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SEMINAR ON CLINICAL TEACHING METHODS

SUBMITTED TO, MRS,SATHYA M.SC(N), LECTURER

SUBMITTED BY, M.SHOBA M.SC(N) I YEAR

CLINICAL TEACHING METHODS

Introduction: The clinical teaching methods is a type of group conference in which a patient or patient or patients are observed and studied ,discussed ,demonstrated and directed towards the improvement and further improvement of nursing care . Clinical teaching may be given by any faculty member that is clinical instructor or tutor or ward staff and will concentrate on a particular patient’s needs as a person and how the doctor’s treatment orders can be met by the by the right understanding and nursing care . Definition: The ideal way to teach clinical nursing is center the teaching around specific patients . Purposes: • To provide individualized care in a systematic ,holistic approach. • To develop high technical competent skills . • To practice various procedures . • To collect and analyze the data . • To conduct research . • To maintain high standard of nursing practice . • To become independent enough to practice nursing . • To develop cognitive ,conative ,affective and psychomotor skills . • The students will develop the techniques e.g.:observation. • To meet the needs of a client . • To improve the standards of nursing practice . • To develop various methods in delivering care. • To identify the problems of clients . • To learn various diagnostic procedures . • To learn various skill in giving health education techniques to the client and significant others.

• To help in integration of theoretical knowledge into practice . • To develop communication skills and maintain interpersonal relationship • To maintain inter- institutional relationship • To develop proficiency and efficiency in carrying out various nursing procedures . • To learn managerial skills . • To become professionally active member . • To encounter reality in the practice of nursing ,synthesis learning ,practice activities described in the course objectives.
METHODS OF CLINICAL TEACHING:

1. Client and family centered approach 2. Conference *Group conference *Staff conference *Nursing care conference *Individual conference *Team conference 3.Bedside clinic 4.Nursing rounds 5.Assignments 6.Field visit 7.Process recording . 8.Ward teaching 9.Ward class 10.Ward clinics 11.Case method

12.Brain storming method 13.Group discussion 14.Demonstration method 15. Laboratory method 16.Health talks 1. Client and family centered approach: Individualized care will be provided in holistic manner .Here not only the client will be assisted for therapeutic measures ,the family members also will be involved in education about illness and health concept ,signs and symptoms ,treatment ,prevention of the problem ,thereby the client and whole family will be aware and involved in meeting the clients need .It is nothing but bringing awareness and to reach the goal i.e. health for all .

2.Conference *Group conference :

A conference is the act of consulting together of two or more individuals in an formal meeting for the purpose of giving or exchanging ideas .It involves a two-way flow of conversation .

Purposes : • • • • To To To To set objectives and criteria for nursing care . plan methods for improving care solve problems which interfere with good nursing care evaluate results of report

Each member should encourage to express their thoughts . A nursing care conference is designed around a consultation visit of a clinical nurse specialists . The leader of the conference .But more frequently they are .: faculty meeting .Nursing care conference: It is a method of teaching which provides an opportunity for an informal discussion of a problem and free exchange of knowledge and experience about the common interest and it consists of a group discussion using problem solving techniques or nursing process. The leader should accept each person’s suggestions as worthy of consideration make a note it on a blackboard or small pad .The leader then summarizes the suggestions . Nursing superintendent will conduct conference to all nurses ..opens it by briefly stating purpose even though the staff should already know the problem or subjects to be discussed She starts the discussion by asking a careful thought out question or prelude to the conference or making a statement designed to bring out needs suggestions or problems of various staff members .in hospitals .*Staff conference: These type of conferences will be held in teaching institutions e. 3.A group discussion is usually in order. E.The leader ends the conference by stating the next steps and delegating any responsibility that might be entitled .g.g.

