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Philippians: Testimony to Joy Theme: o Thanks for financial assistance with personal news and exhortations o The church

h in Philippi was founded by Paul on his 2nd missionary trip (Acts 16:1-40). o Paul originally went to Macedonia due to the night vision he received of the Macedonian man asking Paul to come over and help. Type of Epistle: Philippians is a prison epistle of Paul. Author: Paul Date: AD 62 Place of writing: Rome Recipients: Christians in Philippi Key verse: For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain (Philippians 1:21) I know both how to be abased, and I know how to abound: everywhere and in all things I am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer nee (Philippians 4:12) o In context, this verse is about money. History: o The city of Philippi was settled in 360 BC by Greek settlers. Its original name was Krenides. o Alexander the Greats father, King Philip, built up the city and made it stronger, he then renamed it to Philippi. o The Romans captured it in the 100s BC. o The citizens of Philippi were given not only the right to vote, but also the right to rule themselves (an independent country within an empire). o Acts 16 o Paul preached in Romes major cities, which led to the rapid spread of the gospel. o The church in Philippi was considerate of Paul and they supported him financially (something no other church did). They even helped him while he was in the prison in Rome. They sent Epaphroditus to give him the money to help him live in Rome. Theological background o Paul has four views on Christian ministers:

Those that were with Christ from the beginning of His ministry to His resurrection. Those that have Gods (new) revelations. Those that have been inspired by the Spirit to write letters. Those that go from point A to point B with some kind of mission (EX: Epaphroditus being sent to Paul).

Outline: o Joy in hardship (Philippians 1:1-30) Paul describes how he continues with his ministry, even though he is in prison. Due to his hardships and his efforts, the palace guard and the Roman government officials are hearing of the gospel. Kenosis o Kenosis (Philippians 2) Self-emptying and humility, ex: Jesus Paul urges unity in the church which comes humility of coming through humility (humbleness). down to Earth in In the ancient world, nobody liked humility; lowly form. however, Christian teaching made it a good quality. Jesus came down to Earth from glory to a lowly form where He was destined to die for our sins. o Against Judaizers (Philippians 3:1-4:23) Here, Paul includes his autobiography of his past Jewish life where he persecuted Christians and how he turned to Christ in order to warn against the attacks of Judaizers (Jewish Christians mixing Jewish rituals with Christianity). Paul says that their requirement for circumcision is useless and only harms the person. He says that circumcision requires inner faith and cannot achieve salvation because it relies on ones own efforts. o How do I apply this? Though we all have much to be thankful for, the pace and the pressure of life often squeeze the joy from us. Our shoulders slumped and our heads bowed, we find some daysor monthsvery difficult to get through. Desperate, we often search for joy in all kinds of waysacquiring possessions,

visiting places, or seeing people. But none of these can provide lasting joy. Where do you find joy in the midst of a trying circumstance? Paul knew, as did the Philippians, that true joy comes only through humble faith in the saving work of Jesus Christ, joining ourselves in harmony with His followers, and serving others in the name of Christ. This was the life experienced by the Philippian believers, and it is a life available to us today. Allow the joy you find in Christ to keep you from useless quarrels and divisions and to instead guide you into harmonious relationships with Gods people.

Pauls main purpose:

Study Questions:
PHILIPPI (1.) Formerly Crenides, the fountain, the capital of the province of Macedonia. It stood near the head of the Sea, about 8 miles north-west of Kavalla. It is now a ruined village, called Philibedjik. Philip of Macedonia fortified the old Thracian town of Crenides, and called it after his own name Philippi (B.C. 359-336). In the time of the Emperor Augustus this city became a Roman colony, i.e., a military settlement of Roman soldiers, there planted for the purpose of controlling the district recently conquered. It was a miniature Rome, under the municipal law of Rome, and governed by military officers, called duumviri, who were appointed directly from Rome. Having been providentially guided thither, here Paul and his companion Silas preached the gospel and formed the first church in Europe. (See LYDIA.) This success stirred up the enmity of the people, and they were shamefully entreated (Acts 16:9-40; 1 Thessalonians 2:2). Paul and Silas at length left this city and proceeded to Amphipolis (q.v.). (2.) When Philip the tetrarch, the son of Herod, succeeded to the government of the

