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beam analysis

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Deflection of Beams

The

deflection of a beam must often be limited in order to provide integrity and stability of a structure or machine, or To prevent any attached brittle materials from cracking

Deflections

at specific points on a beam must be determined in order to analyze a statically indeterminate system.

The

curve that is formed by the plotting the position of the centroid of the beam along the longitudal axis is known as the elastic curve.

At

different types of supports, information that is used in developing the elastic curve are provided

l Supports

which resist a force, such as a pin, restrict displacement l Supports which resist a moment, such as a fixed end support, resist displacement and rotation or slope

5 Beam Deflection by Integration

We

can derive an expression for the curvature of the elastic curve at any point where is the radius of curvature of the elastic curve at the point in question

1 M = EI

8 Beam Deflection by Integration

If

you make the assumption to deflections are very small and that the slope of the elastic curve at any point is very small, the curvature can be approximated at any point by 2 v is the deflection of

d v M = 2 dx EI

We

d 2v EI 2 = M dx

10 Beam Deflection by Integration

Differentiate

d d 2 v dM EI 2 = = V (x) dx dx dx

11

And

d 2 d 2 v dV EI 2 = = w( x ) 2 dx dx dx

12 Beam Deflection by Integration

So

d 4v EI 4 = w( x ) dx d 3v EI 3 = V ( x ) dx d 2v EI 2 = M ( x ) dx

13

Boundary Conditions

14

Boundary Conditions

15

Boundary Conditions

16

Boundary Conditions

17

Boundary Conditions

18

Boundary Conditions

19

20

Cantilever Example

Given

a cantilevered beam with a fixed end support at the right end and a load P applied at the left end of the beam. The beam has a length of L.

21

Cantilever Example

If

we define x as the distance to the right from the applied load P, then the moment function at any distance x is given as

M ( x ) = Px

22 Beam Deflection by Integration

Cantilever Example

Since

we have a function for M along the beam we can use the expression relating the moment and the deflection

M ( x ) = Px

23

d 2v EI 2 = M ( x ) dx d 2v EI 2 = Px dx

Cantilever Example

Isolating

d 2v EI 2 = Px dx Px dv EI = + C1 dx 2

2

24 Beam Deflection by Integration

Cantilever Example

Integrating

again

2

Px dv EI = + C1 dx 2 Px 3 EIv = + C1 x + C2 6

25 Beam Deflection by Integration

Cantilever Example

To

Px dv EI = + C1 dx 2

2

Px 3 EIv = + C1 x + C2 6

26 Beam Deflection by Integration

Cantilever Example

The

right end of the beam is supported by a fixed end support therefore the slope of the deflection curve is 0 and the deflection is 0

Px dv EI = + C1 dx 2

2

Px 3 EIv = + C1 x + C2 6

27 Beam Deflection by Integration

Cantilever Example

In

2

Px dv EI = + C1 dx 2 Px 3 EIv = + C1 x + C2 6

28 Beam Deflection by Integration

dv =0 dx x = L :v = 0 x= L:

Cantilever Example

Evaluating

conditions

Px dv EI = + C1 dx 2

2

29 Beam Deflection by Integration

dv =0 dx x = L :v = 0 x= L:

Cantilever Example

So

the expression for the slope () and the deflection (v) are given by 1 Px 2 PL2 dv = + x = L : =0 EI 2 2 dx P x = L :v = 0 = ( L2 x 2 )

2 EI 1 Px 3 PL2 PL3 v= + x EI 2 3 6 v= P x 3 + 3xL2 2 L3 6 EI

30

31

Example 1

32

Example 1

33

Homework

Show

a plot of the shear, bending moment, slope, and deflection curves identifying the maximum, minimum, and zero points for each curve. Use separate plots for each function. Show the mathematical expression(s) for each function. Problem P10.4 Problem P10.8 Problem P10.11

34 Beam Deflection by Integration

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