etc.. The student should be given ample opportunity to work in the ward for quite a good amount of time before she is assigned to present in the conference . Before presenting .helping staff to examine a patient’s problem from his point of view. the focus is on assessing the nursing problem arriving at possible solutions .What are the laboratory finding? What about his family backgrounds .designed for the staff of a specific nursing unit and are planned around some aspect of nursing care or focus on a scientific nursing problem presented by a patient in that unit .socioeconomic conditions . age . . The organizers should prepare well in advance regarding particular conference . A nursing care conference is a course of action discussion . or ethical background and to picture the related nursing care with a specific individual . Planning and preparation: 1.She will have worked with that patient and collected information about sings and symptoms since how long the patient is sick. • To learn ways to help clients identify their needs and solve their own problems . 4.It can provide a good learning experience for all the staff who share a common nursing problem in providing care to a specific patient . The conference should be planned in relation to the objective of the conference and it should be spontaneous in nature . 3. 2. Purposes: • To portray the nursing problems typically associated with a particular disease with such factors as social .the student will have collected all data regarding the patient . • To suggest approaches to the patient and planning ways to help himself .

The nursing care conference is need as a consultation too help in problem solving .In some conferences there is a difference of opinion among nurses often the data are inconsistent or incomplete . Task here is to make a commitment to work on a problem relating to a particular patient . 2.Technique: 1. Teacher has to draw out the potentials of the students to the maximum in discussion .It has got three phases.What happens during these few minutes often sets the tone for the entire session . 4. working phase 3.In is helpful the group focus their . Phases: The nursing care conference is used as a consultation tool to help in problem solving . The conference should involve all the students in discussion The teacher involves all the students by putting questions giving guidance and re-channeling if necessary . Closing phase 1. 1.She will provide ample time for the student to think .Working phase: The task of the working phase is to arrive at a consensus on problem identification and solution .Once the patient is selected we have found that a great deal of time during this phase is spent in delineating the problem clearly . 2.Opening phase : It can be defined as the first two minutes of the conference. 3. Opening phase 2. The teacher must be flexible and she will help the students during discussion .

Advantages: 1. 3.The problems are identified and the group can often reach its own solutions . Disadvantages: .The nurses can validate their anxiety by expressing their feelings . 2.The task here is to delegate responsibility to one or more of the staff to act on the problems . 5. 4. Ie the student will be able to validate the data pertaining to the situation and appropriateness. It provides free opportunity to think.Conferencing time can be used to identify just what information is needed .discussion by asking direct questions . It helps the students to collect the information in creative way. Offering concrete solutions to problem behavior allows the staff to feel they are getting something from the group and the consultant who offers alternatives and support to a frustrated staff establishes credibility and does them a great service and she should be careful to ask the groups opinion on the validity of her suggestions.the next phase is closure . 3. thereby the creativity and judgement capacity will be increased. It fortifies the thinking of students.rephrasing what the group has said and summarizing .Closing phase : Once the group has worked through problem solving and has decided on solutions . Each member will be actively participating in the conference. It provides real practical learning environment to the students.

2. It provides students ample opportunity to think. 4. To help the student to help himself/herself. d) Individual conference: It sometimes described as a “conversation with a purpose”. Techniques: 1. It will be of little use if the students do not accustom to such situation. Principles of Individual Conference: .1. To acquire more knowledge. The teacher may introduce the student to new fields of knowledge. Teacher should not show any prejudice. impact information to her regarding this field and strive to motivate her in the acquisition. emotional reactions or bias. or more simply. 2. 2. Allow him to talk freely. Teacher should establish good rapport with the students. as an interview. To guide in teaching. 3. To discover the interests. 3. Conference is an important method of clinical teaching. Purposes: 1. needs and the problems of the individual student. There are chances of using these conference hours for class room teaching. It uses problem solving techniques in discussion and the students will have to identify the problems and solutions.

6. It helps in supplement instructions. 2. Use of Individual Conference in Nursing Courses: 1. c) The nursing care plan. It can be used to clarify clause material. 3. Establishment of a definite purpose and specific issues to be covered. . Clinical teaching.1. 4. Good listening. d) Preparation and orientation to new clinical areas. Provide sufficient time. a) The nursing care study. Knowledge of the student. Practical Uses: 1. 4. 7. 8. e) Evaluation. Positive effect. Recording of data. Supplemental teaching. Establish good rapport. Provide privacy. 3. 2. b) Diagnostic and remedial purposes. Diagnostic and remedial teaching in individual conference. 5. 2. Discipline.

