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Epistles of Paul (Romans-Philemon) On average, private letters in the time during Paul were around 90 words in length.

ngth. Average literary letters were 200 words in length Usual papyrus sheet was 9.5 X 11.5 (the standard paper size today is 8.5 x 11inches) Pauls letters were 1,300 words on average, with Philemon being 335 words (the shortest) and Romans being 7,114 words (the longest). Since writing on papyrus was hard, authors had to hire professional scribes to write what they said. o Ruggedness of Pauls style & incomplete sentences show that Paul may have talked too fast. o Sudden breaks in writing mean that there were rests taken. o Proofs that Paul used a professional scribe (Romans 16:22; 1 Cor. 16:21; Gal. 6:11; etc. Last two say that Paul himself wrote the ending meaning that scribe wrote the rest) The way the epistles are ordered: the epistles written to the churches are ordered longest (Romans) to shortest (2 Thessalonians). Same with epistles to individuals (1st Timothy to Philemon). Galatians Short summary: Epistle has to do with the Judaizing Judaizers controversy. Jewish Christians o As Gentiles were converted and brought into the who tried to Church, people (primarily Judaizers) began to ask impose Jewish if these new should carry out Jewish customs. customs on o Judaizers attacked Paul on three grounds: other Christians. He was not really even an apostle God authored the law, Paul shouldnt teach that it should be set aside Pauls teaching is a license to sin. Author: Paul Date: 48 A.D. Key verse: Stand fast therefore in the liberty by which Christ has made us free, and do not be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. Galatians 5:1 (NKJV) History:

o The Galatians go all the way back to the 4th century B.C. where they settled from the north (they are descendants of the Celts and Vikings) in Asia Minor (currently Turkey). o The region where they lived was conquered by Rome in 25 B.C. by Caesar Augustus. o The region was very large. In the south, the Galatians were more Roman-like; in the north, they were more barbaric (Viking-like). o They were known for being unstable and inconsistent. This is seen in their acceptance of the gospel one moment and there rejection of it the next. Outline: o Introduction (Gal. 1:1-10): The epistle is opened with a greeting in which Paul stresses his apostleship; he wishes to establish his authority over the Judaizers. He is shocked that the Christians in Galatia are deserting to another gospel. o Paul establishes his authority (Gal. 1:11-2:21): Paul states that the gospel came to him by direct revelation from Jesus Christ. It couldnt have come from his past because before, he was zealous for Judaism. His calling didnt come from the apostles because he didnt see them until three years after his conversion. After fourteen years (either since his conversion or first trip to Jerusalem), he visited Jerusalem to check with the apostles to see if his preaching was valid. It turned out to be valid. He also shows authority by rebuking Peter for giving into the demands of the Judaizers in which he chose not to eat with circumcised Gentiles. Proves to show that Paul is preaching an authoritative gospel of grace. o Justification To justify means to regard as righteous In the Old Testament, God intervened to make things right with mankind. His intervention was just because Jesus took the penalty for our sins, a penalty required by Gods holiness.

Thus, it is unjust for God to condemn a true believer. o Theological argument A question is posed: if a person is justified (regarded as righteous) by faith at the start, why not continue by faith rather than by the law? Abraham was justified by faith long before the law. The law condemns, Jesus died to deliver us from the law and its curse. What purpose does the law have then? It had a temporary purpose: it showed people that they were not able to make themselves righteous. Under the law, we are as slaves; under grace, we are the adopted heirs of God. o Against antinomianism Antinomianism The last section of the book warns against the In the literal attitude that freedom from the law means sense, it means license to sin. against-law In order to avoid sin, Christians must flee ism fleshly urges. The practical command: Christians must lovingly help one another and be generous among each other. o Conclusion Paul accuses the Judaizers of trying to avoid persecution from unbelieving Jews and that they may boast of their converts. Paul says his mission is pure and credible due to him being persecuted and his purer motives. Pauls main purpose: to show that salvation is gained through faith, not works. 123 Throughout this whole book, he lays down arguments against the Judaizers 123 that tried to mix elements of Judaism with Christianity. 123 Study Questions: o What forms of legalism (the belief that salvation is achieved through good works) exist today? Answers may vary. o What three tactics appear to have been used by "Judaizing teachers"?