RESEARCH:

northern portion of his kingdom, he enlarged the city of Paneas, and called it Caesarea, in honor of the emperor. But in order to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea coast, he added to it subsequently his own name, and called it Caesarea-Philippi (q.v.). PHILIPPIANS, EPISTLE TO was written by Paul during the two years when he was in bonds in Rome (Phil. 1:7-13), probably early in the year A.D. 62 or in the end of 61. The Philippians had sent Epaphroditus, their messenger, with contributions to meet the necessities of the apostle; and on his return Paul sent back with him this letter. With this precious communication Epaphroditus sets out on his homeward journey. The joy caused by his return, and the effect of this wonderful letter when first read in the church of Philippi, are hidden from us. And we may almost say that with this letter the church itself passes from our view. To-day, in silent meadows, quiet cattle browse among the ruins which mark the site of what was once the flourishing Roman colony of Philippi, the home of the most attractive church of the apostolic age. But the name and fame and spiritual influence of that church will never pass. To myriads of men and women in every age and nation the letter written in a dungeon at Rome, and carried along the Egnatian Way by an obscure Christian messenger, has been a light divine and a cheerful guide along the most rugged paths of life (Professor Beet). The church at Philippi was the first-fruits of European Christianity. Their attachment to the apostle was very fervent, and so also was his affection for them. They alone of all the churches helped him by their contributions, which he gratefully acknowledges (Acts 20:33-35; 2 Corinthians 11:7-12; 2 Thessalonians 3:8). The pecuniary liberality of the Philippians comes out very conspicuously (Phil. 4:15). This was a characteristic of the Macedonian missions, as 2 Corinthians 8 and 9 amply and beautifully prove. It is remarkable that the Macedonian converts were, as a class, very poor (2 Corinthians 8:2); and the parallel facts, their poverty and their open-handed support of the great missionary and his work, are deeply harmonious. At the present day the missionary liberality of poor Christians is, in proportion, really greater than that of the rich (Moules Philippians, Introd.). The contents of this epistle give an interesting insight into the condition of the church at Rome at the time it was written. Pauls imprisonment, we are informed, was no hindrance to his preaching the gospel, but rather turned out to the furtherance of the gospel. The gospel spread very extensively among the Roman soldiers, with whom he was in constant contact, and the Christians grew into a vast multitude. It is plain that Christianity was at this time making rapid advancement in Rome.

The doctrinal statements of this epistle bear a close relation to those of the Epistle to the Romans. Compare also Phil. 3:20 with Ephesians 2:12, 19, where the church is presented under the idea of a city or commonwealth for the first time in Pauls writings. The personal glory of Christ is also set forth in almost parallel forms of expression in Phil. 2:5-11, compared with Ephesians 1:17-23; 2:8; and Colossians 1:15-20. This exposition of the grace and wonder of His personal majesty, personal self-abasement, and personal exaltation after it, found in these epistles, is, in a great measure, a new development in the revelations given through St. Paul (Moule). Other minuter analogies in forms of expression and of thought are also found in these epistles of the Captivity.

To Philippi. Apparently the missionaries had no plan to evangelize at Neapolis, because they turned inland along the muchtraveled road to Philippi, some thirteen miles away ( Acts 16:12 ). The road ascended the Symbolon Hills, which reach a height of 500 feet and descend into the plain of Philippi. This plain is bounded on all sides by mountains or hills. On the west rises Mount Pangaeus; on the east a spur of Mount Orbelos with a conical shape. Philippi was located at the foot of this spur. In addition, the plain was bordered along the northern edge by forests and on the south by a marshy area (now drained), formed because the Symbolon Hills created a too formidable barrier for waters from the nearby mountains to make their escape to the sea. Philippi. Philippi was founded by Philip II of Macedon in 360 B.C. and replaced the former Thracian settlement of Crenides. It was significant to the Macedonian as the chief mining center in the Pangaeus gold fields, which provided him with revenue for his gold currency, the support of his army, and the bribery of his enemies. These important mines seem to have been largely exhausted by the time Macedonia passed into Roman hands.