The individual conference can be a means of bringing unity to the entire nursing course. Meaning of Conference: A conference is the act of consulting together the conference is the nucleolus of the in-service nursing program me. The ability to observe. Meaning of team nursing: Team nursing as stated by Miss. Concomitant values gained by this type of experience are related to the ability to share knowledge of patient’s needs and to work co-operatively with other members of the nursing team and total health team. Such experiences inevitably lead to the improved performance of nursing care activities in the clinical nursing setting. 4. It can also help to explain answers to questions of individuals.3. . giving them interest and challenge and that will keep the unit functioning smoothly and effectively. Dorothy Finkbiner “The assignment method should be used which will make possible the best nursing care to the staff members. report and analyze significant findings is put to its greatest test as students are confronted with this daily responsibility. E)Nursing Team Conference: Nursing team conference as a teaching tool offers valuable opportunities for learning. It can be used as u means of assisting the individual who is having difficulties in keeping up with the classroom situation. by aiding the student in integrating her previous knowledge and experience in relation to the present learning experience.

 Makes generalization from specific information that is factual . Advantages of the Nursing Team Conference:  It is used to plan for the daily continuity of nursing care that best meets the patient’s need. offers valuable opportunities for learning. nursing team conference.  As a teaching tool.  Helps to report .  Teaches what is required to help team members fulfill their roles .  Help to communicate the ideas.  It gives an ability to observe. .  Recognizes ability and limitation of various team members.channelize and carryout hospital or health care problems . information on related nursing care.Observation made during nursing team conference offer unique opportunity for guidance of nursing service personnel.interpret .  Brings also maximum creative potential of the team . report and analyze significant findings input to its greatest test as students are confronted with their daily responsibility.  Help to plan nursing care cooperatively with other team members . Objectives of the Nursing Team Conference: Identifies the patient nursing problem.  Utilizes scientific information to influence the cause of nursing care.

During this period .CONFERENCE PROCEDURE: A time is planned each day for the members of the nursing team to meet as a group .a plan is projected for the solution of the problems .The purpose is to give and receive pertinent .reads the patient’s name and objective of nursing care .The kardex is revised and the objective is altered by the leader .patient’s problem are identified and explored and an approach is developed by team .accurate information concerning the care of the patients and to create an environment that encourages collective and cooperative participation .using the kardex as a guide .The nursing team conference is the planning stage for the team and assignment of nursing personnel for the following day is developed during and immediately after the conference THE MAJOR TYPES OF CONFERENCE: 1. The head nurse functions as a resource person and assist the team leader and the team members in identifying nursing problems and developing nursing care plans .The nursing care plans are revised or further developed according to changing needs of patients.The members who have the contract with that particular patient discuss his response to his care and any additional information from the patient or his family problems are identified by the group .questions and comments of the patient and individual notes are used as guides in conference . .Team leader direction conference: Are held at the beginning of a work shift and an hour prior to the ending of the shift . The team leader . Each member of the nursing team has recorded during the course of the day and the response of the patient to her care .

2.Bedside clinic: As we all know a planned teaching should not be restricted to the classroom only .infection control .Intershift and Interdepartmental conferences: Are necessary to pass on information from one individual or group to another .Patient centered approach : Are planned meetings to identify problems and evaluate nursing care These conferences provide a means for all the team who are directly contributing care to a group of patient’s have benefit from the experience of others .Nursing service management conferences: It should be part of the planned scheduled meetings for each unit or section .procedures .The topics presented are discussed may include standards of patient care and policies .safety measures .It is to carryout in the clinical area .The clinical nurse coordinator and the supervisor are important members of the patient centered conferences .The supervisor assisted by the clinical coordinator is the leader here .unit staffing measures and clarification of new personnel policies .It is one of the best methods of teaching . Purposes: . 4. 3. 3. The purpose of the bedside clinic is to portray the nursing problems and to give viva picture of the related nursing care by associating it with a specific individual .nursing audit evaluation .The members as a group aim to formulate nursing intervention for one or two patients analyze the nursing care given .