(1) He was not really even an apostle, (2) God authored the law, Paul shouldnt teach that it should be set aside, and (3) Pauls teaching is a license to sin. o What is Paul's purpose in writing Galatians? To show that salvation is achieved by faith and not solely by works. o What is the key verse in Galatians? Galatians 5:1 Information based of Survey of the New Testament, 3rd Edition by Robert H. Gundry

Research Galatia. Galatia, derived from Galatai, was the Greek name for the Gauls, or Celts, who invaded Asia Minor in 278277 B.C. at the invitation of Nicomedes of Bithynia. After much raiding and plundering, the Gauls were finally penned in an area between the Sangarius and Halys rivers in north central Asia Minor by Attalus I of Pergamum about 230 B.C. For the next forty years then continued to harass their neighbors. After the battle of Magnesia in 190, Rome sent forces to subdue them. They remained loyal to Rome during the Mithridatic wars, and after 64 B.C. they were a client state of Rome. At that time the territory was organized on the Celtic tribal basis; and three tribes occupied separate areas with their respective capitals at Pessinus, Ancyra (modern Ankara), and Tavium. From 44 B.C. Galatia was under one ruler only. Four years later Mark Antony conferred Galatian domains on Castor and gave Amyntas a kingdom comprising Pisidic Phrygia and Pisidia generally. In 36 B.C. Castors kingdom was given to Amyntas, also additional territory in subsequent years. His government was so effective in pacifying the area that when he died in 25 B.C. and bequeathed his kingdom to Rome, he left it in such a state that Rome incorporated it into the Empire as the province of Galatia. The province of Galatia then included, besides Galatia proper, parts of Phrygia, Lycaonia, Pisidia, and Pamphylia. It remained in this form until about A.D. 72 when additional increases in its territory were made. The two principal cities of the province of Galatia were Ancyra (the metropolis) and Pisidian Antioch. Actually the history of Galatia is extremely complicated, both before and after

Wycliffe Geography

Roman control. A good source of information on the subject is Sir William M. Ramsays A Historical Commentary on St. Pauls Epistle to the Galatians. In width the Galatian province varied from 100 to 175 miles; it was some 250 miles north and south. It may be readily seen that Galatia could refer either in an ethnic sense to a territory in north central Asia Minor or in a political sense to the province of Galatia. The questions often arise as to the sense in which Luke and Paul used the term and to whom Paul wrote when he penned the epistle to the Galatians. Paul, proud of his Roman citizenship, always used the provincial names of the areas under Roman control, never the territorial, except as the two were identical in significance. Paul used the term Galatia only three times: in I Corinthians 16:1, Galatians 1:2, and II Timothy 4:10, all of which certainly must refer to the Roman province. Peter must have used the term in the same sense in I Peter 1:1, because the other four areas he addresses in the same verse were adjacent Roman provinces. Now what of Lukes use of the term Galatia? He does not use either Galatia or Galatians but only the adjective Galatic or Galatian. Following Ramsay, Souter argues that Acts 16:6 should be translated the PhrygoGalatic region, which no doubt referred to that section of the province of Galatia known as Phrygia Galatica, containing Pisidian Antioch and Iconium. He further argues that in Acts 18:23 the Greek may be translated either the GalaticoPhrygian region or the Galatian region and Phrygia (preferably the latter), the Galatian region including Derbe and Lystra, and the Phrygian, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch. Ramsay also notes that Acts 16:6 must be looked upon as connected with Acts 15:36 and 16:12, verses 2 to 5 being considered as somewhat parenthetical. The apostle purposed to visit churches he had previously founded in Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch. After he had visited these towns Luke said, When they had gone throughout the PhrygoGalatic region . . . (Acts 16:6). Obviously there is no room here for the idea that Paul on this journey circled far north through the old ethnic area of Galatia. The writer does not personally feel there is much support for the north Galatian theory, in regard to Pauls either having visited the area or writing his epistle to the people of it. Where Paul and Silas went from Pisidian Antioch is uncertain. They may have taken the main eastwest trade route through Colossae and Laodicea, out the Maeander Valley to Ephesus and north along the coast to Mysia. Or they may

have gone northwest on the main road through Phrygia and then west to Pergamum and from there north to Mysia. At any rate, they were forbidden by the Holy Spirit from preaching in Asia and Bithynia (Acts 16:6). So they passed through Mysia and came to the port town of Troas. Mysia was a district of northwest Asia Minor south of the Propontis (modern Marmara) and Hellespont. Its boundaries were never carefully defined. After being part of the dominions of Persia and Alexander, it came under the control of Pergamum and thus of Rome, forming part of the province of Asia in 133 B.C. Mysia is mentioned only in Acts 16:7 in the Bible. Assos and Troas, both of which Paul visited, lay within its bounds. The greater part of Mysia is mountainous, being traversed by northwest branches of the Taurus Range; the main branches were Mount Ida and Mount Temnus. Most of its rivers were small and not navigable. When Paul arrived at Troas, he received the vision of the man from Macedonia (Acts 16:911) and decided to heed the call to do missionary work in Greece. The rest of the second missionary journey, which is treated in detail in the section on Greece, took the apostolic company to Greek shores. Since Troas was the beginning of that venture and was itself a very much Hellenized city, it is discussed in connection with Pauls ministry in Greece. The Third Missionary Journey Luke does not tell us how long Paul remained at Antioch at the end of the second missionary journey. At length Paul decided to make a third visit to the cities of the Galatic region and Phrygia (Acts 18:23). No doubt he took the same route he followed at the beginning of the second journeythrough the Syrian Gates, Tarsus, and the Cilician Gates. The Galatic region is a general term which could cover the portion of Galatia where Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch were located. The region also included Galatian Phrygia, adjacent to which was Asian Phrygia. So it would be a simple matter for him to move from one area of Phrygia to the other and to pass through the upper coasts (better, the higher districts) to Ephesus (Acts 19:1). Ramsay observes that during the first century the terms High Phrygia and Low Phrygia (referring to the elevation of land) had specific distinction, the former designating the mountain country just west of Pisidian Antioch and equitable here with the higher districts. The main trade route to Ephesus traversed Low Phrygia and the Lycus and Maeander valleys. The shorter hill road, practicable

