the formula is exceedingly long). u1.5 2 2.75.5 –2 –2.2.5 –1 –0. and we find that        dv3  À1 dv3   tanÀ1 À tan % ð2 À nÞ: du3 !À du3 !þ . we then define r() first.5 0 –2. Therefore the limits  ! À and  ! þ are no longer equal.1. 1. b ¼ 0. v1. We may roughly calculate the angle each limit makes from the derivative. y. where X ¼ u3. then defining x. 1.25 and n ¼ 1. and in Figure 13 for a ¼ 0. and using MAPLE’s standard4 plot command a plot of dv3/du3 versus  is produced. Notice that the slopes at the point  ¼  are dependent on a.

5 –2 –1. intermediate mappings and Karman–Trefftz transformation for n ¼ 1.5 1 x 1. Matthews 2.5 2 1.5 (I) 8 6 v1 4 2 0 –2 –2 0 2 4 6 u1 8 10 12 –4 –6 (II) Figure 11.95.5 Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –1 –1.5 y 1 0.5 –2 –2.5 2 2. . 0.5 –0.25 and a ¼ 0.T. The mapped circle.60 M. b ¼ 0.1.5 0 –2.5 0 0.5 –1 –0.

5 1 1.5 (IV) 0 0.5 –1 –0.5 2 1.5 0 –2.5 –2 –2.5 v3 1 0.5 u3 2 2.5 –0.5 –2 –1. Continued.5 Figure 11.International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 61 125 105 85 v2 65 45 25 5 –50 –30 Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 –10 –15 –35 –55 –75 10 30 50 70 u2 90 110 130 150 (III) 2.5 –1 –1. .

 2 (I) and To find the core of the aerofoil with the same slopes at the trailing edge is a matter of trial and error – it appears that it is approximately the same as for the ^ ¼ b=ða þ 1Þ.25 and n ¼ 1. but Joukowski aerofoil. Matthews Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 Figure 12. its mean camber line is that where aˆ ¼ 0 and b surely it would depend on n also. Derivatives dv3/du3 of the Karman–Trefftz transformation for 0 near  ¼  (II) for a ¼ 0.T.95 (grey) and n ¼ 2 (black).62 M.1. b ¼ 0. .

95. b ¼ 0.  2 (I) and .International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 63 Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 Figure 13. Derivatives dv3/du3 of the Karman–Trefftz transformation for 0 near  ¼  (II) for a ¼ 0.25 and n ¼ 1.

The authors also acknowledge the helpful suggestions of the referees whose comments materially improved the presentation. McGraw-Hill. Stewart. and E. the mappings now must be conformal – it may be shown that the mappings for a40 are in fact conformal [3. Batchelor. Tokyo. Notes 1. [2] G. 4. [3] R. 2.6]. Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 5. Lightfoot. Of course.. Brown. Conclusion In this article two applications of conformal mapping to aerofoil theory. Cambridge University Press. 1960. The midpoint of the core would then be the mean camber line. Cambridge.N. Again. Acknowledgements The author wishes to thank colleague A/Prof. namely the Joulowski and Karman–Trefftz transformations.64 M. References [1] R. Complex Variables and Applications. 4th ed. 1984. Churchill and J.T. A spreadsheet program (an often underrated but extremely powerful tool for mathematics education) and knowledge of parametric equations. 2000. and numerical results for the Karman–Trefftz aerofoil. and undergraduate project student Shanaleigh Okely. are studied from a geometric and calculus point of view. Some interesting mappings are generated.B. 3. By standard we mean that no extra commands. the mapping is actually not conformal for this case [3]. and is suitable for undergraduate teaching in terms of a project or extended piece of work.V. Modelling the flow past the aerofoils With the spreadsheets created it is possible to study the flow past an aerofoil (or many of the other shapes generated) using the known results for the streamfunction and velocity potential for the flow past a circle [2. 4. complex numbers and calculus is all that is required for the most part. The mapping is actually not conformal for this case [3]. W. arguments or ‘tricks’ are used to ‘tell’ MAPLE there is a jump discontinuity. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics.E.K. New York. some interesting analytical results are obtained for the Joulowski aerofoil.W. Transport Phenomena. . John Wiley & Sons. and by calculating the derivative of the mapped aerofoil.6] and the (complex) derivative of the mappings dw/dz. Ute Mueller for providing the original article by Kidwell Bolger delivered at the Queensland Association of Mathematics Teachers (QAMT) Conference in 1994 which inspired this work. Bird. Matthews We have therefore shown that the angle at the trailing edge of the aerofoil is non-zero by calculating the derivative dv3/du3 as a function of  and showing that it has a jump discontinuity at  ¼ .

1933. Kl.International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 65 [4] N. [9] E.. Toronto. Joukowski. The characteristics of 78 related airfoil sections from tests in the variable density wind tunnel.-Wiss. Phys. Pinkerton. Flugtech. On the profiles of aerofoils. 1973. Motorluftschiffahrt 3 (1912). Calculus.. Math. Z.N. [10] J. K. Flugtech. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 111. NACA Report #460.E. Ward. Milne-Thomson. 2007.M. Motorluftschiffahrt 1 (1910). 41 (1911). On the profiles of aerofoils.. Motorluftschiffahrt 9 (1918). Trefftz. p. Z. 81. Dover. 281. von Karman and E. Downloaded by [University of Sydney] at 17:38 15 May 2013 . Joukowski. 4th ed. Sitz. Ak. Jacobs. Ber. Flugtech. [7] T. p. New York. and R. [8] W. 6th ed. p. Kutta. Potential flow round aerofoil profiles. p. [6] L. Stewart. 65. On plane circulation flows and their applications to aeronautics. [5] N. Theoretical Aerodynamics.M. Z.