 Secure the patient’s consent as his co-operation is essential during the clinic. place. To provide a learning experience for the nursing student to collect information about the patient with tact and skill.  Select a patient for whom students have given the care. To be able to recognize opportunities for health teaching in the hospital . 6. To understand certain types of apparatus being used on patients .1. 8. 7. It helps the students to do observation in an organized systematic way . 2. 5. To be able to workout a nursing care plans to fit the needs of individual patient on the basis of his special problems. To realize the need for understanding each patient as an individual in order to appreciate his problems and outlook . 3. . Steps involved in conducting the bedside clinic : *Planning technique :  Determine the clinic to whom it is to be conducted. To improve the students ability to solve nursing problems by detailed study and analyzes of nursing situation . 4.  Conducting bedside clinic: After preplan the next step is conducting actual clinic. date and time of clinic to be held and on what topic the students have to come prepared. To improve the quality of nursing care .

ability to solve his own problems and .Post clinic evaluation : It offers an excellent opportunities for students to evaluate the patient behavior . The discussion relative to the nursing clinic consists of three phrases.Ample opportunities should be allowed for the patient to verbalize the needs and how he perceives his particular problem . • The number of student should not exceed 10-15 in number. 1.Introduction phase: If serves to acquaint the student with the patient background. etc. significant observation to be made.soon after second phase of clinic patients should be sent to the ward by thanking him for his cooperation . If such conveniences are not there.The clinic should be conducted in the ward or in a class room. 2. 3. • The clinic usually lasts for 30 minutes. • Patient is kept at ease. which is adjacent to the ward. type of question to be asked.Patient centered discussion: During this phase a few simple questions are asked to obtain the needed information from patient. presenting nursing care situation. the purpose of the clinic. No question which hurts the feelings of the patient should be asked . • Physical and mental is provided to patients. the clinic should be held apart from other patients providing him sufficient privacy in a corner of the ward.

2. 4. 3. Sometimes puts the patient in a difficult situation . Advantages: 1.Nursing rounds revealed that students responded to this method of teaching with enthusiasm . High personnel costs . Permits comparison between reality and theory . Develops qualities of observation and decision making .Their interest in learning increased and they showed ability to share ideas and knowledge with others for the benefit of patients .various other aspects . Disadvantages : 1. 7. Ensures closer contact with reality . 2. 8. 4. Covers a limited group of students . Poor standardization .The student can be evaluated in-terms of their ability to meet the stated purposes of clinic through their observations ability to use problem solving technique . Enables students to develop a self confidence . 5. Increases variability . It puts the students in an active actual situation . 3.NURSING ROUNDS: It is an excursion into patient’s area involving the students learning experiences . . 6. 4. Narrow limits of utilization . Permits evaluation of degree to which educational objectives have been attained .

5.e. Clarify terminology studied . b)Instructional rounds : Here the nurse is expected to read the charts and come to rounds with basic information in mind . To demonstrate symptoms important in nursing care . To demonstrate effects of drugs i. 2. indication .Nursing rounds are given separate names according to the purpose they serve . 6. Purposes of nursing rounds : 1. 7. To illustrate successful improvisation and to give opportunity for the use of different applications . 3. Factors to be kept in mind when planning nursing rounds : . 4. c)Problem solving rounds: This is to help the nursing staff learn to conduct initial interviews make assessment of patient’s needs and identify nursing care problems .actions and reactions of drugs . To illustrate skillful nursing care . To compare patient’s reaction to disease and study the disease conditions. a)Information giving rounds : It is used to acquaint the staff with all patients on the ward or division . To compare method of meeting nursing needs and to have better understanding and to give more purposeful care to patients.

5. Advantages of nursing rounds : 1. 8. Effects of drugs • Allergic reactions • Side effect 4. Have post conference for summary and further explanation . 4. To clarify terminology • Herpes simplex • Anemic pallor 3. To consult student’s previous clinical experience to avoid repetition and to add to earlier experience . 7.1. 2. Demonstration of symptoms 2. Successful improvisation . Introduce the patient to the group . Make the patient feel important . If some demonstration is done . Keep in mind the probable value and availability of clinical material . 6. Explain the plan to the patient .it should not have a deleterious effect on the patient . Record the nursing rounds in the ward teaching records with a summary of nursing points stressed . Skillful nursing care • Progressing improvement of bedsore • Maintenance of adequate fluid intake (oral) 5. 3.