for foot passengers but not for wheeled vehicles, ran more or less due west from Pisidian Antioch and came into Ephesus north of the Messogis Range.

GALATIA has been called the Gallia of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli. They were an intermixture of Gauls and Greeks, and hence were called Gallo-Graeci, and the country Gallo-Graecia. The Galatians were in their origin a part of that great Celtic migration which invaded Macedonia about B.C. 280. They were invited by the king of Bithynia to cross over into Asia Minor to assist him in his wars. There they ultimately settled, and being strengthened by fresh accessions of the same clan from Europe, they overran Bithynia, and supported themselves by plundering neighbouring countries. They were great warriors, and hired themselves out as mercenary soldiers, sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times. They were at length brought under the power of Rome in B.C. 189, and Galatia became a Roman province B.C. 25. This province of Galatia, within the limits of which these Celtic tribes were confined, was the central region of Asia Minor. During his second missionary journey Paul, accompanied by Silas and Timothy (Acts 16:6), visited the region of Galatia, where he was detained by sickness (Galatians 4:13), and had thus the longer opportunity of preaching to them the gospel. On his third journey he went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order (Acts 18:23). Crescens was sent thither by Paul toward the close of his life (2 Timothy 4:10).

Eastons Dictionary

GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO The genuineness of this epistle is not called in question. Its Pauline origin is universally acknowledged. Occasion of. The churches of Galatia were founded by Paul himself (Acts 16:6; Galatians 1:8; 4:13, 19). They seem to have been composed mainly of converts from heathenism (4:8), but partly also of Jewish converts, who probably, under the influence of Judaizing teachers, sought to incorporate the rites of Judaism with Christianity, and by their active zeal had succeeded in inducing the majority of the churches to adopt their views (1:6; 3:1). This epistle was written for the purpose of counteracting

this Judaizing tendency, and of recalling the Galatians to the simplicity of the gospel, and at the same time also of vindicating Pauls claim to be a divinely-commissioned apostle. Time and place of writing. The epistle was probably written very soon after Pauls second visit to Galatia (Acts 18:23). The references of the epistle appear to agree with this conclusion. The visit to Jerusalem, mentioned in Galatians 2:1-10, was identical with that of Acts 15, and it is spoken of as a thing of the past, and consequently the epistle was written subsequently to the council of Jerusalem. The similarity between this epistle and that to the Romans has led to the conclusion that they were both written at the same time, namely, in the winter of A.D. 57-8, during Pauls stay in Corinth (Acts 20:2, 3). This to the Galatians is written on the urgency of the occasion, tidings having reached him of the state of matters; and that to the Romans in a more deliberate and systematic way, in exposition of the same great doctrines of the gospel. Contents of. The great question discussed is, Was the Jewish law binding on Christians? The epistle is designed to prove against the Jews that men are justified by faith without the works of the law of Moses. After an introductory address (Galatians 1:1-10) the apostle discusses the subjects which had occasioned the epistle. (1) He defends his apostolic authority (1:11-19; 2:1-14); (2) shows the evil influence of the Judaizers in destroying the very essence of the gospel (3 and 4); (3) exhorts the Galatian believers to stand fast in the faith as it is in Jesus, and to abound in the fruits of the Spirit, and in a right use of their Christian freedom (5-6:1-10); (4) and then concludes with a summary of the topics discussed, and with the benediction. The Epistle to the Galatians and that to the Romans taken together form a complete proof that justification is not to be obtained meritoriously either by works of morality or by rites and ceremonies, though of divine appointment; but that it is a free gift, proceeding entirely from the mercy of God, to those who receive it by faith in Jesus our Lord. In the conclusion of the epistle (6:11) Paul says, Ye see how large a letter I have written with mine own hand. It is implied that this was different from his ordinary usage, which was simply to write the concluding salutation with his own hand, indicating that the rest of the epistle was written by another hand. Regarding this conclusion, Lightfoot, in his Commentary on

the epistle, says: At this point the apostle takes the pen from his amanuensis, and the concluding paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name (2 Thessalonians 2:2; 3:17) it seems to have been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting, as a precaution against such forgeries...In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters (Gr. pelikois grammasin), that his hand-writing may reflect the energy and determination of his soul. (See JUSTIFICATION.)