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I. POWER QUALITY AND HARMONICS 1.1. Introduction ion, control and environmental aspects.

issues of upmost importance in electric power system area. m renewable sources as hydraulic, wind, solar, biogas etc. l is decreased and distributed to the load centers.

Power system comprises generators, transformers, transmission and distribution lines and the loads. It can be represented by R, L, C networks.

magnitude and frequency from the rated values and the deviation of the waveform from a pure sinusoid. cy, unbalances in 3-phase systems can be defined as power quality problems.

-linear circuit components (saturated transformer) or non-linear loads (Rectifier)

tripping of contactors. Power quality problems 1. Brief Voltage Increases (swells): They are brief increases in r. speed variation of motors. Voltage Dips (Voltage Sags) : A voltage dip is a sudden reduction (between 10% and 90%) of the voltage lasting for 0. Voltages.s. Their effects are: extinction of discharge lamps. they can cause extra stresses upon sensitive computer components and shorten their lives.2. Non-symmetric short circuits and load rejections are the basic sources of voltage swells. They can upset electric controls and motor drives.Power Quality Problems – Cont. incorrect operation of control devices. .1 Disturbances A disturbance is a temporary deviation from a steady-state waveform caused by the faults of brief duration or by sudden changes in power systems. Dips with durations of less than a half cycle are regarded as transients.5 cycle to several seconds.m. Blown fuses and breaker tripping are the basic sources of brief outages. communication failure in line commutated inverters Brief Interruptions (brief outages): A brief interruption can be considered as a voltage dip with 100% magnitude lasting at least one period. Switching operations and the flow of heavy currents (energization of large loads which require high starting currents) are the basic sources of voltage dips.

The degree of unbalance is usually defined by the proportion of negative or zero sequence component to the positive-sequence component. Frequency Changes Temporary frequency increases and decreases are generally caused by switching operations if the regulators are not good enough to hold the frequency.2. 1.2 Unbalances An unbalance is a situation in which either the voltages of a three phase system are not equal in magnitude or the phase differences between them are not 120 degrees or both.3 Distortion (Harmonics) . Impulse transients are the results of atmospheric phenomena and their duration is less than switching transients.Transients: Voltage disturbances shorter than sags and swells are called as transients. Voltage notches can also be classified as voltage distortions. It may also be the result of blown fuses in one phase of a three-phase capacitor banks. Switching transients resulting from switching operations in the network. 1.2. Voltage Notches They are periodic transients occurring as a result of the phase to phase short circuits caused by the commutation process in AC-DC converters. They may upset electronic equipments and damage inductive components. They are caused by unbalanced loadings and single phase loads.

control circuits. It is an indication of harmonics. Noise.The use of high pulse rectification . . Both the harmonic and the interharmonic distortion are generally caused by the equipment having non-linear voltage-current characteristics.Additional thermal losses in capacitors. size and predictivibility .Maloperation of control devices. .Large and random : Arc furnaces . transformers and rotating machines . mains signaling systems and protective relays. .Passive filter .Large and predictable : Large power converters. The main effects of harmonics are : .Telephone interference . The frequencies those are not the integer multiples of the fundamental frequency are termed interharmonics.Waveform distortion is defined as a steady-state deviation from an ideal sine wave of power frequency.Insulation stress because of increased voltage. arcing equipment etc. defined as unwanted electrical signals with broadband spectral content lower than 200 kHz is also another kind of distortions.Small and predictable : Single phase converter fed power supplies.Active filters and conditioners The harmonic sources can be grouped into three main categories with respect to their origin.Additional losses . which are sinusoidal signals having frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency at which the system is designed to operate. Main solutions to keep the harmonic distortion within the recommended levels are: . gas discharge lamps. They are generally generated by PE devices.

3 Fundamentals of Harmonics .4 Voltage Fluctuation and Flicker Voltage fluctuation is defined repetitive (systematic) variations of the voltage envelope or random variations in the magnitude of the supply voltage.2. small magnitude changes occurring at particular frequencies can give rise to an effect called lamp flicker. However. Flicker is essentially a measure of how annoying the fluctuation in luminance is to the human eye. Flicker varies person to person and depends on many factors. ncy of the variation of the light stimulus lies between a few hertz and the fusion frequency of images. rolling mills and mine winders are of this type. The defining characteristics of voltage fluctuations are: disturbance).1. voltage fluctuation is an electromagnetic phenomenon while flicker is an undesirable result of the voltage fluctuation in some loads. 1. Actually. The magnitudes of these variations do not usually exceed 10% of the nominal supply voltage. nsequential effects (such as flicker) of voltage changes associated with the disturbances. Voltage fluctuations can be classified into three-broad categories: nes.

Harmonics have existed in power systems for many years. Tuning reactors in harmonic filters in harmonic filters . The deviation from perfect sinusoid is generally expresssed in terms of harmonic components. The cause of harmonics can simply be stated as the existence of non-linear components loads). The recent growing concern on the subject is because of : -linear power electronic devices seeking higher system reliability and effectiveness. Waveform distortion is an indication of existence of harmonic frequency frequencies. it is not a new phenomenon. electrical energy is supplied at a single and constant frequency and at specified voltage levels of constant magnitude. which varies as a direct function of the current that passes through it. The problem of voltage and frequency deviations and the means of keeping them under control are the concerns of conventional power system analysis. such as the voltage drop that develops across a constant resistance. The problem of waveform distortion is the problem of this course. Actually.In an ideal power system. used to attenuate harmonics. Linear loads are those in which voltage and current signals follow one another very closely.