their nursing care and its effectiveness .that in whether she is to know thoroughly the history care and progress of her own patients or briefly that of all patients in the ward .know the plan for their treatment and its results the patient’s progress and prognosis .Rounds not lost longer than an hour . Posture and position as indicated for individual patients • Neutral position • Position for surgical soak • Fowlers position • Position for CCF.a small group of staff or students preferably not more than 4 or 5 and a leader or a teacher visit the bedside of patient. The central figure in nursing round is the patient . Method of Conducting Nursing Rounds: A brief conference at the side of the patient’s room/word has to . Preparation by the head nurse: The head nurse selects the patients before hand according to the time available .If the purpose of the sound is instructional or problem solving the patient will be included in the discussion.• Use of a chair as backrest • Device for support of ice bag 6. In nursing rounds .She should post the time for rounds at least a week in advance and indicate the type of preparation the nurse is to make .The head nurse needs to read the patient’s histories .

pitting. respiration. . examining the conjunctive. To provide the patient with the best possible nursing care. The students are asked to present the cases regarding other particulars.beheld. 4-5 minutes are apent. Post Conference: The presentation is summarized and further explanation if any. To plan assignments which are interesting to nurses and stimulating to their professional growth. The purpose of the visit to the patient is by the head nurse. The participants may also be involved such as counting pulse. 5. 4 to 5 patients are selected for instruction. Thank the patient before leaving and tidy up the bed. The patient’s case sheet can also be utilized with presentation. special observation to be made or pointed out at this time. edema etc.  Definition: It is the past of learning experience where the students are assigned with patients or other activities concerning to patients in clinical laboratory.NURSING ASSIGNMENT: Assignment in the clinical field is the nursing education cum service. The head nurse herself may present the uses or she may ask the students who are assigned to these patients to answer the questions of the group or her questions. 2. Necessary data are given. questions are invited from the students.  Objectives: 1. may be given.

Most hospitals which use the patient method modify it to some period of the day such as evenings and nights when a few nurses are on duly. The patient method 2. Patient method: In this method of assignment a nurse is expected to give complete nursing care to one or more patients including general nursing measures.3. Achieving good ward management. respiration. medications. serving nourishments and giving health instructions. taking temperature. 2. treatment. To provide a well rounded educational experience for student nurses. taking the temperature of all or giving general nursing care to a group of individuals. If she goes on “off duty” her group of patients in taken over by another nurse for the period of her absence in order that the patient may still receive individualized care. The functional method 3. The team method 1.The Functional method: In the nurses are assigned to specific functions in the ward such as giving medications or treatment to all patients. pulse. 4.  Methods of Assignment: 1. 4. Team method of assignment: .

work of student and aid and relationship with the patient and at the same time he can teach them. ii.In planning the patient care a well qualified team members are involved in which amount and type of responsibility. 1 . 3. v. . Nursing leader supervises and guides the team in giving quality nursing care. The principles relative to making assignments within the team will include…. When assisting a team member. 2. the leader has an opportunity to observe the condition of the patient. Students are to be informed of the objectives of their assignment to a particular ward/unit of the area/hospital for clinical experience. Students are to given facilities to practice nursing according to principles taught. Criteria for effective Assignment: i. iii. All the physical needs and treatment are given by the same nurse but the specific treatment is given by professional nurse. Students are to be given the learning experiences which are outlined in the objectives for particular clinical experiences. vi. iv.Nursing care is given to the patients with team conference by all the members of the team. Students are to be oriented to new clinical area. Only recognized wards of the hospital or community are to be selected for students to achieve required learning experience. When two persons are needed to give a patient certain care it is often well for the team leader to be one of the two. a student can assume depends upon a stage of her education. Assignments have to be assigned according to the consistent level of learning that students have reached or attained.

Factors to Consider While Planning Assignments: . Teacher’s Responsibility in Assisting Students in their Assignment: There are 2 responsibilities in assisting and helping students in planning and organizing daily assignments are as follows: 1. ix.vii. Student’s performance should be evaluated and discussed with the students for this improvement. Establishing a pattern of sequence for accomplishing assigned tasks in-terms of immediately of patient needs discriminating between essential and non-essential in establishing task priorities and preserving economical use of time. xii. Students are to be encouraged to develop a pride in the nursing profession. correction etc. xi. energy and equipment. revising in effective plans or pursuing additional experiences to meet the learning needs best. Students are to be watched. Adjusting plans to meet existing and an anticipated conditions in the clinical setting and merging patient needs. Proper guidance and supervisor has to be provided to the student during their clinical experience. viii. Sufficient time to be provided to carryout the assignment allotted to the students. 2. that high standard of patient care are being practiced by all concerned. x. Students should be given opportunities for working in a team.

hence the term “efficiency method”. Functional method : a)It is having efficiency in the work . e)Skill is developed when the work is done repeatedly .The maximum learning takes place. b). b)Most work is turned out in less given period of time .The nurse gets job satisfaction . Assignment should be varied frequently enough to maintain the interest of students 5. . d)The maximum learning takes place .the work will not be done properly and patient will suffer . Advantages: Patient method: a). d).1. Sociological and psychological aspects of the patient should be considered . 2. Students must be given sufficient time to study the patient’s record . Team method of assignment: If there is no cooperation within the team members . 3. The previous clinical experience of the students should be considered. c)There is less confusion . c). Proximity of patients should be considered 4.Patient have security and belongingness.Interpersonal relationship is good .

3. PROCESS RECORDING: Definition: 1. C)As an therapeutic tool. Guidelines to student: . -“Hudson” 3. “A verbatim between nurse and the patient” -“Walker” 2. B)As an evaluation tool . A)As a teaching-learning tool .It is one of the best methods of teaching.learning tool”. Recording nurse-patient interaction. -“Conen” Uses of the process record : There are mainly 3 uses . Evaluating the interactions by nurse teacher and the student. 2. Preparing the student for process recording. 6. by which. “ An exact written report of conversation between the nurse and the patient during the time they were together”. Different phases in process recording: 1. “ A teaching. students get more learning experiences and patient gets good care and good ward management.

9. 8.Evaluate the process record as a learning experience for you at the end of the assignment.phenomena or activities and process in their natural setting .objects .FIELD VISIT: It is a visit especially planned for its possible contribution to the objectives of the curriculum .1. 7. 10.Mention about the therapies which patient is getting both past and present .Your goals for working with assigned patients should be written down before starting the process recording .A brief description should be written about the setting and situation before your conversation . 2. 6. Definition: It is defined as an educational procedure by which the students obtain first hand information by observing laces .Date of process recording should be mentioned .Note important factors in patient’s personality development .to further learning . 5.After completion of process record . 3.course . 4. 7.lesson or other unit of instructions. .give your comment on how well you were able to meet the goals which you set before starting your work .Amount of time you spent with patient should be recorded .Identify mental mechanisms that you think the patient is using and give examples .Identify the patients needs (as represented by patient behavior).

5. To serve as a means to develop positive attitudes values and special skills. To create teaching situations for cultivating observation . To supplement classroom instruction . Know the resources . To serve as a means of arousing specific interest in materials .Purposes: 1. 2.places or processes. To verify previous information .objects . Evaluation a.class discussion and conclusion of individual experiments . 7. 6. 4. To serve as a preview of a lesson and for gathering instructional materials .keenness and discovery. Decide on the drip 2. Actual conduct of the trip c. Preplanning :  By teacher  By students  By teacher : 1. To provide real life situations for the first hand information. 3. Preplanning b. Organization and procedure of field trip : a.to secure definite information for specific lesson .

divide and allot specific jobs .safety to be observed . date .set up . Formulate the objectives 2. b. Collect source /study materials if provided 5. Strictly follow safety precautions 3. Obtain administrative sanction of school /college 4. Points to remember : Trip should follow in an orderly manner . 5.time. If a large group .inform the objectives . Arrange transport . Follow the schedule 2. Actual conduct of the trip: 1.actual locations . Observe and collect information needed 4.3. Dealings with the organization .equipments or accessories needed . Observe formalities and extend courtesies .conduct and behavior during the trip .data and time . Prepare the students with theoretical base Teacher plans with the student : 1. 5. 6.visit and know the resources . Formulate questions to be asked to the guide and prepare guide sheet 4. Teacher supervisors and call attention to the pertinent points 6.data and time of transport . List down specific information to be obtained 3.obtain permission . Brief them .

Conduct discussion with the students ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURE FOR FIELD TRIPS : 1. 3. 4. 5.The learning activities have to be selected and it should contribute for the attainment of objectives . 2. 3. 4.Rapport : The teacher should establish and maintain cordial relations with those in charge of the situations to be visited . Evaluation phase : 1. Teacher evaluates the reports by the student .Time and Transportation : Necessary arrangements have to be made with the administrative personnel of the place to be visited regarding the time . Teacher prepares an evaluation and along with specific observation from the students maintains a record which can be referred later . . Students write a report with the observations effectiveness of the trip and difficulties faced. Should be done as early ads possible 2.Objectives : It should be stated carefully and completely .Do not cause disturbance to the organization.place of meeting and the length of visit . C.Knowledge : The teacher has to survey the area to know whether the field trips planned will contribute to the attainment of desired objectives.

3.Supervision : Trip should be supervised carefully.critical thinking and social skills .5. observation communication .discipline .Directions to be given . VALUES OF THE FIELD TRIP : 1. They correlate and blend school life with the outside world . It provides opportunity in learning attitudes and positive values i.on the procedure to be followed in the observation and the special points to note .providing direct touch with persons and with community situations . 6. . It furnishes first hand information to supplement and to enrich the classroom instruction . It breaks monotony of the classroom and provides real life experiences . 2.It can be done by means of student’s reports.Preparation of the students : Students should be given an opportunity to list cooperatively the objectives for which the trip is planned .e. Follow –up and evaluation : An hour should be allotted for an open discussion . cooperation . 4. 5.e. It provides opportunities in learning and acquiring skills i. The teacher can assist the student by calling attention to pertinent point .

Careful planning is required 3. Disadvantages of field trip : 1.Many parties to be involved . sometimes cost involvements is more .coordination of various agencies required. 4.6. 8.e.thereby providing motivation i. 8. It arouse interest and vitalize instruction . 7. Since the students are going out of school /college premises it is risky . 5. . 10.Field trip is time consuming 2.It involves cost .If the group is too large . 11.effective observation becomes difficult 7. it provides opportunity to have above participations and gears motivation . It helps to create situations which in turn help to develop observation and keenness 9. Offers an opportunity to apply that which has been taught to verify what has been learned .Transportation may be a problem .e.i. Students develop better understanding of the etiologic factors of disease. They serve as an effective means of correlating the subjects of the curriculum.cooperation .Inability to schedule the trip in time when the unit is taught .safety precautions essential. They provide opportunity to consider and to solve problems arising from individual and group participation in a natural social situation . 6.

experience. a client is presented to the group. • To enable the student to gain a real understanding of individual differences and substitute variations of case and circumstances to factfully respond and adjust to them by adopting nursing procedure and treatment without violating basic principles. who are having similar. • Permission should be taken from the physician. who illustrates all signs and symptoms and require all nursing case procedures.One student may be chosen to express the thanks of the group at the time and another may write the letter of appreciation . Small group should be planned that is. 8.to integrate and to utilize classroom instruction .These kind of field visit provides opportunities .WARD CLINIC: • In this type. 9.encourage thoughtful attitudes and personal growth . 10. who are having similar experience in particular department. • To aid the student to make correct applications of scientific principles basic to a particular nursing activity .WARD CLASS: A class will be conducted based upon current clinical experience of the student for whom the class is planned.WARD TEACHING PROGRAM : PURPOSES: • To supplement . . all the students at one level of experience.

• Suitable place should be selected. 3. • The students will be able to practice procedure in real situation. • Student should understand the purpose on improving the standards of nursing care and their contributions should be directed towards at its end. general discussion about the client will be dealt.• Instructor should explain before hand. Case Analysis: A concrete case for analysis and discussion by a group of students under the leadership of the instructor. Case study/ Case presentation: The student will be given the opportunity to provide nursing care for specific client.CASE METHOD: Used in three forms: 1. Case study 2. the student nurse will prepare case study by comparing with the text. 11. the student presents the case before the batch of companions.Case Incident technique: . 2. to the client about the purpose of the clinic. Sufficient information is presented to the students to make judgment of problem or situation in case. Case incident technique 1. Case analysis 3. after 4 or 5 days of careful study.

12.BRAIN STORMING METHOD : Here the intellectual capacities of trainees will be utilized in solving or suggesting solutions to problems and make the group to become active and answer the problems among them only .are they satisfied with that particular explanation .it is presented .then the trainees will be expert would clarify it.do not know like . For example the cancelling of AIDS –in this topic the expert in the field will make certain opinion regarding AIDS and make the group into 2 or more sections .No background information is given to them regarding details of the incident at the time .if no . . Here the brain of the trainees will be sharpened and the entire class will participate in discussion .she has to give explanation.The instructor will have facts about the care can be given as requested by the students .to develop critical habits of study . The instructor will acts as a referee and give answers for the unsolved problems . Then the referee will ask other groups .It encourages the student to think for her .trainee is answering correctly for any problems . 13.low .according to the number of trainees will be given one paper to write opinions and will give 3 minutes time and request whether it falls into high .A critical incident technique which requires immediate decision and action is taken from a case and presented to the students for their analysis and decision . Values : 1.group will become active and enthusiastic .GROUP DISCUSSION: A cooperative problem solving activity which seeks a consensus regarding the solution of a problem .

2. Discussion techniques for small group : • The individual conference • The informal class group discussion • The seminar • The clinical conference • Role playing • Case analysis Discussion techniques for larger groups : .Enables the student to enrich her own conceptions by reacting to those of others .Helps her to advance in creative thought .Gives an opportunity to cooperate with others in the reflective solving of a problem . 8. 11. 4.Cooperation in its highest sense is developed . It provides proper social environment by the development of favorable attitudes towards cooperation and responsibility.It gives the student an opportunity to learn how to adjust to social situations . 6. 9. 3. 7.that she can throw light into ways for shaping the future .Self activity is increased .The teacher can observe the student as she participates in the class and can plan for individual differences .To interpret problems of the past . 10. 5.Leadership skills will be developed .

so that the most effective nurse patient relationship may be established . • To learn methods of procedures.Laboratory method is a procedure involving first hand experience with primary source materials . DEMONSTRATION METHOD : Uses :  To demonstrate procedures in the classroom and the ward  To demonstrate experiments and its use . • To use the problem solving approach to the solution of real problems .• Multiple discussion groups • Symposium • Panel 14. • To develop .  To demonstrate different approaches in establishing rapport with patients . 15. .  To teach the patient .a procedure or treatment which he must carryout in home .to test and to apply principles .through which the student can acquire psychomotor as well as mental skill . • To translate theory into practice .LABORATORY METHOD : Planned learning activity dealing with original or raw data in the solution of the problems . Values : For student ….

Introductory phase : It involves establishment of objectives and a plan of work . 2.The work period . 1. . • To observe the student in action . For teacher …. A little encouragement or special help at the right movement may intensify interest and provide the hopes for independent accomplishment in future. Teacher preparation :Discuss objectives or plan of work with the students by means of class discussion . • Provides the teacher an opportunity . • To assess her worth • To correct her mistakes • To guide her in promising directions .• Initiates group works . Student preparation :For orientation and motivation achieved through proper instructions and guidance .

so the above clinical teaching methods will be helpful for the student to develop appreciable level of nursing skills.P.in which the student is involved in a first hand experience designed to achieve particular objectives by solving the problems. BIBLIOGRAPHY : said  B.It can be used in hospital and in community . Neeraja .  Jean Barrette (2004). “Nursing Education“ Ist edition. “Ward Management and Education”. professional competency of a nurse is recognized mainly by the demonstration of clinical skills. New Delhi .for the presentation of the results of individual or group problem solving activities . Pp No : 231-235 .Culminating activities : After the lab work . 3. by Jaypee brothers .Supervised study activity . New Delhi.the class should meet together for discussion of common problems . Health talks can be conducted incidentally and in a planned manner .For example . komark publishers Pp:357. CONCLUSION clinical area really pose a great challenge to nursing teachers.T Basavanthappa (2003). .educating the mass about health and its aspect. published by Jaypee brothers. 14th edition. Pp No: 359.384.for the organization of findings .HEALTH TALKS : This method will be used when teaching for clients and their relation or a mass . 16.368  K. ( 2003 ) “ Text book of Nsg education “ Ist edition .